The Old Kingdom

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The Old Kingdom

2700-2200 BC Chapter 4 Section 2

Quiz at the end.

Early Pharoahs – the Up Side

The ancient Egyptians believed the

pharoah

was king –and- god

They believed he came to earth to manage

Egypt for the rest of the gods

They would get their own

pyramid

Does this sound like a job you would like?

The Down Side

If crops did not grow, it was his fault

If there was disease, it was his fault

If trade was bad, it was his fault

If there was a war, it was his fault

Society and Trade

Egypt started to develop lower, middle, and upper classes

They believed an organized society would keep them strong

Upper Classes

The

pharoah

was at the top of society

The

nobles

came next

Scribes

and Craftsmen were the middle class

Farmers, Servants and Slaves

the lowest class and most people belonged to it

When their fields were flooded, farmers would work on the pharoah’s projects, e.g. pyramids. They were paid for their work.

Slaves were mostly prisoners of war.

Trade ya!

Egyptians started to travel south to Nubia and acquired gold, ivory, copper, building stones, and slaves.

Egypt had little wood so they traded with

Syria or took apart captured ships =

Wood for burning and building.

Egyptian Gods

Egyptians practiced

polytheism

(poly=many, theism=gods).

They had gods for nearly everything

Watch!

goddess of childbirth and fertility, who breathed life into humans at birth, represented as a frog goddess of magical power and healing,

Horus

"She of the Throne"

Khepry

- the scarab beetle, the embodiment of the dawn

Khnum

goddess of childbirth, and the creator of each person's Ka , a part of their soul, thereby associated with

Menthu

- an ancient god of war - nomad - represented strength, virility, and victory hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail. As Khem or Min, he was the god of reproduction; as Khnum, he was the creator of all things, "the maker of gods and men". By the New Kingdom he was also fused with Amen in the deity Min was the sacred bull of Heliopolis. The bull was associated with Ra as the offspring of the solar cow deity, and possibly also with Min. When Akhenaten abandoned the other god named Amun (Amen) in favour of the Aten he claimed that he would maintain th

, was originally a title of the primordial waters of the cosmos, the mother from which the cosmos emerged, as was

Naunet

Naunet

- a goddess, the primal waters from which all arose, similar to Mut protector of Egypt, royalty, and the pharaoh with her extended wings - referred to as goddess of heaven and the sky or a frog of Atum or Atum-Ra, a goddess who was seen as the mother and grandmother of the gods, referred to as the son of Amun and Mut, whose name means "wanderer", which probably refers to the passage of the moon across the sky, as he was a lunar deity. In the late period, he was also considered an important god of healing the personification of darkness that often took the form of a frog-headed god, whose consort was the snake chief male deity of the time and region, a god of war , weather , and protector of matrilineality , his cult arrived during the represented as a woman, sitting or standing, holding a sceptre

- the falcon -headed god, son of Isis, god of pharaohs and Upper Egypt who was represented as the throne , also the wife of Osiris and goddess of the underworld[

- a creator deity, god of the inundation in one hand and an ankh in the other - thought to have created order out of the primal where enemies of the pharaoh were decapitated with

Mafdet's claw

; alternately, a cat , a mongoose

Menhit

- goddess of war - depicted as a lioness -goddess and therefore becoming associated with Sekhmet goddess, sometimes triple-headed, dweller on the top of or the personification of the pyramid-shaped mountain , Al in the Ogdoad cosmogony, however, the distinction between motherhood and cosmic water lead to the separation of these identit and later closely related to Nu goddess of war, then great mother goddess - a name of the primal waters, the goddess of creation and weaving, said to weave a

Mother of Mothers, who hath existed from the Beginning, and Creatrix of the World sister to Isis and the nursing mother of Horus and the pharaohs represented as the mistress of the temple, a woman with

- mother of many deities as well as the sun, the moon, and the stars the oldest son of the sky goddess, Nut, and the Earth god, Geb, and being brother and later, the husband of Isis deity of merged aspects of Sekhmet and Bast

Ptah

, cult center at Beni Hasan where north and south met -

- a creator deity, also god of craft lioness the sun, also a creator deity - whose chief cult centre was based in Heliopolis meaning "city of the sun"

Isis, Goddess of

Magic

Main Gods

Re, or Amon Re, the Sun God

Osiris, God of the

Underworld

Horus, god of the sky and pharoahs

The Afterlife

Egyptians believed that after you leave this earth you go to

the afterlife

It was a happy place where people were young and healthy

They believed in ka or a person’s life force

When a person died their were buried.

ka left the body, but stayed behind with the body where they

The ka needed to eat, sleep, and be entertained

The dead person’s relatives would feel the tomb with favorite foods, drinks, jewelry, weapons, and furniture

Burial Practices

A person’s body had to be preserved

If it decayed, its ka would not recognize it and would not eat or drink

To keep the ka happy, the

Egyptians invented

embalming

to keep the dead body from decaying

This was only done for the rich.

Poor people left the bodies in the desert to dry and this preserved them too.

My Mummy, My Self – or How to make a mummy in 30 days or less

Step 1: Cut open the body

Step 2:

Take out organs and put them in

canopic jars

Wrap it up, I’ll take it.

Step 3: add special drying out substance and oils

Step 4: Wrap with linen cloths and bandages

Step 5: Tuck in some charms

Step 6: Let sit for 5,ooo years.

The

Sarcophagus

The

mummy

was placed in a case called a

sarcophagus

Pyramids

Pyramids were royal tombs

The largest is the Great Pyramid of Khufu near Giza, Egypt

Why the shape of a pyramid?

They pointed to the sky and symbolized the journey the pharoah would take to the afterlife

They wanted the tombs beautiful because they believed the pharoah would give them a good afterlife if he was happy with his tomb when he died.

To keep him safe, many spells and prayers were written inside the tombs. They were called

Pyramid Texts.

Pyramid Text

Canopic jars pharoahs

Match ‘em Up

polytheism embalming Largest pyramid

Ka Osiris is associated with this

Royal tombs

Top of the society pyramid pyramids

Pyramid texts

Isis is associated with this

Life force of the dead

Stored organs

Scribes

Many gods makes a strong, organized society

FREE

Space

Khufu

Body preservation system

Society pyramid magic

Knew how to write

Underworld

Safety spells

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