DO NOW Please take out your Chapter 19 and 20 Notes! YOU HAVE 5 MINUTES: 1. Write down as many causes of the Civil War as you can remember and explain how each one contributed to the start of the war. 2. What were the strengths and weakness of both sides of the Civil War at the beginning of the war? 3. Why was the Emancipation Proclamation considered a turning point in the war? 4. Compare and contrast Lincoln’s First and Second Inaugural Address ANSWERS: Question 1 1. Cotton Gin 2. Nat Turner’s Rebellion 3. Compromise of 1850 1. Fugitive Slave Law 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Bleeding Kansas John Brown and Harper’s Ferry Dred Scott Decision Election of Abraham Lincoln Answers: Question 2 NORTH SOUTH STRENGTHS: Lincoln, Grant, 22 million citizens (4x the non-slave South), Strong industrial and agricultural strength, Strong transportationcomplex railroad system, Strong Navy, Anaconda Plan STRENGTHS: Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, 11 states in the Confederacy, Excellent military leadership, Fighting in their own land, Could fight a defensive war WEAKNESSES: Poor military leadership (multiple generals), Anti-war feelings from the CopperheadsNortherners for peace, Thought the war would last only 90 days, Trouble obtaining volunteers led to a draft in 1863, Fighting would be in unfamiliar land, Over confident Army was large but poorly trained WEAKNESSES: 9 million citizens (but 3.5 were slaves who were not allowed to fight), Had to form a government and direct a war at the same time, Each state wanted to keep its own rights and privileges, Each state sent supplies to their own troops only, Had to worry about slave revolts and borders states, Poor transportation and minimal railroads, Little industry Answers: Question 3 • The Emancipation Proclamation became a symbol of what the Civil War was heading toward. It was no longer about states' rights and rebellion with one document, Lincoln turned it into a war to end slavery. Answers: Question 4 • Trying to put the country back together- have to learn to forgive and forget if we want the union to be saved. • Second Inaugural Address credits slavery as the true cause of war, but says that both sides are to blame Review Questions of the Day • What is John Winthrop’s famous speech and what is it about? • What two things did Washington warn us about in his Farewell Address? • Which president put the Alien and Sedition Acts in place? What did these acts do? • Which resolutions were passed in response to the Alien Sedition Acts? Which philosopher’s ideas were these based upon? REVIEW, REVIEW, REVIEW • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rY9zHNO jGrs • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GzTrKcc mj_I Re Returning the South to the Union after the War. What Do We Do Now?! -Is the South forgiven? -Do the Southern senators/representatives get reinstated? -What happens to the freed slaves? -What does the constitution say about all this? What is the Legacy of the Civil War and What Does the Nation Do Now? Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction • Lincoln passed the 13th amendment (which did what??) • Lincoln favors being easy on the South….look at his back to his Second Inaugural Address… Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction • The process of reconstructing the Union began in 1863, two years before the Confederacy formally surrendered. After major Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Abraham Lincoln issued the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in which he outlined his TenPercent Plan. The plan stipulated that each secessionist state had to redraft its constitution and could reenter the Union only after 10 percent of its eligible voters pledged an oath of allegiance to the United States. Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction Lincoln’s 10% Plan -The government will pardon all Confederates who would swear loyalty to the Union (but not if they had killed any black prisoners of war). -They would have to accept the end of slavery. -10% of the people in any Southern state had to swear their loyalty then they could come back to the Union. Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction What was left out of Lincoln’s plan?? Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction Lincoln does not give voting rights to the newly freed blacks. The Radical Republicans are not happy. They want the former slave owners to pay, they also want equality for black people. They don’t want to go easy on the South! Wade-Davis Bill • Many Radical Republicans believed that Lincoln’s plan was too lenient: they wanted to punish the South for secession from the Union, transform southern society, and safeguard the rights of former slaves. As an alternative to the Ten-Percent Plan, Radical Republicans and their moderate Republican allies passed the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864. Wade-Davis Bill • Under the bill, states could be readmitted to the Union only after 50 percent of voters took an oath of allegiance to the Union. