Reconstruction! - mcpapushistory

Please take out your Chapter 19 and
1. Write down as many causes of the Civil War as
you can remember and explain how each one
contributed to the start of the war.
2. What were the strengths and weakness of both
sides of the Civil War at the beginning of the
3. Why was the Emancipation Proclamation
considered a turning point in the war?
4. Compare and contrast Lincoln’s First and Second
Inaugural Address
ANSWERS: Question 1
1. Cotton Gin
2. Nat Turner’s Rebellion
3. Compromise of 1850
1. Fugitive Slave Law
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Bleeding Kansas
John Brown and Harper’s Ferry
Dred Scott Decision
Election of Abraham Lincoln
Answers: Question 2
Lincoln, Grant, 22 million citizens (4x the
non-slave South), Strong industrial and
agricultural strength, Strong transportationcomplex railroad system, Strong Navy,
Anaconda Plan
Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, 11 states in
the Confederacy, Excellent military
leadership, Fighting in their own land,
Could fight a defensive war
Poor military leadership (multiple generals),
Anti-war feelings from the CopperheadsNortherners for peace, Thought the war
would last only 90 days, Trouble obtaining
volunteers led to a draft in 1863, Fighting
would be in unfamiliar land, Over confident
Army was large but poorly trained
9 million citizens (but 3.5 were slaves who
were not allowed to fight), Had to form a
government and direct a war at the same
time, Each state wanted to keep its own
rights and privileges, Each state sent
supplies to their own troops only, Had to
worry about slave revolts and borders
states, Poor transportation and minimal
railroads, Little industry
Answers: Question 3
• The Emancipation Proclamation became a
symbol of what the Civil War was heading
toward. It was no longer about states' rights
and rebellion with one document, Lincoln
turned it into a war to end slavery.
Answers: Question 4
• Trying to put the country back together- have
to learn to forgive and forget if we want the
union to be saved.
• Second Inaugural Address credits slavery as
the true cause of war, but says that both sides
are to blame
Review Questions of the Day
• What is John Winthrop’s famous speech and
what is it about?
• What two things did Washington warn us
about in his Farewell Address?
• Which president put the Alien and Sedition
Acts in place? What did these acts do?
• Which resolutions were passed in response to
the Alien Sedition Acts? Which philosopher’s
ideas were these based upon?
Returning the South to the Union after the War.
What Do We Do Now?!
-Is the South forgiven?
-Do the Southern senators/representatives get
-What happens to the freed slaves?
-What does the constitution say about all this?
What is the Legacy of the Civil War and What Does
the Nation Do Now?
Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction
• Lincoln passed the 13th amendment (which
did what??)
• Lincoln favors being easy on the South….look
at his back to his Second Inaugural Address…
Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction
• The process of reconstructing the Union began in
1863, two years before the Confederacy formally
surrendered. After major Union victories at
Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Abraham
Lincoln issued the Proclamation of Amnesty and
Reconstruction in which he outlined his TenPercent Plan. The plan stipulated that each
secessionist state had to redraft its constitution
and could reenter the Union only after 10 percent
of its eligible voters pledged an oath of allegiance
to the United States.
Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction
Lincoln’s 10% Plan
-The government will pardon all Confederates who
would swear loyalty to the Union (but not if they
had killed any black prisoners of war).
-They would have to accept the end of slavery.
-10% of the people in any Southern state had to
swear their loyalty then they could come back to
the Union.
Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction
What was left out of Lincoln’s plan??
Lincoln’s View on Reconstruction
Lincoln does not give voting rights to the newly
freed blacks.
The Radical Republicans are not happy.
They want the former slave owners to pay, they
also want equality for black people.
They don’t want to go easy on the South!
Wade-Davis Bill
• Many Radical Republicans believed that
Lincoln’s plan was too lenient: they wanted to
punish the South for secession from the
Union, transform southern society, and
safeguard the rights of former slaves. As an
alternative to the Ten-Percent Plan, Radical
Republicans and their moderate Republican
allies passed the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864.
Wade-Davis Bill
• Under the bill, states could be readmitted to
the Union only after 50 percent of voters took
an oath of allegiance to the Union. Lincoln
pocket-vetoed the bill, however, effectively
killing it by refusing to sign it before Congress
went into recess. Congress did successfully
create the Freedmen’s Bureau, which helped
distribute food, supplies, and land to the new
population of freed slaves.
Analyzing the Wade-Davis Bill and
Lincoln’s Response
• You will now work with a partner to read the WadeDavis Bill and Lincoln’s response to it answering
analysis questions as you read. The first group to
finish will receive extra credit points!
• On your mark, get set, GO!
• Summarize the Wade Davis Bill
• Compare and Contrast the Chesapeake
Colonies and New England Colonies
• Summarize the causes and effects of the
French and Indian War
• What was the Whiskey Rebellion and what did
it prove to the country?
• Read document one together as a class and
complete the corresponding questions (10
• Read your second document with your group and
prepare your claim with evidence and reasoning
for the debate (10 minutes)
• Debate with your matching group (A or B) (20
• Read chapter 22 and complete chart and notes
(remaining class time)
• Compare and contrast the Articles of
Confederation and the Constitution
• What is Manifest Destiny? How did it lead to
the Indian Removal Act?
• Describe the Native Americans who lived on
the Great Plains
Articles of Confederation
-The Congress modified a constitution to protect the powers of the individual
states. The Articles of Confederation was adopted by Congress in 1777 and
submitted to states for ratification.
-The Articles established a central government that consisted of just one body, a
congress. In this unicameral (one-house) legislature, each state would have 1 vote,
with 9 votes out of 13 required to pass important laws. Amending the Articles
required a unanimous vote.
-Powers: The Articles gave congress power to wage war, make treaties, send
diplomatic representative and borrow money. However, they could not regulate
commerce or collect taxes. The government also did not executive powers to
enforce its laws.
Articles of Confederation
1. Winning the war- the U.S. government could claim some credit for their ultimate
victory and negotiating favorable terms in the Treaty of Paris.
2. Land Ordinance of 1785- Congress established a policy for surveying and selling
western land. It also set aside one section of land in each township for public
3. Northwest Ordinance of 1787- For the large territory lying between the Great
Lakes and the Ohio River, the congress passed an ordinance (law) that set the rules
for creating new states. This granted limited self-government to the developing
territory and prohibited slavery in the region.
Articles of Confederation
1. Financial- most war debt hadn’t been paid. Individual states as well as the
congress issued worthless paper money. The congress had no taxing power, which
meant they could only request that the states donate money for financial needs.
2. Foreign- European nations had little respect for the new nation who could not
pay its debts nor take effective and united action in a crisis. Britain and Spain
threatened to take advantage.
3. Domestic- In summer 1786- Captain Daniel Shays a Massachusetts farmer and
Revolutionary War veteran, led other farmers in an uprising (Shay’s Rebellion). They
were fighting against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper
money. The rebel farmers stopped the collection of taxes, and forced the closing of
debtors prisons. In January 1787, when Shay and his followers tried to take over
weapons from the Springfield armory the state militia of Massachusetts had to step
Drafting the Constitution in
All the delegates were white, male, and college educated (wealthy!)- many were
practicing lawyers, and many Philadelphia,
had helped to write their state constitutions.
-First they needed to elect a presiding officer, they chose George Washington
-The work in writing specific articles was directed by James Madison (known as the
Father of the Constitution), Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, and John
-John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Thomas Paine were all abroad and not
there. Patrick Henry was against a strong Federal Government so he did not attend.
Key Issues in Writing the Constitution
after that the issues were:
• 1. Representation: Small states were against large states in deciding
what representation would be based on! Some Ideas were brought up:
– Virginia Plan: Favored larger states
– New Jersey Plan: Favored smaller states
• Compromise by Roger Sherman (MY FAV!)- The Connecticut Plan otherwise known as THE GREAT
COMPROMISE- It provided for a two-house Congress (The Senate would have equal representation
(favors small states), the House of Representatives would have representation based on population
(favors large states)
Key Issues in Writing the Constitution
2. Slavery- should the enslaved count in the state populations?
– Three-Fifths Compromise: Each slave would could as 3/5 a person
Should slave trade be allowed?
– The delegates decided to put this issue on the backburner for 20 years
3. Trade- Northern states wanted the federal government to regulate interstate
commerce and foreign trade. The South feared taxes would be put on their
exports. So again, they compromised- The Commercial Compromise allowed
Congress to regulate interstate AND foreign commerce, BUT prohibited taxes on
any exports! EVERYONE WINS!
Key Issues in Writing the Constitution
4. The Presidency- Much debate went on about how long the president should be
president! They also disagreed on how to elect the president! They chose the
electoral system because they feared giving the people too must democracy
because it could lead to mob rule! They also gave the president power to veto the
5. Ratification: September 17, 1787 after 17 weeks of debate they had a draft to
send out for ratification, they needed 9 out of 13 states to agree!
So what does the Constitution do?
• Establishes the right of the government to rule in a contract
between the government and the people, and is why the Preamble
starts out with…We the people do ordain and establish…
• Creates a structure for the government. There had to be a
representative Democracy. States also have the right to make some
of their own laws so there is a division of power between the states
and national government
• Describes and distributes power. Articles 1,2,3,4 tells what each
branch of government can do for everyone to see.
• Limits government power. The framers enumerate limits of
national government, state, and Congress.
• Allows for Change. They want to make sure the government can
change with the times so they made ways to amend it when
absolutely necessary.
Lincoln’s Assassination
On April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth assassinated
President Lincoln in Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C.,
and Vice President Andrew Johnson became president.
Andrew Johnson the 17 President
Presidential Reconstruction under
Johnson readmitted the southern states
using Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan and
granted all southerners full pardons,
including thousands of wealthy planters
and former Confederate officials.
Johnson also ordered the Freedmen’s
Bureau to return all confiscated lands to
their original owners.
While Congress was in recess, Johnson
approved new state constitutions for
secessionist states—many written by exConfederate officials—and declared
Reconstruction complete in
December 1865.
Johnson’s Game Plan
-Andrew Johnson was a former slave owner with
a plan similar to Lincoln’s, but Johnson did not
want to give the South more power in the
government. Johnson wanted the following:
1. Any Southern who swore allegiance (loyalty)
to the Union was pardoned.
2. Any Southern state could come back.
3. They had to accept the end of slavery.
4. Repeal their secession ordinance.
Johnson’s Game Plan
However, Johnson believes ONLY whites should
manage the South
He also DOES NOT want the high-ranking
confederates or wealthy southern landowners
to vote so they can’t challenge him.
The Southern states agree to Johnson’s plans.
The states set up governments and send
representatives to Congress….The Northerners
refuse to admit Southern legislatures.
Radical Republicans Radical
At this time, the Radical
Republicans had the most
power in Congress.
They wanted to destroy the
political power of the former
slave owners and the
Confederate officers.
One way to do this, was to give
former slaves the right to vote,
because they would vote for the
Radical Republicans!
Radical Republicans
The Radical Republicans want to pass a law
creating a Freedman’s Bureau, which gave food
and clothing to former slaves, advised them to
live in the world, and set up hospitals and
Freedman’s Bureau
attempted to
veto the bill
and kick the
Bureau to the
Radical Republicans
• Next, the Radical Republican Congress passed the
14th amendment.
• The 14th amendment gives all people born in the US
citizenship….Which undoes the Dred-Scott case!!!
Johnson’s Hissy Fit.
Johnson (wanting his way as
usual) simply told the
South to ignore what the
Radical Republicans were
So the Radical Republicans in
Congress said no state
could re-enter the Union
unless they approved it….
Reconstruction Act of
This requires the South to give former slaves the
right to vote and ratify the 14th amendment to
be part of the Union.
Johnson Impeached
Congress gets sick of
Johnson and tries to
impeach him! (He
fired the Secretary of
War without their
He was impeached, but
not thrown out of
office by ONE vote!
• Describe the Columbian Exchange and the
influence it had on each region.
• Describe the Great Awakening and the effect
it had on America.
• What was the Middle Passage?
• Compare and contrast Hamilton’s Federalists
and Jefferson and Madison’s DemocraticRepublicans.
But What About the
-Sharecropping (Plantation
owners way to keep
freedmen from owning land)
-Received an education
-Create their own churches
(ministers become leaders in
-Create universities
-Some were elected to
Congress and the local
An Angry South…
The former Confederates were not pleased!
The white leaders began to pass laws to ensure that
the freedmen don’t actually get to enjoy these
new freedoms and rights!
Enter: Black Codes.
Black Codes
The former Confederates create “Black Codes”
which were laws that will restrict the
freedmen’s rights.
Black Codes
White supremacist Congressmen passed a series
of laws called the black codes, which denied
blacks the right to make contracts, testify
against whites, marry white women, be
unemployed, and even loiter in public places.
