Pd 3 - Mr. Trainor's Page

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to the Present
By Rahul Francis, Jialin Ke, Sabrina Sun, Noah
Amick, Anika Husain, and Stella Ma
Pd. 3 – AP World History – Mr. Trainor
Period 1: to 600 B.C.E.

Technological and Environmental
Transformations
Key Concept 1.1. Big Geography
and the Peopling of the Earth

 Archeological evidence indicates that during the Paleolithic
era, hunting-foraging bands of humans gradually migrated
from their origin in East Africa to the Americas, adapting
their technology and cultures to new climate regions.
 Humans used fire in new ways: to aid hunting and foraging,
to protect against predators, and to adapt to cold
environments.
 Humans developed a wider range of tools specially adapted
to different environments from tropics to tundra.
 Economic structures focused on small kinship groups of
hunting-foraging bands that could make what they needed to
survive. However, not all groups were self-sufficient; they
exchanged people, ideas, and goods.
Key Concept 1.2. The Neolithic
Revolution and Early Agricultural
Societies

 Beginning about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic
Revolution led to the development of new and more
complex economic and social systems.
 Possibly as a response to climatic change, permanent
agricultural villages emerged in Mesoamerica and the
Andes.
 Agriculture led to more reliable food supplies, which
increased the population As a result, these surpluses led
to labor specialization and development of elites.
 Increased technology also led to increase wealth and
trade, which created more hierarchical social structures
and promoted patrilineal societies.
Key Concept 1.3. The Development and
Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and
Urban Societies

 Core and foundational civilizations developed in a
variety of geographical and environmental settings
where agriculture flourished.
 Olmecs in Mesoamerica and Chavin in Andes
 The first states developed in core civilizations
Culture played a significant role in unifying states
through laws, language, literature, religion, myths,
and monumental art.
 In the Americas, monumental architecture, urban
planning and record keeping all began to develop.
Period 2:
600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.

Organization and Reorganization of
Human Societies
Key Concept 2.1. The Development and
Codification of Religious and Cultural
Traditions

 Codifications and further developments of existing
religious traditions provided a bond among the
people and an ethical code to live by. Most
Mesoamerican and Andean religions were
polytheistic.
 Artistic expressions, including literature and
drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive
cultural developments.
 Mesoamerica developed a distinct architectural style.
Key Concept 2.2. The Development
of States and Empires

 The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by
imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been
competing states.
 Teotihuacan and the Mayan city-states (Mesoamerica)
 Moche (Andean South American)
 Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration
based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms.
 Administrative institutions such as central governments and bureaucracies
were created. These institutions also projected military power over larger
areas through diplomacy, supply lines, defense and fortification, and the
creation of a military or soldier class.
Key Concept 2.3. Emergence of Transregional
Networks of Communication and Exchange

 New technologies facilitated long-distance
communication and exchange.
 The invention of things such as the yoke, saddle, and
stirrup made the use of pack animals (particular
llamas in the Americas) possible and practical.
 Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of
people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs,
food crops, domesticated animals, and disease
pathogens developed across far-flung networks of
communication and exchange.
Period 3:
600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.

Regional and Transregional Interactions
Key Concept 3.1. Expansion and
Intensification of Communication and
Exchange Networks

 Improved transportation technologies and
commercial practices led to an increased volume of
trade, and expanded the geographical range of
existing and newly active trade networks.
 Trading cities began to be formed such as Tenochtitlan in Mesoamerica
and Cahokia in North America
 Rulers imported luxury goods for public performances and for their
upscale lifestyle
 Teotihuacan was a state that was also one of the main producers of
tools and jewelry
 Teotihuacan’s economy and religious impact attracted many pilgrims
from far off lands and prompted them to become permanent citizens
Key Concept 3.2. Continuity and
Innovation of State Forms and Their
Interactions

 Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some
regions new state forms emerged.
 Toltec’s militarized the empire
 Warriors were very important and many pieces of
artwork depicted warfare
 After the fall of Toltec’s, Aztec empire rose
 Aztec’s did not have a two leader empire like the Toltec,
they had one supreme ruler
 Tribute system was added by the Aztecs
 Defeated states weren’t conquered, but instead forced to
pay tribute
Key Concept 3.3. Increased Economic
Productive Capacity and Its
Consequences

 Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial
production in many regions.
 Mainly agricultural because elites forced peasants onto
farms so they could produce food to support the large
population
 Built irrigation systems and terraces to support influx in
agriculture
 Chinampas (raised fields created along lake shores)
became a popular tool because it resisted frost and
allowed for year round agriculture
 Did not discover the wheel for a very long time and
utilized pulleys to create buildings instead
Period 4:
1450 C.E. – 1750 C.E.

