# Properties of Matter

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
STUDY PPT FOR LESSONS 1-11
Shauna Webb, AMSTI
LESSON 1 – OUR IDEAS ABOUT MATTER
You will perform a circuit of eight inquiries to
observe how matter behaves. The inquiries involve
the following: different states of matter, changes of
state, mass and volume, floating and sinking,
thermal expansion, mixtures, solubility and
insolubility, and chemical reactions.
LESSON 1 – QUESTION
What is matter?
LESSON 1 – CONCLUSION
oMatter - the physical material that has mass and occupies
space.
oAir is a gas.
oAir and gases are forms of matter even though they are
invisible.
oThe shape of an object does not affect its mass.
oSome matter is soluble in water.
oAll liquids are not water or do not contain water.
oTemperature change affects the volume of air.
oSome liquids do not mix = Immiscible
LESSON 1 – VOCABULARY
(1-4)
1. matter - the physical material that has mass and
occupies space
2. expansion - the increase in the volume of matter that
occurs when matter is heated.
3. contraction - decrease in volume of matter when
matter is cooled.
4. dissolving - the process that takes place when a
solvent is mixed with a solute to make a solution.
5. immiscible - liquids that are unable to dissolve in one
another.
LESSON 1 – VOCABULARY
(2-4)
6. miscible - liquids are able to dissolve in one another.
7. density - the mass of a known volume of a substance;
measured in g/cm3
8. chemical reaction - any change that involves the
formation of a new substance; has reactants and
products.
9. mass - the amount of matter in an object; measured in
g or kg.
10. volume - the amount of space occupied by matter;
measured in L, mL, cm3, or m3.
LESSON 1 – VOCABULARY
(3-4)
11. burning - a rapid chemical reaction between a
substance and a gas that produces heat and light.
Most burning or combustion takes place in the air and
has oxygen as one of its reactants.
12. solid - a phase or state of matter in which a
substance has definite shape and volume.
13. liquid - a state or phase of matter in which a
substance has a definite volume but no definite
shape. Liquids take the shape of the container they
occupy.
LESSON 1 – VOCABULARY
(4-4)
14. mixture - two or more elements or compounds that
are mixed together but are not chemically combined.
15. physical property - all the characteristic properties
of a substance except those that determine how it
behaves in a chemical reaction
LESSON 2 – DETERMINING DENSITY
You will use mass and volume
measurements to calculate the densities
of water, regular shaped objects, and
irregular shaped objects.
ANTICIPATION/REACTION GUIDE (INQUIRY 2.1-2.3)
YES
NO
STATEMENT
1. An object floats/sinks based
solely on its mass
2. Mass and volume are
interchangeable terms
3. Mass is affected by changes in
shape
4. Density and weight are the
same
5. Mass and weight are the same
YES NO
LESSON 2 – QUESTION
How will the densities of 25mL &amp;
50 mL of water compare?
LESSON 2- HYPOTHESIS
Take 2 minutes to create your own
hypothesis:
If…….. then….. because……..
LESSON 2- HYPOTHESIS
If you measure the density of 25mL
and 50 mL of H2O, then it will be
different because there are different
amounts of water being measured.
LESSON 2- PROCEDURE
Step 1- Take the mass of the empty graduated cylinder.
Step 2- Add 25mL of H2O to one graduated cylinder and 50 mL of
H2O to the other graduated cylinder.
Step 3- Measure mass of each graduated cylinder with the water.
Step 4- Subtract the mass of the empty graduated cylinder from the
new measurement for the graduated cylinder containing 25mL of
H2O and repeat for the 50mL of H2O
Step 5- Calculate the density of water (mass/volume) Round your
LESSON 2.1- RESULTS
Mass of
Mass of
empty Graduated Mass of Density of
Volume of
water
3
Water (cm )
g/cm3
Cylinder and Water
(g)
(g)
(g)
25
50
LESSON 2.1-CONCLUSION
Does changing the vol. of water change
the density of water?
Does changing the mass of water change
the density of water?
What is the density of water in
grams/cm3?
LESSON 2.1- VARIABLES
Independent
variable:
Dependent
variable:
Amount of water
The density
INQUIRY 2.2 QUESTION
Will all of the blocks have the
same density?
LESSON 2.2- HYPOTHESIS
If we compare the densities of
the blocks, then the aluminum
will have a larger density
because it is a metal.
LESSON 2.2- PROCEDURE
Step 1- measure the length x width x
height
Step 2- mass each item on the balance
Step 3-divide the mass by volume to get
density
Comparing the Densities of Different Substances
Substance
WAX
TRANSPARENT
WHITE
PLASTIC
ALUMINUM
Length (l)
(cm)
Width
(w)
(cm)
Height (h)
(cm)
Volume (v)
(cm3)
(v=l x w x h)
Mass
(m)
(g)
Density
(g/cm3)
(m/v)
LESSON 2.2- CONCLUSION
Are the densities of the different
substances the same or different? Different
How could this information be used to
identify the substance from which an object
is made? YOU COULD IDENTIFY THE
OBJECTS BY CALCULATING THE DENSITY
AND COMPARING IT TO A DENSITY CHART
NEXT STEP
Measure objects with
IRREGULAR shape
INQUIRY 2.3 QUESTION
How do you measure the density of
irregular objects?
