October 13, 2015 Objective: Use medical prefixes and suffixes to understand medical terminology Journal: Why is it important to learn prefixes and suffixes? Medical Prefixes and Suffixes Abdomin/o - Abdomen Angi/o - Vessel Arthr/o - Joint Cardi/o - Heart Cyan/o - Blue Cyt/o - Cell Derm/o - Skin Erythr/o - Red Gastr/o - Stomach Glyc/o - Sugar Hepat/o - Liver Hist/o - Tissue Hyper – Too much Hypo – Not enough Leuk/o - White Mamm/o - Breast Nephr/o - Kidney Neur/o - Nerve Oste/o - Bone Phag/o – To eat Path/o - Disease Rhin/o - Nose Acro - Extremities Brady - Slow Dys – Difficult Contra – Against Electro – Electric Endo- Within Exo – Outside Epi- Upon Macro - Large Micro – Small Mal- Bad Ocul- Eye Tachy - Fast Peri- around A or An- Without Ante- Before, In front Aud- Hear Dia- Through -algia: Pain -clast – Broken -ectomy: Surgical Removal -itis: Inflammation -graphy: the process of recording -gram: Written Record -megaly: Enlargement -ologist: One Who Studies -otomy: Cutting Into -ostomy: Surgically forming an opening -pathy - Disease -phobia: fear Writing out Medical Terminology When writing out medical terms for most instances the suffix indicates the last part of the term first. Example: Inflammation of the stomach is gastritis When putting together a combing word and a suffix you do not use the letter “O” at the end of the combing word if the suffix begins with a vowel, but you use the letter “O” if the suffix begins with a consonant Example: Gastr/o + -itis = Gastritis Example: Leuk/o + -cyte = Leukocyte Decoding Medical Terminology When defining medical terms normally the suffix is said first, followed by the combining word. Example: Gastrologist - one who studies the stomach If a medical term has a prefix and a combining word you normally say it in the order it is written. Example: Bradycardia - slow heart rate If there is a prefix, a combining word, and a suffix, you say the suffix first and then the prefix and then the middle word Example: Endoabdominalgia - pain within the abdomen October 19, 2015 Objective: Explain the planes and cavities of the body Demonstrate the positions of the body Journal: Write three medical terms using the prefixes and suffixes we learned in class. Body Positions Anatomical Position Supine Position Prone Position Fowler’s Position Body Cavities Body Planes Guess that Cut! Number from 1 to 5 in your journal under today’s question. Determine cut of the body is shown in the pictures that follow. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. Midsagittal Cut 2. Transverse Cut 3. Midsagittal Cut 4. Frontal (Coronal) Cut 5. Transverse Cuts October 19, 2015 Objective: Discuss regions of the body by their medical names Describe where regions of the body are located in relation to one another using directional terms Journal: If someone walks into the doctors office complaining of nephralgia what is he talking about? Regions of the Body Frontal - Forehead Orbital - Eye Nasal - Nose Oral - Mouth Cervical - Neck Pectoral - Chest Sternal - Breastbone Mammary - Breast Abdominal - Abdomen Scapular – Shoulder blade Sacral – Tail bone Umbilical – Navel Pelvic – Pelvis Inguinal - Groin Pubic - Genital Femoral – Thigh Patellar – Knee Cap Crural - Leg Pedal - Foot Cranial – Skull Otic - Ear Buccal - Cheek Mental - Chin Clavicular - Collarbone Axillary - Armpit Brachial – Upper Arm Antebrachial - Forearm Antecubital - Elbow Carpal - Wrist Manual - Hand Digital – Fingers and Toes Coxal - Hips Occipital – Base of the Skull Dorsal – Back Lumbar – Lower Back Vertebral – Spinal Column Gluteal - Buttock Popliteal – Back of the Knee Sural - Calf Tarsal - Ankle Plantar – Sole of the Foot Calcaneal – Heel of the Foot Directional Terms Superior Towards the top; above Ex: The frontal region is superior to the abdominal region Inferior Towards the bottom; below Ex: The patellar region is inferior to the cervical region. Ventral / Anterior Towards the front of the body Ex: The sternal region is anterior to the vertebral region Dorsal / Posterior Towards the back of the body Ex: The scapular region is posterior to the clavicular region. Medial Towards the midline of the body Ex: The cardiac region is medial to the brachial region. Lateral Away from the midline Ex: The antebrachial region is lateral to the abdominal region Proximal Closer to the point of attachment to the body trunk Ex: The brachial region is proximal to the carpal region Distal Farther to the point of attachment to the body trunk Ex: The tarsal region is distal to the patellar region Superficial Toward or at the body surface The umbilical region is superficial to the abdominal region Deep Away from the body surface Ex: The stomach is deep in comparison to the skin Contralateral On the opposite side Ex: The left antebrachial region is contralateral to the right cural region. Ipsilateral On the same side Ex: The right sural region is ipsilateral to the right brachial region.