I. Feudalism A political, economic, and social system that exchanges land for loyalty and military service. A. Japanese Feudalism Japan had an emperor, but rival clans battled for land. Warlords formed groups loyal to them, not the emperor. 1. A shogun is supreme military commander. 2. A daimyo is a powerful landowner. a. The shogun gave land to daimyo in exchange for protection. b. The most successful was the Tokugawa Shogunate, who ruled from 1603 - 1868. 3. Samurai, or warriors whose name means “those who serve” got land from the daimyo. a. Bushido, or “way of the warrior” is a code of honor, bravery, and loyalty that Samurai followed. B. Samurai who betrayed the code of bushido had to commit seppuku, or ritual suicide, rather than live without honor. The samurai would impale himself on his sword. C. Ronin were hired soldiers and were considered lower class. Don’t write! Unlike the solid steel plates used by European knights, Japanese armor consisted of thin strips of steel held together by brightly colored silk cords. The true samurai was supposed to have no fear of death. “If you think of saving your life,” it was said, “you had better not go to war at all.” Samurai prepared for hardship by going hungry or walking barefoot in the snow. It was said, “When a samurai’s stomach is empty, it is a disgrace to feel hungry.” 4. Peasants, artisans and merchants were below samurai a. 75-90% of Japan Don’t write! Peasants formed the backbone of feudal society. What does that mean? Don’t write! Peasant families cultivated rice and other crops on estates of samurai. Some peasants served as soldiers; rarely, some even became samurai. C A S T L E S Let’s compare European Feudalism to Japanese Feudalism! Differences Similarities Differences Japanese Feudalism European Feudalism Emperor - Highest position but no political power Pope Shogun - Actual ruler King Lords and nobles Daimyo -Powerful landowners Samurai- gave protection for land Knights Code of Bushido- behavior code Seppuku- ritual suicide, rather than live without honor Code of Chivalry Peasants and artisansprovided food and weapons Merchants- gained status slowly Serfs Later Merchants- High Middle Ages Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Hokkaido Tsuguru Strait Mt. Fuji Korea Strait Honshu Inland Sea Kyushu Shikoku East China Sea I. Geography A. Japan is an archipelago, or chain of islands in the Pacific O. B. Most of Japan is mountainous so people settled in arable or farmable river valleys and along coastal plains. C. Japan is in the Ring of Fire or . Pacific Rim of Fire, a region with many earthquakes and volcanoes Mt. Fuji D. A Tsunami is a huge tidal wave. E. A Typhoon is a hurricane in the Pacific Don’t write! Failure to Conquer Japan • • • In 1274 and again in 1281, Kublai Khan sent huge fleets to invade Japan. Both times, the Japanese turned them back. A typhoon (kamikaze) even destroyed one Mongol fleet. Farming is harder Mountains Less unity Islands Close to China and Korea Geography of Japan Shintoismreligion based on nature spirits Sea provides food, transportation, isolation, protection Cultural diffusion II. Culture A. China’s influence on Japan Writing Buddhism Japan adapted Chinese writing system to their language. Spread and flourished Zen Buddhism Values peace, simple living, nature and beauty. Confucianism proper behavior, loyalty, honoring parents (filial piety) and respect for learning “Harmony should be valued and quarrels (argument) should be avoided. Everyone has his bias (prejudice) and few men are far-sighted. Therefore some disobey their lords and fathers and keep up feuds (arguments) with their neighbors. But when superiors are in harmony with each other an inferiors are friendly, then affairs are discussed quietly and the right view of matters prevails (do well).” ~Prince Shotoku What philosophy does Prince Shotoku seem to be influenced by? Why? B. The Japanese practiced Selective borrowing, keeping some Chinese ideas and rejected others. C. Japanese Art Title: The Great Wave Off Kanagawa Museum/ Source: Honolulu Academy of Arts, Hawaii Artist: Katsushika Hokusai Medium: Polychrome woodblock print on paper Date: Edo period, c. 1828 Size: 9 7/8" X 14 5/8" (25 X 37.1 cm) 1. Calligraphy 2. Origami : The Art of Japanese Paper Folding Origami 3. Colorful woodblock prints became popular. D. Theater 1. Kabuki plays often showed family or historical events. -Dressed in colorful costumes, actors used exaggerated movements to convey action. Kabuki Theater An interior of a Kabuki theater. E. Literature Japanese poets adapted Chinese models, creating miniature poems called haiku. In only 3 lines and 17 syllables, feeling is expressed. Haiku : 17-syllable poem Spring departs. Birds cry Fishes' eyes are filled with tears. Matsuo Basho, Master of Haiku Don’t write! Polytheism Shinto Minimize sin & guilt Don’t write! Zen Buddhism A. During Japan’s feudal age, Zen Buddhism emphasized meditation and duty. B. Zen stressed compassion for all yet samurai fought to kill. Don’t write! At Zen monasteries, upper-class men learned to express devotion to nature in such activities as landscape gardening. Don’t write! Zen monks were the leading scholars and artisans of feudal Japan. The temple served as a Zen monastery and a peaceful retreat for visiting shoguns seeking advice. Don’t write! The elaborate rituals of the tea ceremony reflected Zen values of peace, simplicity, and love of beauty. Tea Ceremony A Japanese Tea Master A Japanese Tea House Bonzai : A Unique Method of Meditation Japanese Garden for Meditation Japanese Zen Garden Japanese Sand Garden Miniature Rock/Sand Garden Torii Gate in Winter Torii Gate Torii Gate DOMO ARIGATO!