The Beginning of the Industrial Revolution


The Beginning of the Industrial


Ch. 9.1

Industrial Revolution Begins in

New Ways of Working


• Before this period, most products were handmade – problem?

• Industrial Revolution —greatly increases output of machine made goods instead of handmade products. What are the pros and cons?

• Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s –


The Agricultural Revolution Paves the

Way for Industrialization

• Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by poorer village farmers

• Enclosures —large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges


1) Enclosures allow experimentation with new agricultural methods

2) Poor farmers became tenant farmers, some just quit and moved to the cities

(factory workers)

Inventions Spur Industrialization

New Techniques were Used

Rotating Crops

• Crop rotation —switching crops each year to avoid depleting the soil

• Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply

(between 1700 - 1786 lamb weights claimed from 18 to

50 lbs.)

• Population increased

Industrial Revolution Begins in


Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England

• Industrialization — machine production of goods

• Britain has natural resources — coal, iron, rivers, harbors

• Expanding economy in Britain encourages investment

• People moving from small farms to the city looking for work.

• Britain has all needed factors of production —land, labor, capital





Divide yourselves into teams of three.

You will be assigned one of the following to present to the class in 10 minutes.

1) What did your inventor devise?

2) How did your inventor contribute to the production of goods?

3) Define significance to the development of an industrialized society

James Watt - Richard Trevithick

Matthew Boulton - George Stephenson

Robert Fulton - John Kay

James Hargreaves

Edmund Cartwright

- Samuel Crompton

- Jethro Tull

James Watt

Steam Engine for Factories

Matthew Boulton

Entrepreneur who funded Watt to build his engine

Robert Fulton – put steam engine in boat

Steamboat Clermont

James Hargreaves – powered spinning wheel = spinning jenny one spinner can work 8 threads at a time

John Kay – flying shuttle

Samuel Crompton combined spinning jenny & water frame = spinning mule

-Jethro Tull

Edmund Cartwright – power loom


Richard Trevithick –

Steam-Driven Locomotive

George Stephenson built the Rocket

Jethro Tull – seed drill

Inventions Spur Industrialization

Watt’s Steam Engine

• Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine

• Used to run factories

• James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew


Matthew Boulton

• Boulton an entrepreneur — organizes, manages,

• takes business risks

Inventions Spur Industrialization

Water Transportation

• Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807

• England’s water transport improved by system of canals

Road Transportation

• British roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roads

Inventions Spur Industrialization

Steam-Driven Locomotives

• In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive

• In 1825, George Stephenson builds world’s first railroad line

The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad

• Entrepreneurs build railroad from

Liverpool to Manchester

• Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as best locomotive (1829)

Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain

• Railroads spur industrial growth, create jobs

• Cheaper transportation move goods to market faster & more efficiently boosts many industries; people move to cities