Violence by the Ku Klux Klan became so
common that Congress had to pass the Ku
Klux Klan Act in 1871 to authorize military
protection for blacks.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
• Countless carpetbaggers (northerners who
moved to the South after the
war) and scalawags (white Unionists and
Republicans in the South) flocked to the South
during Reconstruction and exerted significant
influence there. Although in many respects
they achieved their goals of modernizing and
Republicanizing the South, they eventually
were driven out by Democratic state
politicians in the mid-1870s.
Mini-Q Essay!
• How did Reconstruction affect African
Americans between 1865-1900?
• Complete the worksheet and then you may
begin Chapter 22
Post It Note Exit Slip
• Order the following skills from your Best to
Worst (1,2,3):
– Text based question- Main Idea, Claim, details
– Contextualization
– Synthesis
• What is time management? Why is it an
important part of being successful?
Liberty’s Surest Guardian
• A three part discussion:
• Part One: Text dependent (Main Idea/HAP-P)
• Part Two: Periodization (Period 5 and 6
• Part Three: Synthesis (Connections to today or
to other time periods)
Liberty’s Surest Guardian
• Participants share responsibility for the quality of
the seminar
• Most effective when participants:
Study the text closely
Listen actively
Share ideas and questions in response to others
Search for evidence in the text to support their ideas
• What does this look like?
Before our Student Led Discussion
• Read the text CAREFULLY (provocative
questions, short passages, identify tough
• Choose an introductory question in advance
to begin your portion of the discussion (broad,
open-ended, productive)
• Use discussion stems (see DISCUSSION STEMS
What Am I looking for? PVLEGS
POISE: Appear calm and confident, avoid distracting
VOICE: Speak every word clearly, use just the right
volume for the space
LIFE: Express passion and emotion with your voice
EYE CONTACT: Connect visually with the audience,
look at each audience member
GESTURES: Hand motions, move your body, have an
expressive face
SPEED: Talk with appropriate speed- not too slow,
not too fast, use pauses for effect and emphasis
One Assignment: Two Grades
• You will earn two grades for this assignment.
• One grade is based on your own input,
involvement, and preparedness during the
• The second grade is a class grade in which you
will be graded based on how well you ALL
participate. Everyone in class must participate
at least 3 times for the whole class to be able
to earn an A.
Ways to earn positive points
• Pose a question to the group
• Respond to a peer
• Use a direct quote form the text to support
your answer
• Refer to a prior text from class
• Refer to a prior text you read outside of class
• Cold calling a peer to participate
Ways to earn NEGATIVE points
• Get off topic
• Respond rudely to a peer
• Refuse to answer when you are asked a
• Say, “I don’t know” as your response
• Begin an answer with some form of “I’m not
sure if this is right”
Group 1- Text Based
1. Miguel
2. Ayanna
3. Armando
4. Leonardo
5. Jelanni
6. Juan
7. Brandon
Stephany D
David O
Group 2- Contextualization
1. Jocelyne
2. Lilliana
3. Aleida
4. Quiahuitl
5. Ivan
6. Bresli
7. Adriana
8. Aldo
1. Fatima
2. Maya
3. Angel
4. Erika
5. Ruiz
6. Stephany
1. Armando
2. Melissa
3. Sarah
4. DP
5. Adriana
6. Brytain
7. Taylor
8. Stefanie
9. Frances
10. Elanie
Group 3- Synthesis
1. Melany
2. Saul
3. Oscar
4. Annette
5. Joshua
6. George
7. Margaret
8. Australia
1. Julian
2. Maria
3. Christian
4. Gaby
5. Hailey
6. Paige
1. Yesenia
2. Eric
3. Miliani
4. Jose
5. Cesar
6. Jocelyn
7. Amanda
8. Alex
9. Dane
10. Cannella
Today’s Preparation
• Meet with your small group and begin to read. As
you read your should be writing down questions
for your part of the discussion.
• Make sure that you are keeping track of the page
number the question comes from and write
down the best answer. This will help you guide
the discussion next week.
• I will be coming around to each group to make
sure you understand what types of questions to
Do Now:
• Learning the Long Essay: Read through the
packet “Writing the Long Essay” and write
your own set of instructions in your notebook
(set timer for 30 minutes)
• The south temporarily experienced a
social and political revolution during this
time! The key word being “temporarily”
Ulysses S. Grant
Eventually, in 1868, Ulysses S.
Grant is elected President,
with the help of AfricanAmericans.
Grant is a war hero but with
limited knowledge of
anything else in the political
realm. Republicans get
support for Grant by
“Waving the bloody shirt”
(reviving memories of Civil
War and Democratic
Ulysses S. Grant
The Radicals had been delighted when Johnson
finally left the White House, but Grant’s
inexperience, however, proved to be a liability
that ultimately ended Radical Reconstruction.
Because Grant had difficulty saying no, many of
his cabinet posts and appointments ended up
being filled by corrupt, incompetent men who
were no more than spoils-seekers.
Giving Up the South
• By the 1870s Congress and President Grant would
be unwilling to use federal government to
monitor Southern society.
• Federal intervention in Southern society under
Congressional Reconstruction yielded some short
term success.
– Reunited the union (but with a great deal of tension
– Opened up political opportunities to former slaves
(which were then taken away)
– Temporarily rearranged the relationships between
white and black people in the South
Ulysses S. Grant
As a result, scandal after scandal rocked Grant’s
administration and damaged his reputation
despite that he was not actually involved.
Golden Scandal
• Millionaires Jim Fisk and Jay Gould seek to
corner the gold market (1869)
• Plan would only work if federal treasury did not sell
any gold to the public
– They bribe Grant’s brother-in-law, to stop Grant
from releasing gold (paying Corbin 25K)
• September 24, 1869 – “Black Friday”
– Gold finally released by US Treasury to end the
scheme (supposedly contrary to Grant’s personal
assurances to the schemers)
Grant Administration known for
• Crédit Mobilier scandal
– Union Pacific R.R. insiders from the
company, hired themselves to build the line
(at inflated prices) at Government expense
– Distributed shares of stock to important
congressmen to prevent investigation
– Investigation reveals V.P. & some
Congressman were in on the deal to stop
WHISKEY RING… Anytime Whiskey is
Involved in US history you know there
– 1874 – 1875 – group of distillers bribed
federal agents to avoid paying millions in
whiskey taxes
– Grant’s private secretary, Orville Babcock
took money from the group
• Grant refuses to fire him
• Grant’s testimony helps assure his acquittal
Indian Land Bribes
– 1876 – secretary of war William E. Belknap took
bribes from suppliers to Indian reservations
– Belknap impeached and resigned
– Grant stayed loyal to his friend until the end
Liberal Republicans & the Election of 1872
• The discovery of new scandals split the Republican Party
in1872, as reform-minded Liberal Republicans broke from
the ranks of moderates and radicals. The Liberal
Republicans wanted to institute reform, downsize the
federal government, and bring a swift end to
• They nominated New York Tribune editor Horace
Greeley as their party’s presidential candidate (he agreed
to run on the Democratic Party’s ticket as well). Though
already marred by scandal, Grant easily defeated Greeley
by more than 200 electoral votes and 700,000 popular
Grant Wins Re-Election But…
• Republicans fixed problems that Liberal
Republicans and Democrats brought out, to
stop voter rebellion in future elections
– 1872 – general amnesty act passed;
removed political disabilities from all but
500 Confederate leaders
– High tariffs (from the war) reduced
– Mild civil-service reform enacted to get rid
of worst people from Grant’s administration
The Depression of 1873
• In 1873, the postwar economic bubble in the United
States finally burst. Over-speculation in the railroad
industry, manufacturing, and a flood of Americans
taking out bad bank loans slid the economy into the
worst depression in American history. Millions lost their
jobs, and unemployment climbed as high as 15 percent.
• $450 million in greenbacks issued during C. W.
– They depreciated since not backed by gold
Debtors called for more greenbacks to be issued
to inflate (increase) money supply
– More money meant cheaper money (and rising
prices), making debts easier to pay off
The Depression of 1873
• Many blacks, landless whites, and immigrants from
both North and South suffered greatly, demanding
relief from the federal government. Republicans,
refusing to give in to demands to print more paper
money, instead withdrew money from the economy
by passing the Resumption Act of 1875 to curb
skyrocketing inflation.
– The Resumption Act of 1875 meant that the government
would withdraw greenbacks from circulation, repayment of
all paper money in gold at face value by 1879
• This power play by Republicans prompted northerners
to vote Democrat in the midterm elections of 1876,
effectively ending Radical Reconstruction.
