Strength and Conditioning Class Notes Personal Motivation • • • • • What drives you to get better? You need to set a goal everyday. Make sure you do things correctly. Come to class with a purpose. You will personally get out of class what you put into it. Character • Who you are when nobody is looking. • I need to trust your character on a daily basis. • Without trust between teacher and student, it will be a difficult semester. Sets • A set is the amount of reps you do before resting. If you were to follow a routine that called for 3 sets of ten reps of bicep curls, you would do 10 reps, rest and then repeat two more times. Reps • A rep, or repetition, is the completion of the full motion called for by a particular exercise. For example, with the bench press, lowering the weight to your chest and then pushing it back up to where the arms are straight (but not locked) is one rep. Max • Your max is simply the maximum amount you can lift for a given number of reps. Your 1RM is the maximum you can lift for one rep. Many routines use percentages of your 1RM as a way of defining the amount of weight you should be lifting for each set. For example, a routine may suggest 3x10 at 80-90%. This routine calls for you to do 3 sets of 10 reps at 80-90% of your 1RM for that particular exercise Methods • H.I.T. (High Intensity Training) - A training philosophy that recommends low volume training, full-body routines and workouts done with maximum intensity. • Circuit Training - A form of weight training where you are moving quickly between exercises with the goal of a quick • Pyramid Routines workout that provides Routines that use sets at anaerobic as well different levels (different rep totals) to form a aerobic benefits. Not pyramid. An effective ideal for mass gain. technique for mass building. Free Weights • weight training utilizing dumbbells, barbells and weight plates. Free weights are important to mass gain, as opposed to machinebased training, because they better allow the development of accessory muscles necessary to support increased muscle mass. Machine-Based Weights • Exercise with the assistance of machines that follow a pre-determined path. Not ideal for mass gain as the accessory muscles are not as effectively hit. Spotter • A person who watches you lift and helps move the weight out of harms way when your muscles fail. A spotter (or self-spotting apparatus) is necessary when working out to failure for some exercises like the bench press. Stabilizer Muscles • Muscles that may not actually move during exercise but provide support to the exercise - the muscles that hold you in place so you can perform the exercise. Machine-based training reduces the need for these muscles and therefore limits their development. This can negatively impact the development of major muscles as well as functional strength. Target Muscles • The main target of a particular exercise (the bench press targets the pecs). Accessory Muscles • The muscles that are required to perform an exercise that are not the target muscle Fast-Twitch Fibers • The muscle fibers primarily responsible for short explosive activities. To gain significant muscle mass, you must train to affect these muscles. Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers • The muscle fibers primarily responsible for muscular endurance. Plateau • A point where progress slows or halts and it becomes seemingly impossible to make gains. Indicates a need to change your training program. Muscle Confusion • The concept that in order to continue gaining muscle you must keep changing the way you approach weight training in your sets and routines in order to prevent them from adapting. Conditioning • Cardiovascular Endurance - the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (e.g. running long distances) Aerobic • Longer duration exercise aimed primarily at increasing fitness levels and burning calories Anaerobic • Shorter duration exercise aimed primarily at increasing strength levels. Power and Agility • Power - the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements. The two components of power are strength and speed. (e.g. jumping or a sprint start) • Agility - the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (e.g. ZigZag running or cutting movements) Flexibility • Flexibility - the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e. fat or muscle (e.g. executing a leg split) Ballistic Stretch • Movement due to momentum rather than control. Ballistic stretching involves throwing a body part in order to stretch a muscle beyond the range of motion attainable through controlled muscular contraction such as when bouncing at the bottom of toe touches. Static Stretch • A stretch in which you hold a position for longer then 10 Seconds to stretch a specific muscle. Individual Presentation • You will demonstrate • You will demonstrate a new type of stretch a new type of Lift that that we have not done we have not done at at WUHS before, and WUHS before, and explain what muscles explain what muscles it stretches and how it it focusses on, and will help with certain how it will help with activities. certain activities. Individual Presentation Continued • You will demonstrate the lift or stretch. The rest of the class will follow along as well. • You will need to turn in a brief write-up to describe what you taught the class. Maximum Heart Rate • The highest your heart rate should be when working out. The formula for finding this out is to take 220 minus your age to find out your Maximum heart rate. • Special # 220 • Minus Age_______ • = Max HR________ Target Heart Rate • Target Heart Rate is 80% of your Maximum heart rate. Special # 220 • Age -_______ • Max HR________ • X .80 ________ • =‘s your target heart rate Nutrition And Supplements Calories • a unit of energy, equal to the amount of energy needed to heat one gram of water one degree Celsius. In common usage, the "calories" most often refer to kilocalories (also known as Kcal or "food calories") which are really 1000 calories. Carbohydrates • The body's most readily available source of energy. Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories of energy. The main forms of carbohydrate are sugars and starches. • Examples are Protien • A major component of all body tissue. Your body needs protein to grow and repair itself. Your body can use protein for energy, but that is one of its least important functions. • Examples are Fats • A concentrated energy source. Fat provides 9 calories per gram, more than twice as much energy as protein and carbohydrate. Fat also provides essential fatty acids, is an important component of cell structure, and transports vitamins A, D, E and K. • Examples are Fiber • A form of carbohydrate which your body can't digest. Fiber helps your digestive tract work Water • Your body is around 70% water; muscle tissue is around 75% water. It should therefore come as no surprise that you need to stay hydrated in order to build muscle Sleep • All students and athletes need at least eight hours of sleep each night to let the body regenerate. Loss of sleep wears on the individual both physically and mentally. Supplements Good Supplements • List 5 good supplements Bad Supplements • List 5 bad Supplements Steroids • Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds that are closely related chemically to the male sex hormone testosterone. These artificial substances were developed in the 1930's originally to help men whose bodies produced inadequate amounts of the natural hormone that is responsible for the development of masculine characteristics occurring at puberty, such as lowering of voice and growth of body hair. Side Effects Of Steroids • • • • • • • • • • For men—shrinking of the testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, development of breasts, increased risk for prostate cancer. • For women—growth of facial hair, male-pattern baldness, changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle, enlargement of the clitoris, deepened voice. • • • • • • • • • For adolescents—growth halted prematurely through premature skeletal maturation and accelerated puberty changes. This means that adolescents risk remaining short for the remainder of their lives if they take anabolic steroids before the typical adolescent growth spurt. • Steroid abusers subject themselves to more than 70 side effects ranging in severity from liver cancer to acne and encompassing psychological as well as physical reactions. The parts of the body that are most seriously affected by steroids are the liver and the cardiovascular and reproductive systems. In males, steroids can cause withered testicles, sterility, and impotence. In females, irreversible masculine traits can develop along with menstrual irregularities, breast reduction, and sterility. Psychological effects in both sexes include aggressive, combative behavior known as "`roid rage" and depression. Some side effects may not show up for years, such as heart attacks and strokes, and some might not even be recognized as side effects, such as failure to achieve full height potential because of arrested bone development during adolescence. Form Running Arm Movement • The arms should move in opposition to the legs. • Arm movement should be big in the sense that your hand on the back swing should touch the top of your back pocket, and on the front swing your hand should be about chin to eye height. • Arms need to follow a path that is the same as your legs and reach to the direction you are running to. Feet • Toes should always point to where you are going. • Stay on the balls of your feet. • Never have your heels hit the ground when sprinting. • The more flexibility you have the faster you will be. Legs • A Motion • The A motion (figure 3.2; the movement can be performed while walking or more dynamically as the A skip or A run) is propelled by the hip flexors and quadriceps. Knee flexion occurs, and the pelvis is rotated forward. The arm carriage is simple and used to balance the action of the lower body as opposed to propelling it. The arm opposite to the raised leg is bent 90 degrees at the elbow, and it swings forward and back like a pendulum, the shoulder joint acting as a fulcrum. The opposite arm is also moving simultaneously in the opposite direction. Both hands should be held loosely at the wrist joints and should not be raised above shoulder level. The emphasis is on driving down the swing leg, which initiates the knee lift of the other leg. A- Step B-Step • B Motion • The B motion (figure 3.3) is dependent on the quadriceps to extend the leg and the hamstrings to drive the leg groundward, preparing for the impact phase. In order, the quadriceps extend the leg from the position of the A motion to potential full extension, and then the hamstrings group acts to forcefully drive the lower leg and foot to the ground. During running the tibialis anterior dorsiflexes the ankle, which positions the foot for the appropriate heel landing; however, while performing the B motion, dorsiflexion should be minimized so that the foot lands closer to midstance. This allows for less impact solely on the heel, and because the biomechanics of the foot are not involved as in running, it does not promote any forefoot injuries. B-Step C M o t i o n C-Step • C Motion • The final phase of the running gait cycle is dominated by the hamstrings. Upon impact, the hamstrings continue to contract, not to limit the extension of the leg but to pull the foot upward, under the glutes, to begin another cycle. The emphasis of this exercise (figure 3.4) is to pull the foot up, directly under the buttocks, shortening the arc and the length of time performing the phase so that another stride can be commenced. This exercise is performed rapidly, in staccato-like bursts. The arms are swinging quickly, mimicking the faster movement of the legs, and the hands come a little higher and closer to the body than in either the A or B motions. A more pronounced forward lean of the torso, similar to the body position while sprinting, helps to facilitate this motion. C-Step t o r s o , s i m il a r t o t h e b o d y p o s it i o n w h il e s p ri n ti n g , h e l p s t o f a c ili t a t e t h i s m o ti o n .