The Industrial Revolution

Chapter 9 Section 1
Upon completion, students should be able to:
Explain the causes of the Industrial Revolution
Describe the new inventions during the industrial
3. Identify the changes as a result of the industrial
4. Summarize the impacts of the industrial revolution
on Europe and the west
-The greatly increased output of machine
made goods.
It began in England in the middle 1700’s.
Prior to the use of machinery, clothing wove
textiles by hand
Because wealthy landowners had bought up so much land
that farm methods had to change by village farmers.
England possessed numerous raw materials (iron-ore, coal)
and river systems needed along with harbors for merchants
to sell and ship goods.
England had a large population for workforce.
The English government supported innovation and
Enclosures- fences or hedges that closed off land.
This led to
1. Trying new agricultural methods including seeding
methods. Jethro Tull- invented the seeding drill in
2. Small farmers were forced to become tenant
farmers or to quit farming and move to cities.
Switching crops in order to avoid exhausting the
This process became common in the 1700’s and also
led to increased crop yielding.
Science also introduced new innovation in sheep
breeding leading to larger sheep.
As a result of increased food supplies, England’s
population boomed in the 1700’s.
Urbanization spread leading to a need for more jobs
in the cities.
England had the key factors of production
land, labor and a capital.
England had a strong military that began to
colonize other parts of the world.
England’s strong bank system expanded
loans to inventors and entrepreneurs.
John Kay- 1733 invented the flying shuttle, a boat
shaped object that allowed yarn to be weaved rapidly.
James Hargreaves- 1763, invented a spinning wheel
(spinning Jenny) allowing a spinner to work eight
threads at one time.
Richard Arkwright- 1769 invented a water frame
allowing water stream to power the wheel.
Samuel Crampton- 1779- invented the the spinning
mule, a combo of the spinning jenny and water frame.
This led to a stronger thread.
Edmund Cartwright- 1787 invented the power loom
speeding up weaving.
Because this machinery was expensive, it was moved into
 The factories required water as a power source so they were
built on river systems.
 Eli Whitney- built the cotton gin in 1793, this helped
England since most of its cotton came from the American
 In 20 years, cotton production increased from 1.5 million
pounds to 85 million.
James Watt- 1774 joined with Matthew Boulton an
entrepreneur to build a better steam engines.
 Robert Fulton- 1807 built a steam boat called the Clermont.
It was powered by a steam engine built by Watt and Boulton.
 England later built a network of canals and waterways
extending over 4,000 miles.
 England would later build a series of roads for heavy
machines thus leading to railroads.
In 1804 Richard Trevithick won a bet by hauling ten tons of
iron using a steam driven locomotive. This is considered the
be the first railroad train.
George Stephenson built 20 engines for mine operations.
This was considered to be the first railroad lines.
The Liverpool-Manchester Railroads- built in 1829 with
traveling speeds of 24 miles per hour.
Railroads became wildly popular in England and were used
to transport both goods, raw materials and people.