Or
Which of the irregular objects will
have the greatest density?
LESSON 2.3- HYPOTHESIS
If we measure all of the objects,
then the copper cylinder will have
the greatest density because it
has more mass than the steel bolt
and nylon spacer.
STEP 1: MEASURE MASS OF OBJECT
STEP 4: CALCULATE DENSITY
LESSON 2.3- PROCEDURE
STEP 1- Measure the mass of the objects using the
balance
STEP 2- Fill the graduated cylinder with enough
water to cover the objects and record the volume
STEP 3- Insert the object into the graduated
cylinder
STEP 4- Subtract the two volumes and record the
volume of the object
STEP 5- Calculate density
INQUIRY 2.3: COMPARING THE DENSITIES OF
DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES
Object
COPPER
CYLINDER
STEEL
BOLT
NYLON
SPACER
Mass
(g)
Volume of
water
without
object (mL)
Volume of
water and
object (mL)
Volume of
object (mL)
Density
(g/mL)
LESSON 2.3- CONCLUSION
1. Are any of the blocks from inquiry 2.2
or objects from this inquiry made from the
same substance?
2. What evidence do you have for your
3. How do the densities of these objects
compare with water?
REFLECTING QUESTIONS
A. What is the difference between mass
and volume?
Mass is the amount of matter in an object
Volume is how much space it takes up
REFLECTING QUESTIONS CONT…
B. What units did you use to measure
mass/volume?
g or kg/ ml and cm3.
REFLECTING QUESTIONS CONT…
C. How did you calculate the density of an
object?
D=m/v
REFLECTING QUESTIONS CONT…
D. What units did you use for density?
g/cm3 or g/ml
REFLECTING QUESTIONS CONT…
E. Does changing the amount of a substance
change its density?
no
CONCLUSION QUESTION CONT…
F. If two objects are made of the same
substance, will they have the same density?
Yes
LESSON 2.3- ERROR ANALYSIS
Not completely submerging the object
Spilling water/splashing some water
Incorrect calculations
Not using the volume of the object
LESSON 2- CONCLUSION
oDensity is calculated by dividing the mass by the
volume; measured in grams per cubic centimeter
(g/cm3).
oMass is the amount of matter in an object; measured
in grams.
oVolume is the amount of space taken up by an object;
measured in ml or cm3.
oDifferent objects made of the same material will
have the same density. (characteristic property)
LESSON 2 – CONCLUSION CONT.
oChanging the amount of a substance does not
change the density of the substance.
oMass is not affected by shape.
oDensity is a characteristic property of matter.
oCharacteristic property - property that is
independent of mass, volume, and shape.
LESSON 3 – DENSITY PREDICTIONS
You will predict whether the blocks you
investigated in Inquiry 2.2 will float or sink.
After finding the density of three liquids,
you will predict the order in which the
liquids will layer when you build a density
column. You will calculate and predict
whether objects will float or sink in the
density column.
ANTICIPATION/REACTION GUIDE - INQUIRY 3
Before
Yes
No
After
Statement
1. All objects that float are hollow or
contain air.
2. density indicates thickness
3. viscous liquids are denser than thin
liquids
Yes
No
LESSON 3 - QUESTION
If we mix the syrup, oil, and
water how will they behave?
LESSON 3 - HYPOTHESIS
If… then… because…
LESSON 3- HYPOTHESIS
If we add all 3 ingredients
together, then the corn
syrup will sink because it
has the greatest density
LESSON 3- RESULTS OF FLOATING &amp;
SINKING OBSERVATIONS
Substance
wax block
white plastic block
transparent plastic
block
aluminum block
Density
(g/cm3)
Floats or sinks?
Prediction
Results
LESSON 3- PROCEDURE
Step 1- Take the mass of graduated cylinder A
&amp;B
cylinder A / 25ml of oil to B
Step 3- Take the mass of both again
Step 4- Subtract to get the mass of the liquids
Step 5- Calculate using mass/volume
CALCULATING DENSITY – LESSON 3
Liquid
Volume
(cm3)
Mass of
cylinder
only
(g)
__
___
Vegetable
oil
Corn syrup
Water
Mass of
cylinder
plus water
(g)
Mass of
liquid
(g)
Density
(g/cm3)
CONCLUSION
Do the liquids mix (miscible) or not
(immiscible)?
Immiscible
What is the relationship between the
density of a liquid and its position?
A higher density liquid is on bottom
A lower density liquid is on top
REAL LIFE APPLICATION
Oil is less dense than water. It
can be applied to cleaning up
a spill from an oil tanker.
HOW COULD YOU CLEAN UP 11
MILLION GALLONS OF OIL?
Dilute the oil using chemicals.
Breaks down oil into small particles so that
it can spread throughout the ocean. Then
bacteria break it down further.