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill, however, effectively killing it by refusing to sign it before Congress went into recess. Congress did successfully create the Freedmen’s Bureau, which helped distribute food, supplies, and land to the new population of freed slaves. Analyzing the Wade-Davis Bill and Lincoln’s Response • You will now work with a partner to read the WadeDavis Bill and Lincoln’s response to it answering analysis questions as you read. The first group to finish will receive extra credit points! • On your mark, get set, GO! DO NOW • Summarize the Wade Davis Bill • Compare and Contrast the Chesapeake Colonies and New England Colonies • Summarize the causes and effects of the French and Indian War • What was the Whiskey Rebellion and what did it prove to the country? DEBATE! Debate • Read document one together as a class and complete the corresponding questions (10 Minutes) • Read your second document with your group and prepare your claim with evidence and reasoning for the debate (10 minutes) • Debate with your matching group (A or B) (20 minutes) • Read chapter 22 and complete chart and notes (remaining class time) Review • Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution • What is Manifest Destiny? How did it lead to the Indian Removal Act? • Describe the Native Americans who lived on the Great Plains Articles of Confederation • • • -The Congress modified a constitution to protect the powers of the individual states. The Articles of Confederation was adopted by Congress in 1777 and submitted to states for ratification. -The Articles established a central government that consisted of just one body, a congress. In this unicameral (one-house) legislature, each state would have 1 vote, with 9 votes out of 13 required to pass important laws. Amending the Articles required a unanimous vote. -Powers: The Articles gave congress power to wage war, make treaties, send diplomatic representative and borrow money. However, they could not regulate commerce or collect taxes. The government also did not executive powers to enforce its laws. Articles of Confederation • • • • Pros: 1. Winning the war- the U.S. government could claim some credit for their ultimate victory and negotiating favorable terms in the Treaty of Paris. 2. Land Ordinance of 1785- Congress established a policy for surveying and selling western land. It also set aside one section of land in each township for public education. 3. Northwest Ordinance of 1787- For the large territory lying between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River, the congress passed an ordinance (law) that set the rules for creating new states. This granted limited self-government to the developing territory and prohibited slavery in the region. Articles of Confederation • • • • Cons: 1. Financial- most war debt hadn’t been paid. Individual states as well as the congress issued worthless paper money. The congress had no taxing power, which meant they could only request that the states donate money for financial needs. 2. Foreign- European nations had little respect for the new nation who could not pay its debts nor take effective and united action in a crisis. Britain and Spain threatened to take advantage. 3. Domestic- In summer 1786- Captain Daniel Shays a Massachusetts farmer and Revolutionary War veteran, led other farmers in an uprising (Shay’s Rebellion). They were fighting against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper money. The rebel farmers stopped the collection of taxes, and forced the closing of debtors prisons. In January 1787, when Shay and his followers tried to take over weapons from the Springfield armory the state militia of Massachusetts had to step in. Drafting the Constitution in All the delegates were white, male, and college educated (wealthy!)- many were practicing lawyers, and many Philadelphia, had helped to write their state constitutions. -First they needed to elect a presiding officer, they chose George Washington unanimously -The work in writing specific articles was directed by James Madison (known as the Father of the Constitution), Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, and John Dickenson -John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Thomas Paine were all abroad and not there. Patrick Henry was against a strong Federal Government so he did not attend. Key Issues in Writing the Constitution • -The MAIN ISSUE WAS FEDERALIST VERSUS NON-FEDERALIST BELIEFS after that the issues were: • 1. Representation: Small states were against large states in deciding what representation would be based on! Some Ideas were brought up: – Virginia Plan: Favored larger states – New Jersey Plan: Favored smaller states • Compromise by Roger Sherman (MY FAV!)