Prefixes, Suffixes, Regions, and Directional Terms

October 13, 2015
Use medical prefixes and suffixes to
understand medical terminology
Why is it important to learn prefixes and
Medical Prefixes and Suffixes
Abdomin/o - Abdomen
Angi/o - Vessel
Arthr/o - Joint
Cardi/o - Heart
Cyan/o - Blue
Cyt/o - Cell
Derm/o - Skin
Erythr/o - Red
Gastr/o - Stomach
Glyc/o - Sugar
Hepat/o - Liver
Hist/o - Tissue
Hyper – Too much
Hypo – Not enough
Leuk/o - White
Mamm/o - Breast
Nephr/o - Kidney
Neur/o - Nerve
Oste/o - Bone
Phag/o – To eat
Path/o - Disease
Rhin/o - Nose
Acro - Extremities
Brady - Slow
Dys – Difficult
Contra – Against
Electro – Electric
Endo- Within
Exo – Outside
Epi- Upon
Macro - Large
Micro – Small
Mal- Bad
Ocul- Eye
Tachy - Fast
Peri- around
A or An- Without
Ante- Before, In front
Aud- Hear
Dia- Through
-algia: Pain
-clast – Broken
-ectomy: Surgical Removal
-itis: Inflammation
-graphy: the process of recording
-gram: Written Record
-megaly: Enlargement
-ologist: One Who Studies
-otomy: Cutting Into
-ostomy: Surgically forming an
-pathy - Disease
-phobia: fear
Writing out Medical
When writing out medical terms for most instances the
suffix indicates the last part of the term first.
Example: Inflammation of the stomach is gastritis
When putting together a combing word and a suffix you do
not use the letter “O” at the end of the combing word if the
suffix begins with a vowel, but you use the letter “O” if the
suffix begins with a consonant
Example: Gastr/o + -itis = Gastritis
Example: Leuk/o + -cyte = Leukocyte
Decoding Medical Terminology
When defining medical terms normally the suffix is said first,
followed by the combining word.
 Example: Gastrologist - one who studies the stomach
If a medical term has a prefix and a combining word you
normally say it in the order it is written.
 Example: Bradycardia - slow heart rate
If there is a prefix, a combining word, and a suffix, you say
the suffix first and then the prefix and then the middle word
 Example: Endoabdominalgia - pain within the abdomen
October 19, 2015
Explain the planes and cavities of the body
Demonstrate the positions of the body
Journal: Write three medical terms
using the prefixes and suffixes we
learned in class.
Anatomical Position
Supine Position
Prone Position
Fowler’s Position
Body Cavities
Body Planes
Guess that Cut!
Number from 1 to 5 in your journal
under today’s question.
Determine cut of the body is shown in
the pictures that follow.
Midsagittal Cut
Transverse Cut
Midsagittal Cut
Frontal (Coronal) Cut
October 19, 2015
Discuss regions of the body by their
medical names
Describe where regions of the body are
located in relation to one another using
directional terms
Journal: If someone walks into the
doctors office complaining of nephralgia
what is he talking about?
Regions of the Body
Frontal - Forehead
Orbital - Eye
Nasal - Nose
Oral - Mouth
Cervical - Neck
Pectoral - Chest
Sternal - Breastbone
Mammary - Breast
Abdominal - Abdomen
Scapular – Shoulder blade
Sacral – Tail bone
Umbilical – Navel
Pelvic – Pelvis
Inguinal - Groin
Pubic - Genital
Femoral – Thigh
Patellar – Knee Cap
Crural - Leg
Pedal - Foot
Cranial – Skull
Otic - Ear
Buccal - Cheek
Mental - Chin
Clavicular - Collarbone
Axillary - Armpit
Brachial – Upper Arm
Antebrachial - Forearm
Antecubital - Elbow
Carpal - Wrist
Manual - Hand
Digital – Fingers and Toes
Coxal - Hips
Occipital – Base of the Skull
Dorsal – Back
Lumbar – Lower Back
Vertebral – Spinal Column
Gluteal - Buttock
Popliteal – Back of the Knee
Sural - Calf
Tarsal - Ankle
Plantar – Sole of the Foot
Calcaneal – Heel of the Foot
Directional Terms
Towards the top; above
Ex: The frontal region is superior to the
abdominal region
Towards the bottom; below
Ex: The patellar region is inferior to the
cervical region.
Ventral / Anterior
Towards the front of the body
Ex: The sternal region is anterior to the
vertebral region
Dorsal / Posterior
Towards the back of the body
Ex: The scapular region is posterior to
the clavicular region.
Towards the midline of the body
Ex: The cardiac region is medial to the
brachial region.
Away from the midline
Ex: The antebrachial region is lateral to
the abdominal region
Closer to the point of attachment to the
body trunk
Ex: The brachial region is proximal to
the carpal region
Farther to the point of attachment to the
body trunk
Ex: The tarsal region is distal to the
patellar region
Toward or at the body surface
The umbilical region is superficial to the
abdominal region
Away from the body surface
Ex: The stomach is deep in comparison
to the skin
On the opposite side
Ex: The left antebrachial region is
contralateral to the right cural region.
On the same side
Ex: The right sural region is ipsilateral to
the right brachial region.