Set the oil on fire
Drawback: causes a lot of pollution
Suction the oil with a vacuum, skimmers
INQUIRY 3.1
Independent variable
25ml of liquid
The type of liquid
Dependent variable
The position of the objects in the liquid
due to the density
INQUIRY 4.1: GETTING STARTED
Step 1- the air occupied all of the
space and prevented the liquid from
passing through.
Step 2- The other syringe is pushed out
Step 3- Air has mass and volume or
density
LESSON 4 – DO GASES HAVE DENSITY
You will determine the mass,
volume, and density of a bottle of
air.
LESSON 4 - QUESTION
If air has mass &amp;
volume, what is the
density of air?
LESSON 4- HYPOTHESIS
If air has density, then it
should be less than
3
1g/cm because air floats
and is less dense than
water.
LESSON 4- PROCEDURE
(1-2)
Step 1- measure the entire apparatus with
air
Step 2- suction the air out using the pump
Step 3- re-measure the entire apparatus
with out air
Step 4- subtract the 2 masses
LESSON 4- PROCEDURE
(2-2)
Step 5-fill the container with water and add
valve until water overflows
Step 6- measure water with grad. cylinder
Step 7- divide the mass by volume in step 6
LESSON 4- FINDING THE DENSITY OF AIR
Mass of
bottle,
washer, &amp;
rubber
valve,
pump
(g)
Mass of
bottle,
washer, &amp;
rubber valve
after
removing air,
pump (g)
Mass of air
(g)
Volume of
air
(cm3)
Density of
air
(m/v)
(g/cm3)
LESSON 4- CONCLUSION
How does the density of air compare
with the density of solids and liquids?
The density of air is much smaller than
the density of solids and liquids
LESSON 4- CONCLUSION
Are the results the same?
No
LESSON 4- CONCLUSION
Why do some things float in air?
Because their overall density is less
CONVERSIONS
STANDARD FORM
SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
0.00082g/cm3
8.2 x 10-4 g/cm3
0.00094g/cm3
9.4 x 10 –4 g/cm3
NEXT STEP/NEW QUESTION
How is density used
to control the
floating and sinking
of a submarine?
The water is pumped into
the ballast to sink
To rise air is pumped in
pushing the water out
ERROR ANALYSIS
Different amounts of air was removed
Different number of pumps at each group
Measured the water incorrectly
Air may have seeped back into the bottle
REAL-LIFE APPLICATION
Bony fish have a swim
It is filled with gases
produced in the fish’s
blood
gas= floats
gas= sinks
VARIABLES
INDEPENDENT
The amount of air
evacuated or
removed
DEPENDENT
The density of air
HIGH DENSITY VS. LOW DENSITY
Brick wall
Are the particles
close together or
far apart?
High density or low
density?
HIGH DENSITY OR LOW DENSITY
Methane helps replace
carbon in our
environment
Are the gas particles
close together or far
apart?
What gas do cows give
off?
High density or low
density?
STUDY TIME!
TEST ON LESSONS 1-4
DON’T FORGET…
Independent variableThe variable you control/the one you
change on purpose
Dependent variableThe variable that is controlled by the
independent variable/the one you
measure
BE ABLE TO LIST 6 SIGNS OF A CHEMICAL
REACTION:
Gas/bubbles
Expanded
Change in temperature
Change in form
Change in color
Change in texture( from soft to hard)
QUICK REVIEW:
How do you find density?
Mass/ Volume
Define mass
The amount of matter in an object
Define volume
The amount of space an object
takes up
WHAT 2 PIECES OF EQUIPMENT MEASURE
VOLUME?
Ruler
LxWxH
Look at the numbers on the
side.
CHARACTERISTIC
PROPERTY
Density is a
characteristic property.
This means it is used to
identify different objects
because it never
changes!
DENSITY NEVER CHANGES!
Know the density of
Density
water
3
g/cm
1g/cm3
Mass
Grams (g)
Volume
ml, cm3
EQUIPMENT
BALANCE-MEASURES MASS
A graduated cylinder is used when:
A liquid is being measured
An irregular object is being measured
A ruler is used when:
A regular object is being measured
block
SINKING AND FLOATING
Know the relationship between sinking and floating
If the density of an object is higher than the liquid it is in-sinks
If the density of an object is lower than the liquid it is in-floats
IMMISCIBLE OR MISCIBLE?
If 2 liquids do not mix, then they are called__________.
Immiscible
If 2 liquids do mix, then they are _______.
miscible
Oil and water do not mix.
Oil is less dense than
water
Oil is non-polar
Water is polar
LESSON 5 – TEMPERATURE &amp; DENSITY
You will investigate the effect of
temperature on the volume of matter
by building and calibrating a
thermometer filled with water. After
constructing the liquid-filled
thermometer, you will replace the
water with air. You will also observe
the effect of heat on a bimetal strip.
LESSON 5 – GETTING STARTED
2a. Temperature
2b. The bulb
2c. The bulb
2d. -20 to 110, 1 degree Celsius
2d. Top of the red liquid
2f. They are the same
LESSON 5 – GETTING STARTED CONT…
3a. The liquid in the thermometer rises if the
room temperature is below body temp.