- The Connecticut Plan otherwise known as THE GREAT COMPROMISE- It provided for a two-house Congress (The Senate would have equal representation (favors small states), the House of Representatives would have representation based on population (favors large states) Key Issues in Writing the Constitution • 2. Slavery- should the enslaved count in the state populations? – Three-Fifths Compromise: Each slave would could as 3/5 a person • • Should slave trade be allowed? – The delegates decided to put this issue on the backburner for 20 years 3. Trade- Northern states wanted the federal government to regulate interstate commerce and foreign trade. The South feared taxes would be put on their exports. So again, they compromised- The Commercial Compromise allowed Congress to regulate interstate AND foreign commerce, BUT prohibited taxes on any exports! EVERYONE WINS! Key Issues in Writing the Constitution • • 4. The Presidency- Much debate went on about how long the president should be president! They also disagreed on how to elect the president! They chose the electoral system because they feared giving the people too must democracy because it could lead to mob rule! They also gave the president power to veto the Congress 5. Ratification: September 17, 1787 after 17 weeks of debate they had a draft to send out for ratification, they needed 9 out of 13 states to agree! So what does the Constitution do? • Establishes the right of the government to rule in a contract between the government and the people, and is why the Preamble starts out with…We the people do ordain and establish… • Creates a structure for the government. There had to be a representative Democracy. States also have the right to make some of their own laws so there is a division of power between the states and national government • Describes and distributes power. Articles 1,2,3,4 tells what each branch of government can do for everyone to see. • Limits government power. The framers enumerate limits of national government, state, and Congress. • Allows for Change. They want to make sure the government can change with the times so they made ways to amend it when absolutely necessary. • http://www.history.com/topics/american-civilwar/reconstruction Lincoln’s Assassination On April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln in Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C., and Vice President Andrew Johnson became president. th Andrew Johnson the 17 President Presidential Reconstruction under Johnson readmitted the southern states using Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan and granted all southerners full pardons, including thousands of wealthy planters and former Confederate officials. Johnson also ordered the Freedmen’s Bureau to return all confiscated lands to their original owners. While Congress was in recess, Johnson approved new state constitutions for secessionist states—many written by exConfederate officials—and declared Reconstruction complete in December 1865. Johnson’s Game Plan -Andrew Johnson was a former slave owner with a plan similar to Lincoln’s, but Johnson did not want to give the South more power in the government. Johnson wanted the following: 1. Any Southern who swore allegiance (loyalty) to the Union was pardoned. 2. Any Southern state could come back. 3. They had to accept the end of slavery. 4. Repeal their secession ordinance. Johnson’s Game Plan However, Johnson believes ONLY whites should manage the South He also DOES NOT want the high-ranking confederates or wealthy southern landowners to vote so they can’t challenge him. The Southern states agree to Johnson’s plans. The states set up governments and send representatives to Congress….The Northerners refuse to admit Southern legislatures. Radical Republicans Radical Reconstruction! At this time, the Radical Republicans had the most power in Congress. They wanted to destroy the political power of the former slave owners and the Confederate officers. One way to do this, was to give former slaves the right to vote, because they would vote for the Radical Republicans! Radical Republicans The Radical Republicans want to pass a law creating a Freedman’s Bureau, which gave food and clothing to former slaves, advised them to live in the world, and set up hospitals and schools. Freedman’s Bureau Johnson attempted to veto the bill and kick the Freedman’s Bureau to the curb! Radical Republicans • Next, the Radical Republican Congress passed the 14th amendment. • The 14th amendment gives all people born in the US citizenship….Which undoes the Dred-Scott case!!! Johnson’s Hissy Fit. Johnson (wanting his way as usual) simply told the South to ignore what the Radical Republicans were doing. So the Radical Republicans in Congress said no state could re-enter the Union unless they approved it…. Reconstruction Act of 1867 This requires the South to give former slaves the right to vote and ratify the 14th amendment to be part of the Union. Johnson Impeached Congress gets sick of Johnson and tries to impeach him! (He fired the Secretary of War without their approval) He was impeached, but not thrown out of office by ONE vote! Review! • Describe the Columbian Exchange and the influence it had on each region. • Describe the Great Awakening and the effect it had on America. • What was the Middle Passage? • Compare and contrast Hamilton’s Federalists and Jefferson and Madison’s DemocraticRepublicans. But What About the Freedmen?! Freedmen -Sharecropping (Plantation owners way to keep freedmen from owning land) -Received an education -Create their own churches (ministers become leaders in politics) -Create universities -Some were elected to Congress and the local government. An Angry South… The former Confederates were not pleased! The white leaders began to pass laws to ensure that the freedmen don’t actually get to enjoy these new freedoms and rights! Enter: Black Codes. Black Codes The former Confederates create “Black Codes” which were laws that will restrict the freedmen’s rights. Black Codes White supremacist Congressmen passed a series of laws called the black codes, which denied blacks the right to make contracts, testify against whites, marry white women, be unemployed, and even loiter in public places. Violence by the Ku Klux Klan became so common that Congress had to pass the Ku Klux Klan Act in 1871 to authorize military protection for blacks. