Ratifying the US Constitution The Philosophies, Arguments, and the Men Who Achieved It Ratification Battle over 2 visions of America • Fear vs. Need for change • Strong National Gov’t. vs. State Gov’t. • Ability of system to hold Union in place • How to best guarantee citizens’ rights The Opposing Philosophies Federalists - Nation MUST change or risk threat of division Anti-Federalists - Don’t need that much change, nation will stay united. - Strong National Government - Strong State Governments - Strong manufacturing and business base in country - Some business, but mostly farm economy - Favored banking and credit to boost economy - Believed banks and credit would create an elite class - No Bill of Rights – what if one was left out? - Need Bill of Rights, not enough individual protection The Players Federalists Anti-Federalists Alexander Hamilton Samuel Adams James Madison William Patterson John Jay Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Richard Henry Lee George Washington James Monroe Federalist Papers • Arguments made in NY newspapers for ratification – 82 editorials • Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Jay – “Publius” • Thought necessary - important for big states to ratify Constitution to make it credible. Bill of Rights • Not included in original Constitution • Concern by Jefferson, Washington that “essential civil liberties” needed to be guaranteed. • Congress gets 12 of 80 Amendments proposed by states from James Madison in September, 1789. • Adopted by ¾ of states in December, 1791. Bill of Rights 1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. 2. Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated militia. 3. No quartering of soldiers by citizens. 4. Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. 5. Right to due process of law, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy. 6. Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a speedy and public trial. 7. Right of trial by jury in civil cases. 8. Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments. 9. Other rights of the people (are not denied if any were left out). 10.Powers (not given to Nat’l govt. or denied to states) reserved to the states. Ratification Succeeds • Achieved in June 1788 New Hampshire becomes 9th state • Official law of land in March, 1789 • President Washington operates under the new Constitution and forms government.