3b. Body temperature will appear to be about
37 degrees celsius
3c. Liquid contracts as temp goes down
3d. Because the bulb is in the air, they are
measuring air temp
3f. Liquid expands when heated
ANTICIPATION/REACTION GUIDE INQUIRY 5.1
Before
YES
NO
After
STATEMENT
Temperature is a measure of the heat of an
object.
Thermometers measure heat.
“Heat” refers to objects that are hot compared
with the reference point of body temperature.
Heat is a fluid-like substance that flows from one
place to another.
“Cold” can move into an object.
Ex) “cold” from ice water moves into
thermometers, pushing the liquid down
Liquid in a thermometer goes up the tube
because hot substances-such as hot air in a
balloon- rise.
YES
NO
LESSON 5 – QUESTION
What is the relationship
between temperature and
density?
LESSON 5 – HYPOTHESIS
If the temperature
increases, then density
will decrease because the
particles are moving
farther apart.
LESSON 5 – PROCEDURE
oDraw your design for a thermometer.
oFill test tube with water
oInsert tubing with stopper into the test tube
oPlace in cold water bath and mark the line (5 min)
omeasure the temp._____ ** before removing
oPlace in hot water bath and mark the line (5 min)
omeasure the temp._____ ** before removing
oMeasure the distance between the two lines in mm
LESSON 5 – PROCEDURES CONT…
To get equal increments:
Divide (distance in mm) = every 1 degree
(temp. difference)
Celsius
Next, multiply by 5 to get 5 degree increments
Finally, mark off the temp. scale in 5 degree increments
Test your thermometer by measuring room temperature
and comparing it to the lab thermometer
LESSON 5 – RESULTS
Temp. of
Cold water
bath
(oC)
Temp. of Hot
water bath
(oC)
Temperature
difference
(oC)
Distance
between
markings
(mm)
LESSON 5 – CONCLUSION
for room temperature? What reading did the
lab thermometer give?
LESSON 5 – CONCLUSION
2. How accurate is your thermometer?
LESSON 5 – CONCLUSION
3. How quickly does your thermometer
respond to temperature changes?
Student thermometers respond more slowly
than alcohol thermometer
LESSON 5 – CONCLUSION
4. When the temperature increases, what
happens to the volume of water?
An increase in volume with an increase in temp
LESSON 5 – CONCLUSION
5. when the temperature increases, do
you think the total mass of water
changes?
No change in mass.
LESSON 5 – CONCLUSION
6. If you decreased the size of the bulb,
how would the accuracy and response
time change?
Smaller bulbs would be quicker to
respond but would be less accurate
LESSON 5 – CONCLUSION
7. How could you improve the design of
the thermometer?
Using different liquids, thinner tubes
LESSON 5 – VARIABLES
Independent Variable
Type of tubing (plastic)
Type of liquid
Temp. of water
Amount of time in bath
Size of bulb
Amt. Of tubing inserted
Dependent Variable
Distance between
markings
LESSON 5 – ERROR ANALYSIS
1. Incorrectly calibrating thermometer
2. Incorrectly measuring temp
3. Waiting too long to mark the
plastic tubing
LESSON 5.2- GETTING STARTED
1a. By adding a small water column
1b. By the distance the water column
moves
INQUIRY 5.2
What effect will replacing
the liquid-filled thermometer
with air have on density?
LESSON 5.2 – HYPOTHESIS
If we place the air-filled
thermometer in the hot
water bath, then it will be
less dense because the
particles are expanding.
LESSON 5.2 – CONCLUSION
3a. What problems did you encounter when
3b. How did the sensitivity of your air-filled
thermometer compare with that of your liquid-filled
one?
The sensitivity is much greater for the air-filled
thermometer
REAL-LIFE APPLICATION
Gases expand when heated-density
decreases
Gases contract when cooled-density
increases
During winter= over inflate your tires
During summer= under inflate your
tires
REAL LIFE APPLICATION CONT..
When heated -water expands
When cooled -water expands
If the temp. is going to be below freezing,
then you want to run water through your
pipes because your pipes will freeze and
expand and the pipes will burst
INQUIRY 5.3-QUESTION
How will the metals react
when heated?
LESSON 5.3– HYPOTHESIS
If we heat the bimetal strip,
then the strip will expand
and the density will decrease
because the particles are
moving apart as it gains
energy
LESSON 5.3– RESULTS
1. What do you think will happen when
the metal strip is heated?
(sample answer) It should curve or
bend
RESULTS
2. What did you observe when the strip was
heated?
One side of the strip expands faster
causing the metal to curve because the
heat is causing one metal to gain kinetic
energy faster
RESULTS
3. What happens after the strip is
cooled?
It returns to normal after the flame is
removed by contracting
LESSON 5.3– RESULTS CONT…
4. What did you observe when the
strip was heated on the other side?
The metal still curved in only one
direction
LESSON 5.3– RESULTS CONT…
5. Why do you think the strip behaves
this way?