Striking Down Radical Reconstruction
• By the mid-1870s, Democrats had retaken the
South, reseating themselves in southern
legislatures by driving blacks and white
Unionists away from the polls and employing
violence and other unethical tactics to win
state elections. Most northerners looked the
other way during this period, consumed by
their own economic hardships.
• Early 1870s – treasury kept silver pegged at 16 ounces
to 1 ounce of gold
• Silver on open market worth more than what treasury
paying, so mines stopped selling to treasury
• 1873 – federal treasury stopped coining silver dollars
• Silver discoveries made in late 1870s increased
production and lowered prices
• Western silver mining states joined with debtors who
wanted inflation (through coinage of silver) to return to
coining silver
– Supporters of “hard money” got Treasury to
buy up gold (to redeem greenbacks)
– 1870 – 1880 – amount of money per capita
in circulation decreased
– Made depression worse, but improved
government’s credit rating and got
greenbacks up to full value of gold
Striking Down Radical Reconstruction
• In the late 1870s and early 1880s, a conservative
Supreme Court also struck down much of the civil
rights legislation that Radical Republicans had passed.
In the 1873 Slaughterhouse Cases, the Court ruled that
the Fourteenth Amendment safeguarded a person’s
rights only at a federal level, not at a state level (in
rulings ten years later, the court further stipulated that
the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited racial
discrimination only by the U.S. government, not by
individuals). In 1876, the Court ruled in United States
v. Cruikshank that only states and their courts—not
the federal government—could prosecute Ku Klux Klan
members under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871.
The Disputed Election of 1876
• As the election of 1876 approached, Democrats
nominated Samuel J. Tilden, a lawyer famous for
busting corrupt New York City politician William “Boss”
Tweed in 1871. Tilden campaigned for restoration of
the Union and an end to government corruption. The
Republican Party, on the other hand, chose the
virtually unknown Rutherford B. Hayes. Many
Northern voters, tired of Reconstruction and hoping for
more federal relief because of the depression, voted
Democrat. Ultimately, Tilden received 250,000 more
popular votes than Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral
votes needed to become president.
The Compromise of 1877
• With the election result hanging in the balance,
Congress passed the Electoral Count Act in early 1877,
creating a fifteen-man commission—eight Republicans
and seven Democrats—to recount disputed votes in
South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. Not surprisingly,
the commission determined by an eight-to-seven vote
that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes had carried all
three states. Resentment and political deadlock
threatened to divide the country, but both parties were
able to avoid division and strike a deal with
the Compromise of 1877 . Democrats agreed to
concede the presidency to the Republicans in exchange
for the complete withdrawal of federal troops from the
South. Hayes became president, withdrew the troops,
and ended Reconstruction.
The “New” South
• All these changes in politics opened the door
for the full imposition of new racial order.
• The coalition of merchants, planters, and
business entrepreneurs called themselves the
“Redeemers” and sought to undo all that the
Republicans had accomplished.
New laws authorized the arrest of virtually any person
without employment and greatly increased the punishment
for petty crimes. As the South’s prison population rose, the
renting out of convicts became a profitable business putting
labor in the hands of private businessmen.
Black Life in the South
• The labor market in the South remained
rigidly divided. Black men were excluded from
supervisory positions in factories and
workshops and white-collar jobs such as clerks
in offices. A higher percentage of black
women than white worked for wages, but
mostly as domestic servants. Most unions
excluded blacks, forming yet another barrier
to their economic advantage.
The Birth of Jim Crow
• Blacks (& poor whites) forced into sharecropping
– Land owners (former masters) let ex-slaves and whites farm on
their land in exchange for part of the harvest
– “crop-lien” system – storekeepers gave goods to sharecroppers
on credit; in return had a lien (control over property in exchange
for payment of debt) on their harvests
• Separation between races evolved (by 1890s) to
formal system of segregation
– Law of segregation called Jim Crow laws
– Literacy tests, poll taxes, voter-registration laws used
to prevent blacks from voting
– Upheld by Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson case
(1896) and known as Separate but Equal doctrine.
– Known as DeJure Segregation
The Decline in Black Politics
• Neither black voting nor black office holding
came to an abrupt end in 1877. Nonetheless,
political opportunities became more and more
• With black men of talent and ambition turning
away from politics, the banner of political
leadership passed to black women activists.
