Change Mgt Lecture 13

Change Management
Prof. Steve Phelan
Lecture 13
• Receiving change
 The recipients of change (1990)
 Case: Donna Dubinsky and Apple Computer
• LMZ Chs 31-33
 Choosing the depth of intervention (1970)
 Rules of thumb for change agents (1975)
 Self-efficacy through coaching (2001)
The recipients of change
• Despite how bosses would like it to be “change”
is not merely doing A on Monday and B on
 There is a transition phase – shock, anger, confusion
 Some people move faster through the transition than
others, some get stuck - resistance
 “it is difficult to get cooperation, negotiation, and
compromise from people who are effectively ordered
to change, never listened to or supported, and then
faulted if they fail to change as expected”
• Individual
 Accepting feelings as
• Anger, depression, shock,
 Managing stress
• Diet, exercise, regular
breaks, limiting external
stressors, seeking support
 Exercising responsibility
• Identifying gains as well
as losses, participating in
the change, learning new
skills, diversifying
emotional investing
• Organization
 Rethinking resistance
• As legitimate and positive
step toward change
• As information on
problems with change
• As energy to work with
 Giving first aid
• Listening, accepting,
providing support and
 Creating capability for
• Participation, encourage
risk taking, suspending
Continuous change
• Do employees need less hand holding in
this era of continual change?
• Are young workers being taught to accept
continuous change?
• Does going through a lot of change
“inoculate” against change emotions?
 I am something of an expert in moving house
• Some things get easier
• Some things get harder
Donna Dubinsky & Apple Case
• Analyze why Donna responded the way she did
to the JIT proposal (intellectually and
 What stages of change has she moved through?
• Did she do the right thing in confronting Sculley
and giving Campbell an ultimatum?
 What should she have done differently?
 What could Apple senior managers have done
differently to diffuse this situation?
 What should Donna do now?
Choosing the depth of
• Depth
 The depth of individual emotional involvement in the
change process
 The less economic and bureaucratic incentives work
the deeper the required intervention
• Rules
 Intervene at a level no deeper than that required to
produce enduring solutions to the problems at hand
 Intervene at a level no deeper than that at which the
energy and resources of the client can be committed
to problem solving and to change
Rules of thumb
• Stay alive
• Start where the system is
• Never work uphill
 Don’t build hills, work in the most promising arena,
build resources, don’t over organize, don’t argue if
you can’t win, play God a little
• Light many fires
• Load experiments for success
• Innovation requires a good idea, initiative, and a
few friends
• Keep an optimistic bias
• Capture the moment (timing is everything)
Self-efficacy through coaching
• Individuals with high self-efficacy are more likely
to succeed at tasks
 Those who think they can, do
• Training
 Self thought
• Challenge destructive patterns, build constructive patterns,
improve internal self talk, leverage mental imagery
 Guided Mastery
• Creating opportunities for people to be successful and
reinforcing success as due to their efforts
 Modeling – observing the success of others
 Psychological states – reducing stress & anxiety