One metal is expanding more because
it is gaining kinetic energy faster
LESSON 5.3– REFLECTING QUESTIONS
A. What do these 3 inquiries tell you about
how the volume of matter is affected by
temp.?
Matter usually increases in volume when
heated/ decreases when cooled
LESSON 5.3– REFLECTING QUESTIONS
B. How does the change in volume of air
differ from the change in volume of liquid?
Air expands more rapidly
LESSON 5.3– REFLECTING QUESTIONS
C. How does this change in volume affect
the density of solids, liquids, and gases?
Increase in volume = decrease in density,
particles expand more rapidly
LESSON 5.3– REFLECTING QUESTIONS
D. When measuring the density of a
substance why is it important to record
the temperature of the substance?
Because of fluctuations
LESSON 5.3– REFLECTING QUESTIONS
E. Are there any other uses for the
expansion and contraction of matter?
Yes
LESSON 5.3– REFLECTING QUESTIONS
F. Could expansion or contraction cause
problems?
yes
REAL-LIFE APPLICATION
When metal is heated= expansion
When metal cools= contraction
ANTICIPATION/REACTION EXPLANATION
Temperature is a measure
of the kinetic energy of
particles.
Thermometers measure
temperature.
LESSON 5- CONCLUSION
Density changes with temperature:
As temperature increases, density will
decrease and volume will increase (mass
stays the same).
expansion
LESSON 5- CONCLUSION
Heat is a form of energy that can move
from a hot place to a cooler place
(measured in joules).
Temperature is a measure of kinetic
energy of particles of matter (measured
by a thermometer in degrees Celsius).
LESSON 5- CONCLUSION
Density changes with temperature:
As temperature decreases, density will
increase and volume will decrease (mass
stays the same).
contraction
LESSON 5 – VOCABULARY
(1-3)
32. heat - a form of energy that can move from a hot
place to a cooler place; the transfer of energy from
one body to another.
33. temperature - a measure of the kinetic energy of the
particles that make up matter; the measurement of
how hot something is.
34. Celsius - a temperature scale with the melting point
of ice at 0 degrees and the boiling point of water at
100 degrees.
LESSON 5 – VOCABULARY
(2-3)
35. Fahrenheit - a temperature scale with the melting
point of ice at 32 degrees and the boiling point of
water at 212 degrees.
36. Kelvin - a temperature scale with the lowest possible
temperature at the zero point, which is called
absolute zero; ice melts at 273 K.
37. calibrate - set; measure to scale
LESSON 5 – VOCABULARY
(3-3)
38. expansion - the increase in the volume of matter that
occurs when matter is heated.
39. freeze - the change in state in which a liquid turns
into a solid.
LESSON 6- ANTICIPATION/REACTION GUIDE
Before
Yes No
After
Statement
Matter is destroyed during chemical reactions.
Reactants disappear.
Gases produced during a chemical reaction is a phase
change.
A phase change is a chemical reaction.
Yes No
LESSON 6 – APPLYING THE HEAT
You will heat pure
substances and
observe and classify
changes that occur.
LESSON 6 – QUESTION
How will the pure
substances react
when we apply
heat?
LESSON 6- HYPOTHESIS
If… then… because…
LESSON 6- HYPOTHESIS
If we heat the chemicals,
then we will notice chemical
changes because each one
has different chemical
properties.
LESSON 6- PROCEDURE
(1-2)
Step 1-Place one lab scoop of the first
substance into a test tube.
Step 2- record the appearance before
heating in the table
Step 3- attach the test tube clamp near the
mouth of the test tube
LESSON 6- PROCEDURE
(2-2)
Step 4- heat the bottom of the test tube for 1-2
min. while it is in constant motion from side to side
at an angle
Step 5- observe any changes and record in the
table
Step 6- place the test tube in a 250-ml beaker
and allow to cool for 1 min.
Step 7- Repeat procedure for the other
substances
LESSON 6- RESULTS
Substance
Ammonium chloride
Copper (II) sulfate
Sodium chloride
Zinc oxide
Sulfur
Copper carbonate
Appearance
before
heating
Changes
observed
during
heating
Appearance
after cooling
LESSON 6- CONCLUSION
(1-3)
1. Which substances (if any) showed no
change when heated?
NaCl
LESSON 6- CONCLUSION
(2-3)
2. Which of the substances produced a
new substance when they were heated?
Ammonium chloride, sulfur, copper
carbonate, copper sulfate
LESSON 6- CONCLUSION
(3-3)
identify it?
It shows you its characteristic properties
NEXT STEP, NEW QUESTION
1) What happens to copper sulfate when
water is added after it has been
heated?
2) The test tube gets hot
3) It turns blue again
A. EXOTHERMIC REACTION
4) Sound given off
LESSON 6- ERROR ANALYSIS
Heating the substance too long or not
long enough
Heating incorrectly
Cross contamination
REAL LIFE APPLICATION
1. When cooking, food changes from
one form to another. This is a
chemical change.