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags • Countless carpetbaggers (northerners who moved to the South after the war) and scalawags (white Unionists and Republicans in the South) flocked to the South during Reconstruction and exerted significant influence there. Although in many respects they achieved their goals of modernizing and Republicanizing the South, they eventually were driven out by Democratic state politicians in the mid-1870s. Mini-Q Essay! • How did Reconstruction affect African Americans between 1865-1900? • Complete the worksheet and then you may begin Chapter 22 Post It Note Exit Slip • Order the following skills from your Best to Worst (1,2,3): – Text based question- Main Idea, Claim, details – Contextualization – Synthesis DO NOW: • What is time management? Why is it an important part of being successful? Liberty’s Surest Guardian • A three part discussion: • Part One: Text dependent (Main Idea/HAP-P) • Part Two: Periodization (Period 5 and 6 contextualization) • Part Three: Synthesis (Connections to today or to other time periods) Liberty’s Surest Guardian • Participants share responsibility for the quality of the seminar • Most effective when participants: – – – – Study the text closely Listen actively Share ideas and questions in response to others Search for evidence in the text to support their ideas • What does this look like? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gl6xVqoHHd Q Before our Student Led Discussion • Read the text CAREFULLY (provocative questions, short passages, identify tough vocabulary) • Choose an introductory question in advance to begin your portion of the discussion (broad, open-ended, productive) • Use discussion stems (see DISCUSSION STEMS sheet) What Am I looking for? PVLEGS POISE: Appear calm and confident, avoid distracting behaviors VOICE: Speak every word clearly, use just the right volume for the space LIFE: Express passion and emotion with your voice EYE CONTACT: Connect visually with the audience, look at each audience member GESTURES: Hand motions, move your body, have an expressive face SPEED: Talk with appropriate speed- not too slow, not too fast, use pauses for effect and emphasis One Assignment: Two Grades • You will earn two grades for this assignment. • One grade is based on your own input, involvement, and preparedness during the discussion • The second grade is a class grade in which you will be graded based on how well you ALL participate. Everyone in class must participate at least 3 times for the whole class to be able to earn an A. Ways to earn positive points • Pose a question to the group • Respond to a peer • Use a direct quote form the text to support your answer • Refer to a prior text from class • Refer to a prior text you read outside of class • Cold calling a peer to participate Ways to earn NEGATIVE points • Get off topic • Respond rudely to a peer • Refuse to answer when you are asked a question • Say, “I don’t know” as your response • Begin an answer with some form of “I’m not sure if this is right” Class 1 7 8 Group 1- Text Based 1. Miguel 2. Ayanna 3. Armando 4. Leonardo 5. Jelanni 6. Juan 7. Brandon 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Chris Adrian Alejandro Precious David Alexis Saul Stephany D Aaron Karen David O Ariel Adwoa Adrien Kennedy Jovanni Group 2- Contextualization 1. Jocelyne 2. Lilliana 3. Aleida 4. Quiahuitl 5. Ivan 6. Bresli 7. Adriana 8. Aldo 1. Fatima 2. Maya 3. Angel 4. Erika 5. Ruiz 6. Stephany 1. Armando 2. Melissa 3. Sarah 4. DP 5. Adriana 6. Brytain 7. Taylor 8. Stefanie 9. Frances 10. Elanie Group 3- Synthesis 1. Melany 2. Saul 3. Oscar 4. Annette 5. Joshua 6. George 7. Margaret 8. Australia 1. Julian 2. Maria 3. Christian 4. Gaby 5. Hailey 6. Paige 1. Yesenia 2. Eric 3. Miliani 4. Jose 5. Cesar 6. Jocelyn 7. Amanda 8. Alex 9. Dane 10. Cannella Today’s Preparation • Meet with your small group and begin to read. As you read your should be writing down questions for your part of the discussion. • Make sure that you are keeping track of the page number the question comes from and write down the best answer. This will help you guide the discussion next week. • I will be coming around to each group to make sure you understand what types of questions to ask Do Now: • Learning the Long Essay: Read through the packet “Writing the Long Essay” and write your own set of instructions in your notebook • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLwzMZ 0YUDA (set timer for 30 minutes) Reconstruction • The south temporarily experienced a social and political revolution during this time! The key word being “temporarily” Ulysses S. Grant Eventually, in 1868, Ulysses S. Grant is elected President, with the help of AfricanAmericans. Grant is a war hero but with limited