Baking Basics

Baking Basics
Chapter 44
Ingredients for Baking
Flour- made my milling wheat kernels after
the bran and the germ are removed. The
remains- the endosperm contain starch and
protein which help to give structure to the
baked products
 Gluten develops within flour as it’s mixed
with liquid. It forms strong, elastic strands
that crisscross in a springy like mesh of cells.
As the products bake, the cells trap the air
or gas. The cells expand with heated air or
gas. It becomes like bubble gum expanded
bigger and bigger without bursting
Kinds of Flour
All-purpose-the most used. It’s blended from hard and soft
wheat. Its moderate protein content gives good results for
most recipes. Examples: bleached, unbleached, self-rising
Whole-wheat-contains the germ and the bran. The bran
limits gluten formation so the products tend to me more
dense and heavy.
Bread- made with hard wheat, unbleached flour, and barley
flour. High gluten potential.
Cake and pastry- soft wheat products contain less gluten
creating baked products with a fine, tender texture.
Gluten- high protein flour made from hard wheat. Protein
solids are added and starches are removed. It is never used
alone and is often added to dough made with low protein
Liquids are the amount of liquid in relation to the
amount of flour affects the qualities of the finished
product especially the texture and rising ability.
Pour batters- mixed with nearly equal parts liquid and flour
which creates a thin. Flowing batter.
◦ Examples:
Drop batters- a thicker mixture contains twice as much flour
to liquid. Usually dropped by the spoonful onto baking pans
or sheets.
◦ Examples:
Soft doughs-1 part liquid to 3 parts flour. The dough should
be sticky but moldable.
◦ Examples:
Stiff doughs-1 part liquid to 6-8 parts flour. It’s the easiest to
◦ Examples:
Leavening agent- a substance that triggers a
chemical reaction making baked products
grow or rise
Air- air is added while mixing, sifting, and beating. The
air that is trapped expands and raises the product
Steam- The liquid in the baked product is heated and
turned into steam. As steam expands and rises, so
does the product.
Baking Soda-chemical opposite of acid. It reacts with
an acidic liquid instantly and expands the product
when heated.
Baking Powder- combination of baking soda and a dry
acid. No acidic liquid is needed for it to work.
Yeast- a fungus that thrives on moisture and warmth.
Feeds on simple sugars, flour, and sweeteners.
Add richness and flavor to baked goods
 Solid fat-Butter, margarine, shortening
 You can generally replace any of these fats
with another.
 Solid is the key word. Unless the recipe
says whipped, you cannot replaced a
whipped fat with a solid.
 Oils add moisture to baked products
Sweeteners- add flavor, tenderness,
and browning.
Sugar- granulated sugar is refined sucrose
crystals which comes from boiling the juice
of sugar cane. Confectioners sugar is
pulverized granulated sugar with a trace of
corn starch. Brown sugar is granulated sugar
coated with molasses.
Honey- produced by bees from flower
Molasses- when sugar cane is boiled to make
sugar, crystallized sugar is removed at
different stages. At each stage, a syrup by
product is produced and this is syrup.
The “multi-taskter”
 Fats in eggs add flavor, color, richness, and
 Certain fats in the yolk create emulsion
which binds liquids in the fats to keep the
batters from separating.
 Beating them helps to add air and volume
Choosing “Oven Temperature
Right oven temperature is the key to
balance the baking process
 If it’s too hot the crust with burn too
 If it’s too low the rising may outpace the
structure setting
 Pre-heat the oven- turn the oven to the
desired temperature for about 10 minutes
before using it.
Choosing Pans
Depth is a critical factors. If it’s too deep
or too shallow it may cause the same
problems as temperature being too high
or too low.
Preparing the Pans
Grease and flour
 Spray with cooking spray
 Line with paper
Pan Placement
Following the recipes specific instructions
are important because the ingredient
amounts, mixing techniques, and baking
times have been developed to work
together with scientific precision.
 Mixing time gives batter enough air
 Liquid gives it the right consistency
 Check a reliable guide for substitutions
Shortened Cakes
Butter Cakes
 Contain a solid fat, flour, sugar, eggs, and a
liquid. The main leavening agent is baking
powder or baking soda.
 A quality shortened cake has good
volume and a moist tender texture.
Foam Cakes
Angel Food- fat free cakes, egg whites are
beaten with sugar until stiff and glossy. Flour
is sifted oven and gently folded in.
 Sponge- Recipes include egg yolks, which are
beaten until pale and thick and then mixed
with other liquid ingredients. Flour is sifted
and folded into the egg whites and then the
two are mixed together.
 Chiffon-Three separate mixtures. 1. Flour,
sugar, baking powder 2. Egg yolks, oil, and
liquids 3. Combine both