2. Burning chemicals to get rid of pests
Lesson 6- VARIABLES
Independent variables
Substance: Amount
and Type
Heating time
Angle of heating
Dependent variables
Appearance/odor/
sound of substance
state of matter
CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES
Characteristic Property: An attribute that
can be used to help identify a substance.
A characteristic property is not affected
by the amount or shape of a substance.
Density
The way a substance behaves when it
is heated
LESSON 6 – CONCLUSION
Physical and chemical changes result from the
application of heat.
The way a substance behaves when it is
heated is a characteristic property of that
substance.
Sublimation, evaporation, and condensation
are caused when heat energy overcomes the
forces that hold a solid together or keep a
liquid in a fluid state.
LESSON 6 – CONCLUSION
Heating may cause a chemical change, phase
change, or no change at all.
When cooling occurs after heating, changes in
substances may be reversible or irreversible.
If a chemical reaction occurs, new substances
with different observable properties are
formed.
Chemical reactions have reactants and
products………..
LESSON 6 – VOCABULARY
(1-3)
chemical reaction - a change in which new
substances are formed; has reactants
and products.
reactant - the starting substances in a
chemical reaction.
product - a substance formed by a chemical
reaction.
LESSON 6 – VOCABULARY
(2-3)
physical change - reversible through
physical means and do not involve the
formation of new substances; no change
in chemical properties.
chemical change - not readily reversible
and do involve the formation of new
substances with different properties.
LESSON 6 – VOCABULARY
(3-3)
sublimation - physical change in which a
substance goes directly from a solid to a gas
and then back to a solid.
evaporation - the change of a substance from a
liquid to a gas
condensation - the change of state from a gas to
a liquid
ANTICIPATION/REACTION GUIDE (INQUIRY 7.1)
Before
Yes No
Statement
Increasing the heat input when boiling a
substance raises the melting or boiling point
Water always boils at 100 o Celsius
Changes of state are related to temperature.
Substances that boil are always hot
A phase change is a chemical reaction
When matter changes state, there is no loss of
mass.
Melting and dissolving are the same.
Freezing points are lower than melting points.
After
Yes No
LESSON 7 – JUST A PHASE
As ice is heated, you will
observe the phase changes that
occur. You will also observe
melting and boiling points.
LESSON 7 – GETTING STARTED
A. increase the pressure or decrease the
pressure in a vacuum
B. the ice absorbs heat energy from the
surrounding environment. Heat flows from a
high concentration to an area of low
concentration. KE increases and the ice melts
(melting and freezing point are the same)
LESSON 7 – GETTING STARTED
C. Not enough energy to change to the liquid
phase because the specific heat is so high
D. The energy transfer is not quick/ surface
area is a factor (crushed vs. chunks)
E. no. During a phase change the surface
tension is broken, but has not acquired enough
energy to burn. Frozen just means a phase
change
LESSON 7 – QUESTION
What will happen when
we add heat energy to a
sample of ice?
LESSON 7 – HYPOTHESIS
If we add heat energy to
the sample of ice, then it
will melt because the
particles are gaining
kinetic energy
LESSON 7 – PROCEDURE
Step1- fill beaker with ice (50 ml)
Step 2- add a small amount of water
Step 3- heat ice and record changes
Continue to heat the ice 3 min. after it
has begun to boil vigorously
Remember : Do not stop the stop
watch to check the time
Time
(min. and sec.)
0
30 s
1 min
1 min, 30 sec
2 min
2 min, 30 sec
3 min
3 min, 30 sec
4 min
4 min, 30 sec
Temperature of
water (C degrees)
Observations
GRAPHING TIME!!!
LESSON 7 – REFLECTING QUESTIONS
(1-2)
A. How does the shape of your curve compare
to those produced by other groups? Different
temp. reading for the different phase changes
B. Do any changes in the direction of your
curve match the point at which the ice melted
or the water boiled? The plateau indicates a
phase change taking place/the diagonal line
indicates that the substance is gaining energy
LESSON 7 – REFLECTING QUESTIONS
(1-2)
C. How can you use the curve on your
graph to determine the temp. at which
ice melted and water boiled? Match the
observation to the corresponding
D. Are these temps. what you expect?
No, I expected that water would boil at
100 degrees Celsius
LESSON 7 – ERROR ANALYSIS
(1-2)
Not centering the flame
Alcohol burners giving off different amt.
Of energy
Moving the thermometer
Accuracy of timing using the stopwatch
LESSON 7 – ERROR ANALYSIS
(2-2)
The flame going out
Different quantities of ice
The thermometer touching the beaker
Due to changing water levels, the
thermometer reads water and air temps.
simultaneously
LESSON 7 – VARIABLES
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Amount of Ice
Flame
Time
Amount of water
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Temperature
CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES
1. DENSITY
2. THE WAY A SUBSTANCE BEHAVES
WHEN HEATED
3. MELTING POINT/ FREEZING
POINT
4. BOILING POINT
LESSON 7 – CONCLUSION
(1-4)
•Phase changes are dependent on
temperature and pressure.
•Three phases or states of matter: solid,
liquid, gas
•Phase changes take place when molecules
lose or gain kinetic energy (heat energy)
and can be related to a change in
temperature.
LESSON 7 – CONCLUSION
(2-4)
Lose kinetic energy – molecules move
closer – (gas &gt; liquid &gt; solid).
Gain kinetic energy – molecules move
apart – (solid &gt; liquid &gt; gas)
A change of state is not the result of a
chemical reaction.
LESSON 7 – CONCLUSION
(3-4)
•The melting point and boiling point of a
substance is a characteristic property of the
substance.
•Freezing and melting points are the same.
LESSON 7 – CONCLUSION
(3-4)
•An increased input of heat has no effect on
the boiling point of a substance, although it
will make a fixed mass of matter change
state faster.
•Substances that boil are not always hot.
Many substances melt and boil below 0
degrees C
LESSON 7 – VOCABULARY
(1-2)
melting - the phase change in which a solid
turns into a liquid.
melting point - the temperature at which a
solid turns into a liquid; the same
temperature as freezing point; altered by
changes in pressure.
LESSON 7 – VOCABULARY
(2-2)
boiling - the process by which a liquid
changes into a gas at its boiling point.
boiling point - the temperature at which a
liquid changes into a gas; boiling point
depends on air pressure.
condense - changing from a gas to a liquid
LESSON 8- CONCLUSION
Mass is conserved due to the
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS:
Mass is neither created or destroyed; the
total mass of all substances remains the
same regardless of any changes in phase
or chemical reactions that occur.
LESSON 10
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN SUBSTANCES ARE MIXED
WITH WATER?
You will mix several pure
substances with water and
observe what happens.
ANTICIPATION/REACTION GUIDE (INQUIRY 10.1)
Yes No
Statement
Solutes disappear when added to water
The solute becomes water when it dissolves
Solute particles can be removed by filtration
or settle out of solution over time
The solute and solvent become a single
substance
volume to the solution
Yes No
LESSON 10.1- GETTING STARTED
o It is liquid
o It looks uniform throughout
o Translucent
o Able to see through colored substance
*note: substances in solution are the most
finely divided and dispersed mixtures that
exist
LESSON 10 - QUESTION
What will happen when
we mix the substances
with water?
LESSON 10.1- HYPOTHESIS
If we mix the solutes with
water, then they will dissolve
and form a mixture because
they now have different
chemical and physical
properties.
LESSON 10.1- VOCABULARY
•Homogeneous- looks evenly
distributed
•Heterogeneous- looks like
more than one substance
LESSON 10.1- PROCEDURE
(1-2)
•Step 1- Put one lab scoop of copper
(II) sulfate into a test tube
•Step 2- Add water to a depth of 5cm
•Step 3- Seal the test tube with a
rubber stopper
•Step 4- Shake the mixture 20 times
LESSON 10.1- PROCEDURE
(2-2)
•Step 5- observe and fill in the table
•Step 6-label the plastic cup with your
group/period and pour the 2 test tubes
of copper (II) sulfate solution into them
LESSON 10- RESULTS
to water
Sodium chloride (NaCl)
Copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4)
Zinc Oxide (ZnO)
Sulfur (S)
Powdered Sugar
Does it
Appearance after being
dissolve?
shaken 20 times
(Yes or No)
LESSON 10- CONCLUSION QUESTIONS
(1-4)
1. Explain what happens to solutes
when they mix with water?
Some dissolve and others do not
LESSON 10- CONCLUSION QUESTIONS
(2-4)
2. Do they disappear?
If they dissolve they do not
within the solvent
LESSON 10- CONCLUSION QUESTIONS
(3-4)
3. Does the solute become water?
No, still 2 different substances that
are well mixed.
LESSON 10- CONCLUSION QUESTIONS
(4-4)
4. Can solute particles be removed
by filtration or over time settle out
of solution?
No. evaporation must occur.
LESSON 10- DEFINITIONS
SolubleAble to dissolve
(1-5)
LESSON 10- DEFINITIONS
InsolubleUnable to dissolve
(2-5)
LESSON 10- DEFINITIONS
(3-5)
SolventSubstance that dissolves
the solute in a solution
LESSON 10- DEFINITIONS
(4-5)
solvent and is dissolved
LESSON 10- DEFINITIONS
(5-5)
SolutionHomogeneous mixture of
solute(s) and solvent
LESSON 10- ERROR ANALYSIS
1) Adding incorrect amount of solute
2) Adding incorrect amount of water
3) Different amount of energy added
by shaking
REAL LIFE APPLICATION
Liquids dissolved in liquids
rubbing alcohol in water
Solids dissolved in liquids
Salt dissolved in water
Gases dissolved in liquids
Oxygen dissolved in water (fish tank)
Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water = acid rain
Solids dissolved in solids
Brass (zinc in copper)
LESSON 10- VARIABLES
Independent variable
Type of substance
Amt. of water
Amt. of substance
Dependent variable
Solubility
CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES
1. Density
2. The way a substance behaves when
heated
3. Melting/ freezing point
4. Boiling point
5. Solubility
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS/SOLUBILITY
Reactants
NaCl (s)
CuSO4 (s)
S (s)
Yield
Products
Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
Cu+2 (aq) + SO4-2 (aq)
S (s)
LESSON 10- DEFINITIONS
mixture - two or more elements or
compounds that are mixed together
but are not chemically combined
pure substance - either an element or
a compound; has definite chemical and
physical properties
LESSON 11 –
HOW MUCH SOLUTE DISSOLVES IN A SOLVENT?