Global Interactions
Key Concept 4.1. Globalizing Networks
of Communication and Exchange

 Technological developments in cartography, navigation, and shipbuilding made transoceanic crossings possible.
 Northern Atlantic crossings for fishing and settlements continued and
spurred European searches for multiple routes to Asia.
 The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by royal chartered
European monopoly companies that took silver from Spanish colonies in
the Americas to purchase Asian goods for the Atlantic markets.
 The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and free
and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European
cultures and peoples.
 European colonization led to the spread of disease and vermin in the
Americas which killed large amounts of the native populations.
 American foods became staples across the Atlantic and plantations with
forced labor began to arise.
 Afro-Eurasian crops, animals, and slaves were brought to the Americas.
Key Concept 4.2. New Forms of Social
Organization and Modes of Production

 Traditional peasant agriculture increased and changed,
plantations expanded, and demand for labor increased. These
changes both fed and responded to growing global demand for
raw materials and finished products.
 The growth of the plantation economy in America increased the
demand for coerced labor such as African slaves, the hacienda and
encomienda systems, the Spanish adaptation of the Inca mit’a, etc.
 As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured
new ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies.
 e.g. The Creole elites in Spanish America
 The massive demographic changes in the Americas resulted in new
ethnic and racial classifications.
Key Concept 4.3. State Consolidation
and Imperial Expansion

 Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their
power.
 This included religious ideas (e.g. human sacrifice practiced by the
Mexicas/Aztecs).
 States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that utilized their
economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the
authority of the state.
 The Spanish created a separate “República de Indios” for the native
population.
 Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons,
and armed trade to establish large empires in the Western Hemisphere.
 The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French, and British all began to
establish maritime empires in the New World.
 Competition over trade routes, state rivalries, and local resistance all provided
significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
 Piracy in the Caribbean is an example
Changes and Continuities Over
Time: 1450 C.E. – 1750 C.E.

 Religion began to be introduced through foreign
conquests.
 Catholicism was introduced during colonization and
some early colonists practiced forced conversion of
native people to Catholicism.
 Throughout this period in time, religion continued to
play a huge role in the cultural aspect of society.
 Over time, it also began to intertwine with
government affairs.
Period 5:
1750 C.E -1900 C.E.

Industrialization and Global Integration
Key Concept 5.1: Industrialization
and Global Capitalism

 New patterns of trade and production developed and
further integrated the global economy as industrialists
sought raw material and new markets for the increasing
amount and array of goods produced in their factories.
 The need for raw materials for the factories and increased
food supplies for the growing population in urban centers
led to the growth of export economies around the world that
specialized in mass producing single natural resources.
 The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial
production encouraged industrialized states to seek out
new consumer markets for their finished goods. Latin
America became important market for European and
American consumer goods
Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and
Nation State Formation

 Industrialized states (particularly America) practiced
economic imperialism on Latin American countries.
 The 1808 ban against the international slave trade in America
as well as the anti-slavery movement stopped most AmericanAfrican trade and caused plantations to fail.
 The decline of plantations required the United States to turn
elsewhere for crops and raw materials, particularly Latin
America. The U.S. began a form of economic imperialism that
resulted in many foreign interests monopolizing Latin
American economies. Examples include the United Fruit
Company and the U.S. control of Cuban sugar.
 New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture
also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic
empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the
formation of new national identities.
Key Concept 5.3: Nationalism,
Revolution, Reform

 Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled
reformist and revolutionary movements.
 The American Revolution - taxes and no representation
 In 1804, Haiti was the first Latin American country to be
independent. Slaves and the gens de couleur (led by
Toussaint) rose up against the white planters who has
abused them.
 Increasing questions about political authority and
growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial
movements.
 Napoleon's conquest of Spain triggered the revolutions that
ensued. Feeling no loyalty to a French king, the creoles (led
by Bolivar and San Martin) broke away and freed Spanish
colonies.
Key Concept 5.4: Global Migrations

 Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in
demography in both industrialized and unindustrialized
societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of
living
 European and Asian immigration to Latin America
(particulary Argentina, Chile, Brazil) increased dramatically
because of indentured servitutde, which had replaced slavery.
 Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen
in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the
ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people
across their borders.
 Asians were more often discriminated against than Europeans.
Europeans were also stereotyped.
 People blamed immigrants for causing hardships for native
workers by accpeting low wages and threatened national
culture by resisting assimiltion.
Period 6:
1900 C.E. - Present

Accelerating Global Change and
Realignments
Key Concept 6.1. Science and the
Environment

 Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread
throughout the world, assisted by the development of new
technology.
 Modern communication and transportation eliminated the
problem of global distance.
 The Green Revolution produced food for the growing global
population as it changed agricultural methods.
 Medical innovations eradicated diseases that plagued poorer
nations in Latin America.
 Oil and nuclear power raised productivity and production.
 Humans exploited natural resources.
 Effects include deforestation, global warming, and pollution.
 Improved military technology meant that larger amounts of
people died in attacks.
Key Concept 6.2. Global Conflicts
and their Consequences

 Movements to redistribute land and resources developed within states in
Latin America, sometimes advocating communism and socialism.
 World War I and World War II were the first “total wars.” Governments
used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism and communism, to
mobilize all of their state’s resources, including peoples, both in the home
countries and the colonies or former colonies, for the purpose of waging war.
 The shift of global political and economic balance after World War II led
to the emergence of the U.S. and Soviet Union as superpowers. The Cold
War broke out as an ideological struggle between capitalism and
communism
 New military alliances (NATO and Warsaw Pact) led to proxy wars in
Latin America as the U.S. and the Soviet Union fought to ally with
smaller nations.
Key Concept 6.3. New Conceptualizations of
Global Economy, Society, and Culture

 At the beginning of the century in the United States, the
government played a minimal role in their national
economy. With the onset of the Great Depression,
governments began to take a more active role in economic life.
 At the end of the twentieth century, many governments
encouraged free market economic policies and promoted
economic liberalization.
 e.g. The U.S. under Reagan, Chile under Pinochet
 States, communities, and individuals became increasingly
interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of
institutions of global governance.
 Formation of the United Nations, NAFTA, WHO, WTO…
 Popular and consumer culture became global.
Changes and Continuities
Over Time: 1900 C.E. - Present

 Global trade slowed down during the Great Depression,
with nearly a 62% decrease.
 North American multinational corporations began to
have foreign interests in Latin America with the decline of
cheap labor in the U.S.
 Examples include the U.S. control of Cuban sugar and the
United Fruit Company in Guatemala
 This oppressive foreign presence created a large gap
between the rich and the poor and angered many
peasants in Latin America.
 This led to revolutions (many of them Communist/socialist)
in Latin America, such as Fidel Castro’s Cuban revolution.
 Despite this, many nations in the Americas continued to
export many important goods Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Works Cited
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AP World History Course and Exam Description. Publication. CollegeBoard, n.d.
Web. 10 May 2014.
Eddins, O. Ned. Alternate Pre-Historic Indian Routes - Anthropik Network. Digital
image. Paleo-Indian Migration of
North and South America. N.p., 2002. Web.
Latin America, 1800-1850. Digital image. Student Atlas. Rand McNally, 2005.
Web.
McDougal, Holt. World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, I.L.: Holt
McDougal, 2010. Print.
Olson-Raymer, Gayle. Missile Crisis 1962. Digital image. The Cold War in the
International Arena. Humboldt State University, 10 May 2014. Web.
Ropp, Lydia. A map of the Americas showing the three major Mesoamerican
civilizations of the Middle Ages. Digital image. The Americas. Skyline High
School, 28 July 2000. Web.
Topographical map illustrating 3000 years of Meso-America beginning with the
Olmec Chiefdoms followed by the Mayans and then eventually the Aztecs.
Digital image. Mesoamerican Civilizations and Sustainability. Museum of the City,
n.d. Web. 10 May 2014
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