Economic Renewal and Religious Wars

Economic Renewal and
Religious Wars
Rise of Exploration
Improved maps
Better ships
 New World
 Columbian Exchange
 Triangle Trade
 Commercial Revolution
 Coins with fixed values
 Standards of weight
and measurement
 Central banking
 Join-stock companies
 Colonies
 Mercantilismgovernment needs to
increase a country’s
wealth (gold and silver)
Social Structures
Middle Ages
17th Century
Feudal lords
No middle class
Peasants (might own
or rent land)
Eastern vs. Western Europe
Eastern Europe
 Peasants sank into
serfdom or “hereditary
Western Europe
 Peasants were able to
sell what they produced
and buy land
 Owed 3-4 days a week to
the lord
 Owed lord 10 days a
year of labor
•Catholic Cause seems to be prevailing
•Phillip II: Leader of the Counter
•The Escorial
•Spain’s Golden Age
•Netherlands revolt and the Spanish
Duke of Alva
Council of “Blood”
Catherine de Medici
St. Bartholomews Day
Turks defeated at Lapanto
Moriscoe revolt put down
Excommunication of Elizabeth
Golden Age
Netherlands Revolt
Spanish Armada
Portrait by Titian
Keeping his promise
Spain’s Golden Age
Lope de Vega
Surrender at Breda
by Velasquez
Disintegration and
Reconstruction of France
Conflicts in France
1534- Affair of Placards
1559- Mary Queen of Scots
persecuted reformers
1562-1598- Religious Wars in
 1572- St. Bartholomew’s Day
Politiques or “politicals”
1598- Edict of Nantes
Louis XIII
Son of Henry IV
Became king at age 8
Sick and weak, but
appointed wise
Cardinal Richelieu
Took power away
from nobles
Strengthened trade
and industry
Thirty Years’ War
Why was it fought?
 Germany:
 Civil war over religion
 Civil war over states’ rights
 Spain vs. France
 Spain vs. Netherlands
 Denmark, Sweden, and Transylvania involved
Phases of the War
 Bohemian
 Protestants lost to Catholics
 Danish
 Albert of Wallenstein
 Denmark lost
 Swedish
 Some victories, but weakened by internal fighting
 Swedish-French
 France openly supported the Protestants
Thirty Years War
 1618- France encouraged the war while avoiding the fight
 Started as a Protestant Revolt in Prague against HRE
 Changed from religious to political war
 1648- France entered war
Peace of Westphalia
 1648- ended Thirty Years’ War
 Ended religious wars in Europe
 New methods for peace
 Balance of Power
 Beginning of modern state system
Peace of Westphalia- Territory shift