Federalists and Anti

Federalists and Anti-Federalists
In what ways did the Constitution seek
to erect barriers against “mobocracy?”
“Mobocracy”- the rule/domination by the
• federal judges were appointed for life
• the president was to be indirectly elected by
the Electoral College
• senators were to be chosen indirectly by state
What democratic elements existed in
the Constitution?
• It was based on two main principles of
republicanism– government was based on the consent of the
– Limited government
• Ratification- approval
• Ratify- to approve
• Ratification of the Constitution required the
approval of 9 states
• Special ratifying conventions (meetings) were
held in each state
• Federalists supported ratification
• Anti-Federalists opposed it
The Great Debate in
the States
• Special elections held for members of
ratifying conventions
– Candidates—federalist or antifederalist—were
elected based on whether they were for or were
against Constitution
• Four small states quickly accepted Constitution
• Pennsylvania was first large state to ratify
• Massachusetts presented challenges, including
demand for bill of rights
• Wanted a strong federal government (thus the
• Generally lived along the seaboard
• Generally wealthier, more educated, and
better organized than the Anti-Federalists.
• Led by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
and John Jay
– Wrote The Federalist Papers
In Federalist No.10 and Federalist
No. 51,
Madison argued that a strong
national government and the
Constitution’s system of checks
and balances would strengthen
In Federalist No. 78, Hamilton
wrote of the importance of a
judicial branch to protect liberty.
A copy of The Federalist
signed by George Washington
• Sam Adams, Patrick Henry, John Hancock,
Richard Henry Lee
• Generally states’ rights proponents,
backcountry people, small farmers
• Generally the poorest classes
• Feared that a strong federal government
would take away their liberties
• Believed a bill of rights was necessary
• Competing interests in a
large republic would
ensure that no one group
would be able to ignore
the rights of everyone
• A strong gov’t is needed
for protection from
foreign nations
• A strong gov’t is needed
to pay the nation’s debts
and provide a stable
• Republican gov’t works
better in smaller areas
• Government should be
close to the people
• Citizens rights should be
• Vague wording might lead
to an abuse of power
Why do the Federalists win?
• They had a very effective and well-organized
• George Washington and Ben Franklin (most
respected men in America) supported the
• The Federalist Papers were very persuasive
• The promise to add a bill of rights swayed
some Anti-Federalists
Map 9-4 p174
• June 1788 the Constitution was officially
Table 9-3 p175
Congress convened in New York’s Federal Hall
on March 4, 1789 to:
• Elect a first president (George Washington) and vice
president (John Adams).
• Add a Bill of Rights.
The last two states, Rhode Island and North Carolina,
now reconsidered earlier rejections and ratified as
well, bringing the total to 13 states.
• He used Virginia’s Bill of
Rights as a model.
James Madison was
to create a Bill of
• Madison avoided any
statements about equality
that might offend the slave
• Ten amendments guaranteed
individual freedoms.
• To prevent future abuse or
limitations on freedom, any
unmentioned rights were
retained by the people.
The Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights