US History Lesson Plan – Ratification – 10-27-08

Ratifying the US
The Philosophies, Arguments, and the Men Who Achieved It
Battle over 2 visions of America
• Fear vs. Need for change
• Strong National Gov’t. vs. State Gov’t.
• Ability of system to hold Union in place
• How to best guarantee citizens’ rights
The Opposing Philosophies
- Nation MUST change or risk
threat of division
- Don’t need that much change,
nation will stay united.
- Strong National Government
- Strong State Governments
- Strong manufacturing and
business base in country
- Some business, but mostly
farm economy
- Favored banking and credit
to boost economy
- Believed banks and credit
would create an elite class
- No Bill of Rights – what if one
was left out?
- Need Bill of Rights, not
enough individual protection
The Players
Alexander Hamilton
Samuel Adams
James Madison
William Patterson
John Jay
Patrick Henry
Thomas Jefferson
Richard Henry Lee
George Washington
James Monroe
Federalist Papers
• Arguments made in NY newspapers for
ratification – 82 editorials
• Written by Alexander Hamilton, James
Madison & John Jay – “Publius”
• Thought necessary - important for big
states to ratify Constitution to make it
Bill of Rights
• Not included in original Constitution
• Concern by Jefferson, Washington that
“essential civil liberties” needed to be
• Congress gets 12 of 80 Amendments
proposed by states from James Madison in
September, 1789.
• Adopted by ¾ of states in December, 1791.
Bill of Rights
1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
2. Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated militia.
3. No quartering of soldiers by citizens.
4. Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
5. Right to due process of law, freedom from self-incrimination, double
6. Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a speedy and public trial.
7. Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
8. Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments.
9. Other rights of the people (are not denied if any were left out).
10.Powers (not given to Nat’l govt. or denied to states) reserved to the
Ratification Succeeds
• Achieved in June 1788
New Hampshire becomes 9th state
• Official law of land in March, 1789
• President Washington operates under the
new Constitution and forms government.