You will make a saturated copper
sulfate solution. You will also conduct an
investigation to determine the solubility
of two different chemicals.
GETTING STARTED
The liquid is blue and translucent
Blue crystals are at the bottom
Liquid is probably a solution or a pure blue
liquid rather than a solution
The solute in the solution is probably blue
The crystals at the bottom could be undissolved solute
LESSON 11 – QUESTION
Which of the two
substances will have
the greatest
solubility?
LESSON 11 - HYPOTHESIS
If we add NaCl &amp; NaNO3 to
water, then the NaCl should
have the highest solubility
because the water should
dissolve more.
LESSON 11- HINTS/ TIPS
1. What will you need to measure?
a. The mass of the jar without the lid
2. How will you know when you have a saturated
solution?
a. No more substance will dissolve so the
substance will begin to collect at the bottom of
the tube
3. How will you calculate the amount dissolved?
a. By measuring the mass before and after, then
subtract
PROCEDURE
(1-3)
Step1- Fill test tube with 10mL
of water
Step 2- Mass the jar of NaCl
without lid
Step 3- Add one level lab scoop
of sodium chloride to the test
tube
PROCEDURE
(2-3)
Step 4- Shake the test tube using
the stopper for 30 sec.
*Be sure to not hit the test tube on the table*
Step 5- If it completely dissolves,
keep adding more salt until you see
it collecting at the bottom
Step 6- Count the number of scoops
PROCEDURE
(3-3)
Step 7- Re-mass the jar
Step 8- Repeat steps 1-7 for sodium
nitrate
LESSON 11- RESULTS
• ____ scoops of NaCl
dissolved in 10mL of water
• ____ scoops of NaNO3
dissolved in 10mL of water
Tally marks for
each scoop
Amount of
substance in
saturated
solution (g)
10mL NaNO3
Final mass of jar
&amp; substance (g)
Substance
NaCl
Initial mass of jar
&amp; substance (g)
Volume of water
(mL)
10mL
LESSON 11-CONCLUSION
1. How do you know that no more solute would
dissolve?
a) The substance started collecting at the
bottom of the test tube
2. What is your definition of a saturated
solution?
a) A solution that has the maximum number of
solute particles dissolved in a solvent
LESSON 11- CONCLUSION
1. Are different substances equally soluble in
water?
a) No. They have different physical
properties.
2. How could you use the property of solubility
to help identify a type of matter?
a) You could try dissolving different unknown
substances and then compare them to a
solubility chart to identify them.
LESSON 11-CONCLUSION
Solubility is affected by temperature.
Solids dissolved in water may increase
in solubility with the rise in
temperature or increase with a drop in
temperature.
Gases always decrease in solubility
with increased temperature.
NEXT STEP/NEW QUESTION
Calculate how many grams of sodium
chloride and sodium nitrate that could
dissolve in 1 liter of water. One liter is
1000 ml.
2.4 (g) = X (g)
10(ml)
1000(ml)
LESSON 11- ERROR ANALYSIS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Measurement of scoop level
Incorrect calculations
Incorrect water amounts
Not adding enough or too much heat energy through
shaking
Not giving substance enough time to settle
Loss of liquid due to shaking
Temperature of water/room temperature
The mass of un-dissolved solute in the bottom of the
test tube
VARIABLES
INDEPENDENT
The amount of solute
The volume of water
Temp. of water
The amount of energy
test tubes
The type of solute
DEPENDENT
solubility
LESSON 11 – CONCLUSION
Solubility is the amount of a solute that will
completely dissolve in a given amount of a
solvent.
Solubility is a characteristic property of matter.
Different substances are not equally soluble in
water.
LESSON 11 – CONCLUSION
A saturated solution has the maximum amount of
solute dissolved in it.
When an unsaturated solution of a solid is
cooled, it may become saturated.
Recrystallization occurs when a solution of a solid
is cooled and some solid solute precipitates out.
LESSON 11 – CONCLUSION
Solubility is affected by temperature. Solids
dissolved in water may increase or decrease in
solubility with the rise in temperature. Gases
always decrease in solubility with increased
temperature.
LESSON 11 –
(1-3)
solubility - the amount of solute that will
completely dissolve in a given amount of a
specific solvent at a given temperature and
pressure; the ability of one substance to dissolve
in another
solute - the substance that dissolves in a solvent;
the substance in the smaller proportion.
solvent - the substance that the solute is dissolved
in; the substance present in the larger proportion.
LESSON 11 –
(2-3)
saturated solution - a solution that has
the maximum amount of solute
dissolved in it at a specific
temperature and pressure.
exothermic reaction - heat is given off
(increase in solubility with a
decrease in temp.)