knowledge of anything else in the political realm. Republicans get support for Grant by “Waving the bloody shirt” (reviving memories of Civil War and Democratic rebellion) Ulysses S. Grant The Radicals had been delighted when Johnson finally left the White House, but Grant’s inexperience, however, proved to be a liability that ultimately ended Radical Reconstruction. Because Grant had difficulty saying no, many of his cabinet posts and appointments ended up being filled by corrupt, incompetent men who were no more than spoils-seekers. Giving Up the South • By the 1870s Congress and President Grant would be unwilling to use federal government to monitor Southern society. • Federal intervention in Southern society under Congressional Reconstruction yielded some short term success. – Reunited the union (but with a great deal of tension remaining) – Opened up political opportunities to former slaves (which were then taken away) – Temporarily rearranged the relationships between white and black people in the South Ulysses S. Grant As a result, scandal after scandal rocked Grant’s administration and damaged his reputation despite that he was not actually involved. Golden Scandal • Millionaires Jim Fisk and Jay Gould seek to corner the gold market (1869) • Plan would only work if federal treasury did not sell any gold to the public – They bribe Grant’s brother-in-law, to stop Grant from releasing gold (paying Corbin 25K) • September 24, 1869 – “Black Friday” – Gold finally released by US Treasury to end the scheme (supposedly contrary to Grant’s personal assurances to the schemers) Grant Administration known for Corruption • Crédit Mobilier scandal – Union Pacific R.R. insiders from the company, hired themselves to build the line (at inflated prices) at Government expense – Distributed shares of stock to important congressmen to prevent investigation – Investigation reveals V.P. & some Congressman were in on the deal to stop investigation WHISKEY RING… Anytime Whiskey is Involved in US history you know there is TROUBLE – 1874 – 1875 – group of distillers bribed federal agents to avoid paying millions in whiskey taxes – Grant’s private secretary, Orville Babcock took money from the group • Grant refuses to fire him • Grant’s testimony helps assure his acquittal Indian Land Bribes – 1876 – secretary of war William E. Belknap took bribes from suppliers to Indian reservations – Belknap impeached and resigned – Grant stayed loyal to his friend until the end Liberal Republicans & the Election of 1872 • The discovery of new scandals split the Republican Party in1872, as reform-minded Liberal Republicans broke from the ranks of moderates and radicals. The Liberal Republicans wanted to institute reform, downsize the federal government, and bring a swift end to Reconstruction. • They nominated New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley as their party’s presidential candidate (he agreed to run on the Democratic Party’s ticket as well). Though already marred by scandal, Grant easily defeated Greeley by more than 200 electoral votes and 700,000 popular votes. Grant Wins Re-Election But… • Republicans fixed problems that Liberal Republicans and Democrats brought out, to stop voter rebellion in future elections – 1872 – general amnesty act passed; removed political disabilities from all but 500 Confederate leaders – High tariffs (from the war) reduced – Mild civil-service reform enacted to get rid of worst people from Grant’s administration The Depression of 1873 • In 1873, the postwar economic bubble in the United States finally burst. Over-speculation in the railroad industry, manufacturing, and a flood of Americans taking out bad bank loans slid the economy into the worst depression in American history. Millions lost their jobs, and unemployment climbed as high as 15 percent. • $450 million in greenbacks issued during C. W. – They depreciated since not backed by gold • Debtors called for more greenbacks to be issued to inflate (increase) money supply – More money meant cheaper money (and rising prices), making debts easier to pay off The Depression of 1873 • Many blacks, landless whites, and immigrants from both North and South suffered greatly, demanding relief from the federal government. Republicans, refusing to give in to demands to print more paper money, instead withdrew money from the economy by passing the Resumption Act of 1875 to curb skyrocketing inflation. – The Resumption Act of 1875 meant that the government would withdraw greenbacks from circulation, repayment of all paper money in gold at face value by 1879 • This power play by Republicans prompted northerners to vote Democrat in the midterm elections of 1876, effectively ending Radical Reconstruction. Striking Down Radical Reconstruction • By the mid-1870s, Democrats had retaken the South, reseating themselves in southern legislatures by driving blacks and white Unionists away from the polls and employing violence and other unethical tactics to win state elections. Most northerners looked the other way during this period, consumed by their own economic hardships. SILVER • Early 1870s – treasury kept silver pegged at 16 ounces to 1 ounce of gold • Silver on open market worth more than what treasury paying, so mines stopped