The women reformers challenged the racial
ideology that consigned all blacks to the status
of degraded second-class citizens.
The Elimination of Black Voting
• Between 1890 and 1906, every southern state
enacted laws or constitutional provisions
meant to eliminate the black vote.
• Since the 15th Amendment prohibited use of
race as a qualifier, Southern legislature found
other means. The most popular was the poll
tax, literacy tests, or the “grandfather clause”
(exempting from the new requirements
descendants of persons eligible to vote before
the Civil War).
• These laws also often eliminated poor
illiterate whites from voting as well.
Disenfranchisement led directly to the rise of
a generation of southern manipulators who
retained the political power by eliminating
other voters.
Laws of Segregation
• The 1890s were also
filled with widespread
segregation in the
South. Schools and
many other
institutions had been
segregated during
Reconstruction, some
railroads and hotels
allowed blacks and
whites equally, while
others excluded
blacks altogether.
Laws of Segregation
• In 1883, The Civil Rights Cases, THE Supreme Court
invalidated the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which
outlawed racial discrimination in public facilities.
• Plessy v. Ferguson, approved state laws requiring
separate facilities for blacks and whites. The case
arose in Louisiana where the legislation required
railroad companies to maintain a separate car or
section for black passengers. The Court upheld that
segregated facilities did not discriminate as long as
they were “separate but equal”
Laws of Segregation
• States reacted to Plessy by passing laws
mandating racial segregation in every aspect of
southern life (schools, hospitals, waiting rooms,
toilets, cemeteries, even taxi cabs).
• Segregation impacted more groups than just the
blacks though, in areas with large Chinese
populations there would actually be three
divisions. For example, there would be a White,
Black, and Chinese school.
The Rise of Lynching
• Those blacks who sought to challenge the system
faced not only overwhelming political and legal
power, but also the threat of violence.
• In every year between 1883-1905 more than 50
people a year were lynched. Some lynching
occurred secretly at night, others were advertised
to attract large crowds. Mobs engaged in
activities that shocked the civilized world.
Educational Spending in the South 1890 - 1910
Segregation Was the Law Until the 1960s
used to
deny rights
PERIOD 6 INTRO- 1865-1898
• The transformation of the United States from an
agricultural to an increasingly industrialized and
urbanized society brought about significant economic,
political, diplomatic, social, environmental, and cultural
• Following the Civil War, government subsidies for
transportation and communication systems opened new
markets in North America, while technological innovations
and redesigned financial and management structures such
as monopolies sought to maximize the exploitation of
natural resources and a growing labor force.
• The term Gilded Age refers to the political and
economic situation 1876 to 1900.
• The term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark
• A period of ruthless profit, government
corruption, mass consumption, and vulgarity in
taste and manners.
• “With a stride that astonished statisticians,
the conquering hosts of business enterprise
swept over the continent; 25 years after the
death of Lincoln, America had become, in the
quantity and value of her production, the
first manufacturing nation of the world.
What England accomplished in a hundred
years, the United States had achieved in half
the time.”
• Production
• Transportation = The Transformation of
the US national Economy
• Immigration
• Rise of Cities
• Decline in pop from rural areas
• Corruption
• Union Activism
• Racism/Nativism
• Reform- (Progressives- Fix the problems of
industrial society)
• Various periods of American History
• 1st Industrial Revolution 1800-1860 begins in early
1800’s with textile manufacturing and iron production
• 2nd IR really takes off in the latter part of 1800’s, ca
• Industrialization brings positives effects:
• Inventions are created-More products--produced
faster-- produced cheaper
• Jobs are created--- people have money to buy more
goods-economy gets better for everyone
• Rich people get richer-- create more factories or
businesses -- create more jobs--economy gets better
for everyone
• Immigration-when jobs are available-------people
move to the location of jobs-industrialization causes
• Factories are built where people live-------cities grow
• Industrialization brings negative effects:
• Industrialization causes--pollution-air, water
• Industrialization causes---poverty-
government doesn’t protect workers at first-
workers compete with other workers for low skill
jobs- workers work long hours- get low pay unsafe working conditions
• Poverty is so bad-children need to work
• Massive wealth is created by factory owners-
causes corruption- business owners use money
to influence government officials
• Analyze the documents provided.