Agricultural Revolution • Began in the Netherlands and England • Scientific Agriculture • Charles “Turnip” Townsend turnips, clover, alfalfa----fodder crops The Potato Large family could sustain itself on less than 1 acre of land. Main source of diet in Ireland, Russia and Prussia • New farming practice called Terracing • Allows for reclaiming swamps, bogs and hills • Jethro Tull---the seed drill, Cultivator • Selective Breeding awards for fattest cattle in England. • For efficiency—old farming methods ended & introduced Enclosure Acts • Forced people to the cities as they were unskilled Commercial Revolution II • East India companies were old school. • Triangular Trade was the new gold mine. • Started by Portuguese—after War of Spanish Succession it was controlled by the British • 60,000 slaves brought to the New World • British capitalism created by slave trade • Run by France and Britain---for sugar • This sugar was needed for the NEW beverages that came from the east---Coffee and Tea • New cloth---calico • Profits from commerce developed capitalist Government became dependent on entrepreneurs for tax revenue and gov.loans. • Middle class begins to merge with Aristocracy • Created commercial rivalries that lead to international wars. Diplomacy and War • After Peace of Utrecht (1713-14) • England and France renewed rivalry • Prussia and Austria argue of German affairs • Russia threatened stability of the Baltic due to accomplishments of Peter the Great • (Great Northern War—Sweden) Louis XV • Became king at age 5—France ruled by regents. • Parlement of Paris assumed right of taxation, legislation political power---up to revolution (Did this mostly for Paris area) Louis XV relied on Cardinal Fluery---old school aristocrat who wanted power for the nobles King was lazy, preferred hunting to ruling. • Governments need for money lead to: • Scottish investor John Law and the chartered Mississippi Company Speculation lead to the Mississippi Bubble which broke in 1720 and bankrupted thousands. the state is now in deep debt. • NOTE: France never developed the concept of Public debt---it was the King’s debt. • England developed credit institutions and the ability to borrow funds. The “King in Parliament” • This means that as of 1688 the monarch continued to play a role in politics—but it had to work through Parliament and the growing office of the Prime Minister to pass legislation. Dynastic Change • The last Stuart (Queen Anne) died in 1714 without an heir. • England turned to the German Hanoverians. • Tories wanted to bring back James III (a Stuart) who had lead an uprising in Scotland in 1715 and his son who did likewise in 1745 • Whig membership in Parliament would not allow another Catholic monarch so the Hanoverians ruled. • George I did not even speak English—thus the PM’s gained power. Commercial Issues • England worked hand in hand with government and private enterprise • The Bank of England issued stock to finance government debt and allowed investors to draw more capital loans than other countries. The South Sea Bubble • 1720 a near disaster in this over invested scheme—as in France. • Although there was great loss—English banks saved the company and the other credit institutions. • Britain continued to be sound financially. Development of Cabinet System • NOTE: Britain was NOT a democracy in the 18th century. • Parliament was controlled by large landowners and wealthy commercial individuals. • Growing cities like Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester had no representation. • Pocket boroughs---were dominant. • Robert Walpole established the Cabinet System and was said to be the first PM. • He appointed ministers (from Parliament) to run government agencies (mostly commercial minded individuals) • Through appointments, patronage and bribes Walpole managed to create a union of loyal members and to push desired legislation through Parliament (the House of Commons). • He encouraged overseas investments and kept taxes at home very low. • He was forced into the war with Spain 1739-42 but this lead to other wars. . .. Wars of the 18th Century Armies were recruited from the poor or after a night at the local pub. Officers were aristocrats who ran armies with severe discipline measures. Conflict did not disrupt civilians and the land and thus were less destructive than in previous centuries (30 Years War). Since armies were expensive battles were fought by marching formations thus imparting a parade like appearance to the wars. Added to by the wearing of very bright colored uniforms. Used inaccurate “smoothbore” muskets War of Austrian Succession • Maria Theresa---Pragmatic Sanction • Frederick II---Silesia • Britain joined on side of Austria to prevent a break in the balance of power. • Ends in Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748 The War Spread • France and Britain fought over lands in the Caribbean, India and most important Europe. • Britain eagerly allowed Fred II to keep Silesia if it meant that France did not get Belgium which stayed under Austrian control. • War started traditional hatred between Austria and Prussia for control of German territories. Reforms of Maria Theresa • Centralized tax collection • Tripled size of army • Founded Military Academy and Engineering Schools. • Promoted primary education • Promoted smallpox vaccination • Outlawed torture and capital punishment • Goals was to get support of people to retake Silesia which failed. Count von Kaunitz • Maria’s primary minister • Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 • France ceased hating Austria (back to Richelieu) and entered into an alliance against Prussia – Russia also joined this. Marriage of Maria’s daughter (Marie Antoinette to Louis XVI is a result). Maria is not seen as enlightened due to Catholic sympathies. • Thus Britain was forced onto the side of Prussia to prevent an “unbalancing of power” and a threat to the ancestral home of the Hanoverians. Seven Years War 1756-63 • This is a Hooray for Fred II and also his failure. • Outnumbered 10-1 he fought on even when Berlin was burned. • Britain provided financial support (the bank) • Frederick’s opponents were disorganized and the French did not trust their new partner Austria. • Frederick held Silesia (Treaty of Hubertsburg) English and French side of the War • Under leadership of William Pitt the Younger Britain won battles in North Amer, Carib, & India. • France once again is on losing side of a costly war in terms of colonies, ships and men. • Britain’s Navy turns the tide Treaty of Paris 1756 • Britain gets NA east of Mississippi River • Britain gets control if India • France got control of some sugar islands in the Caribbean • THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TREATIES YOU WILLHAVE TO KNOW THIS YEAR!!! HINT HINT!!!! • In North America (known as French and Indian War) it left British colonists free of French threats. • It made the British want to force the colonists to pay for the cost of the war---which lead to the American Revolution. • It established the hatred of Prussia and Austria as rivals for German superiority. • Set the stage for the French Revolution (France is in major debt). • Britain now in charge of India sets out to destroy the Mogul Empire and a series of events that will change both nations.