selling to treasury • 1873 – federal treasury stopped coining silver dollars • Silver discoveries made in late 1870s increased production and lowered prices • Western silver mining states joined with debtors who wanted inflation (through coinage of silver) to return to coining silver Deflation – Supporters of “hard money” got Treasury to buy up gold (to redeem greenbacks) – 1870 – 1880 – amount of money per capita in circulation decreased – Made depression worse, but improved government’s credit rating and got greenbacks up to full value of gold Striking Down Radical Reconstruction • In the late 1870s and early 1880s, a conservative Supreme Court also struck down much of the civil rights legislation that Radical Republicans had passed. In the 1873 Slaughterhouse Cases, the Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment safeguarded a person’s rights only at a federal level, not at a state level (in rulings ten years later, the court further stipulated that the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited racial discrimination only by the U.S. government, not by individuals). In 1876, the Court ruled in United States v. Cruikshank that only states and their courts—not the federal government—could prosecute Ku Klux Klan members under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871. The Disputed Election of 1876 • As the election of 1876 approached, Democrats nominated Samuel J. Tilden, a lawyer famous for busting corrupt New York City politician William “Boss” Tweed in 1871. Tilden campaigned for restoration of the Union and an end to government corruption. The Republican Party, on the other hand, chose the virtually unknown Rutherford B. Hayes. Many Northern voters, tired of Reconstruction and hoping for more federal relief because of the depression, voted Democrat. Ultimately, Tilden received 250,000 more popular votes than Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to become president. The Compromise of 1877 • With the election result hanging in the balance, Congress passed the Electoral Count Act in early 1877, creating a fifteen-man commission—eight Republicans and seven Democrats—to recount disputed votes in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. Not surprisingly, the commission determined by an eight-to-seven vote that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes had carried all three states. Resentment and political deadlock threatened to divide the country, but both parties were able to avoid division and strike a deal with the Compromise of 1877 . Democrats agreed to concede the presidency to the Republicans in exchange for the complete withdrawal of federal troops from the South. Hayes became president, withdrew the troops, and ended Reconstruction. The “New” South • All these changes in politics opened the door for the full imposition of new racial order. • The coalition of merchants, planters, and business entrepreneurs called themselves the “Redeemers” and sought to undo all that the Republicans had accomplished. New laws authorized the arrest of virtually any person without employment and greatly increased the punishment for petty crimes. As the South’s prison population rose, the renting out of convicts became a profitable business putting labor in the hands of private businessmen. Black Life in the South • The labor market in the South remained rigidly divided. Black men were excluded from supervisory positions in factories and workshops and white-collar jobs such as clerks in offices. A higher percentage of black women than white worked for wages, but mostly as domestic servants. Most unions excluded blacks, forming yet another barrier to their economic advantage. The Birth of Jim Crow • Blacks (& poor whites) forced into sharecropping – Land owners (former masters) let ex-slaves and whites farm on their land in exchange for part of the harvest – “crop-lien” system – storekeepers gave goods to sharecroppers on credit; in return had a lien (control over property in exchange for payment of debt) on their harvests • Separation between races evolved (by 1890s) to formal system of segregation – Law of segregation called Jim Crow laws – Literacy tests, poll taxes, voter-registration laws used to prevent blacks from voting – Upheld by Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson case (1896) and known as Separate but Equal doctrine. – Known as DeJure Segregation The Decline in Black Politics • Neither black voting nor black office holding came to an abrupt end in 1877. Nonetheless, political opportunities became more and more restricted. • With black men of talent and ambition turning away from politics, the banner of political leadership passed to black women activists. The women reformers challenged the racial ideology that consigned all blacks to the status of degraded second-class citizens. The Elimination of Black Voting • Between 1890 and 1906, every southern state enacted laws or constitutional provisions meant to eliminate the black vote. • Since the 15th Amendment prohibited use of race as a qualifier, Southern legislature found other means. The most popular was the poll tax, literacy tests, or the “grandfather clause” (exempting from the new requirements descendants of persons eligible to vote