Invertebrate Study Guide Understand the general organization and biology of a sponge, including reproduction and metabolism Understand how the body plan of a cnidarian differs from most other animals Describe the digestive system of a cnidarian and indicate how it is an evolutionary advancement from that of a sponge Differentiate among acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate animals and give examples of each Understand the general organization of the phylum Platyhelminthes and how their various organ systems compare to those of other “lower” invertebrates Explain the structural and physiological changes that occur in parasitic organisms using the flatworm as examples Understand the general organization of the phylum Nematoda and compare their systems to those of acoelomate animals Differentiate between protostomes and deuterostomes and give examples of each Understand the basic organization of the mollusk and the importance of the mantle Describe the differences in body plan, reproduction, feeding, and respiration among the gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods Explain the advantages of segmentation in Coelomic organisms and include the phyla that exhibit segmentation Understand the basic organization of annelids and how their organ systems compare to those of mollusks Indicate how annelids are more advanced than mollusks Understand how earthworms, leeches, and polychaetes differ from one another Know the main characteristics of all arthropods Describe ecdysis and know how it is controlled Understand the basic internal organization of the arthropods including their circulatory, digestive, respiratory, excretory, and nervous systems Differentiate between millipedes and centipedes Describe the external and internal characteristics of the class Insecta Understand the complexities of insect metamorphosis and differentiate between complete and incomplete metamorphosis Describe the body plan of adult echinoderms Differentiate among the five classes of echinoderms in terms of body plan, locomotion, tube feet modifications, and feeding strategy Explain reproduction in echinoderms Chordates and Vertebrates Know the characteristics of chordates. Be able to give the taxonomy, members, and characteristics of the lower chordate groups. Know the three classes of fish (taxonomy, members, and characteristics). Know the characteristics of amphibians, be able to explain adaptations for life on land, and know why they are still linked to water. Know which vertebrate group was able to first successfully live and reproduce on land and what features made this possible. Know the orders of amphibians, members of each order, and their main characteristics. Know the orders of reptiles, members of each order, and their main characteristics. Be able to trace the increasing complexity of the heart through the classes of vertebrates and give advantages of this more complex heart. Give supporting reasons why scientists consider birds and reptiles to be closely related. Know the main characteristics of the class Aves. Know the main characteristics of the class Reptilia. Know which invertebrate phylum is considered to be most closely related to the chordates and why. Know the chemical composition of mammalian hair, avian feathers, and turtle shells. Explain how the bird’s body is adapted to flight. Know the orders of mammals, characteristics, and members of each order.