before the Civil War). Disenfranchisement • These laws also often eliminated poor illiterate whites from voting as well. Disenfranchisement led directly to the rise of a generation of southern manipulators who retained the political power by eliminating other voters. Laws of Segregation • The 1890s were also filled with widespread segregation in the South. Schools and many other institutions had been segregated during Reconstruction, some railroads and hotels allowed blacks and whites equally, while others excluded blacks altogether. Laws of Segregation • In 1883, The Civil Rights Cases, THE Supreme Court invalidated the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which outlawed racial discrimination in public facilities. • Plessy v. Ferguson, approved state laws requiring separate facilities for blacks and whites. The case arose in Louisiana where the legislation required railroad companies to maintain a separate car or section for black passengers. The Court upheld that segregated facilities did not discriminate as long as they were “separate but equal” • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4Wyb7f-iNc Laws of Segregation • States reacted to Plessy by passing laws mandating racial segregation in every aspect of southern life (schools, hospitals, waiting rooms, toilets, cemeteries, even taxi cabs). • Segregation impacted more groups than just the blacks though, in areas with large Chinese populations there would actually be three divisions. For example, there would be a White, Black, and Chinese school. The Rise of Lynching • Those blacks who sought to challenge the system faced not only overwhelming political and legal power, but also the threat of violence. • In every year between 1883-1905 more than 50 people a year were lynched. Some lynching occurred secretly at night, others were advertised to attract large crowds. Mobs engaged in activities that shocked the civilized world. Educational Spending in the South 1890 - 1910 Segregation Was the Law Until the 1960s Lynching and violence used to deny rights PERIOD 6 INTRO- 1865-1898 • The transformation of the United States from an agricultural to an increasingly industrialized and urbanized society brought about significant economic, political, diplomatic, social, environmental, and cultural changes. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • Following the Civil War, government subsidies for transportation and communication systems opened new markets in North America, while technological innovations and redesigned financial and management structures such as monopolies sought to maximize the exploitation of natural resources and a growing labor force. WHY DO THEY CALL IT THE GILDED AGE? • The term Gilded Age refers to the political and economic situation 1876 to 1900. • The term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark Twain • A period of ruthless profit, government corruption, mass consumption, and vulgarity in taste and manners. HISTORIANS COMMENT (CHARLES AND MARY BEARD) WHAT IS THE MAIN IDEA OR CLAIM FROM THESE HISTORIANS?? • “With a stride that astonished statisticians, the conquering hosts of business enterprise swept over the continent; 25 years after the death of Lincoln, America had become, in the quantity and value of her production, the first manufacturing nation of the world. What England accomplished in a hundred years, the United States had achieved in half the time.” WHAT IS THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ABOUT? • Production • Transportation = The Transformation of the US national Economy • Immigration • Rise of Cities • Decline in pop from rural areas • Corruption • Union Activism • Racism/Nativism • Reform- (Progressives- Fix the problems of industrial society) WHEN DOES THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TAKE PLACE? • Various periods of American History • 1st Industrial Revolution 1800-1860 begins in early 1800’s with textile manufacturing and iron production • 2nd IR really takes off in the latter part of 1800’s, ca 1870-1915 THE DEVELOPMENT OF FACTORY PRODUCTION HAS CONSEQUENCES FOR VIRTUALLY EVERY PORTION OF SOCIETY. • Industrialization brings positives effects: • Inventions are created-More products--produced faster-- produced cheaper • Jobs are created--- people have money to buy more goods-economy gets better for everyone • Rich people get richer-- create more factories or businesses -- create more jobs--economy gets better for everyone • Immigration-when jobs are available-------people move to the location of jobs-industrialization causes immigration-- • Factories are built where people live-------cities grow THE DEVELOPMENT OF FACTORY PRODUCTION HAS CONSEQUENCES FOR VIRTUALLY EVERY PORTION OF SOCIETY. • Industrialization brings negative effects: • Industrialization causes--pollution-air, water • Industrialization causes---poverty- government doesn’t protect workers at first- workers compete with other workers for low skill jobs- workers work long hours- get low pay unsafe working conditions • Poverty is so bad-children need to work • Massive wealth is created by factory owners- causes corruption- business owners use money to influence government officials THE GOOD, THE BAD, & THE UGLY • Analyze the documents provided.