Assessment and Evaluation in Inclusive Settings

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Catholic College at Mandeville

Assessment and Evaluation in Inclusive Settings Sessions 3 & 4 ---- 07/14/2015

Launcelot I. Brown Lisa Philip

Assessment and Evaluation in Inclusive Settings

Objectives:

 Discuss how regular ed. teachers contribute to assessment process  Examine alternate assessments for students with cognitive disabilities  Define curriculum-based assessment  Construct probes of academic, prerequisite skills, content-area knowledge, and independent learning skills  Use curriculum-based assessments to make special ed. decisions  Use performance-based and portfolio assessments for students with disabilities

Assessment and Decision Making

Six Areas of Decision Making 1) Screening

Decision about whether a student’s performance differs enough from peers to merit further testing

2) Diagnosis

Decision about eligibility for special education services

3) Program Placement

Decision involving the setting in which a student’s special education services will take place

Assessment and Decision Making

Six Areas of Decision Making 4) Curriculum Placement

Decision involving the level at which to begin instruction for the student

5) Instructional Evaluation

Decision involving whether to continue or change instructional procedures

6) Programme Evaluation

Decision involving whether a student’s special education program should be terminated, continued as is, or modified

Information Sources for Programming

High-Stakes Achievement Tests

Standardized Achievement Tests

~ ~ Group Administered Individually Administered 

Psychological Tests

Alternate Assessments

Curriculum-Based Assessments

Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA)

What it is: A procedure for determining the instructional needs of a student based on the student’s ongoing performance within existing course content. (Gilking & Havertape, 1981, p.55)

Why CBA

 It complies with the procedural requirements for meeting the learning needs of Individual with Disabilities.

 It is efficient.

 It is a valid, reliable basis for making decisions.

 It can be used to make various kinds of decisions (e.g., screening and programme effectiveness).

 It increases students achievement.

Curriculum-Based Assessments

 Effective alternative to standardized tests  Measure based on what is taught in class  Match between what is taught and what is tested  Measure performance over time  Compare students by class, school, or district  Allow teachers to adjust instruction

Curriculum-Based Assessment:

How conducted?

 Direct observation and analysis of the learning environment.

 Analysis of the processes students use to approach tasks  Examination of students’ products  Controlling and arranging tasks for students

Conducting CBA

Three Suggestions 1) Identify Information in Classroom 2) Select Representative Skills, Not All Skills 3)

~

Keep Level and Scoring Consistent

Probes of reading skills ~ ~ Probes of written expression skills Probes of math skills

Curriculum-Based Assessment

An advantage of using CBA as a form of measurement of student performance is:  It allows teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction they provide to the students, but even more so to individual students

Instructional Diagnosos

 An assessment practice used to identify the extent to which a student’s poor performance is as a result of poor instruction and to indicate possible remedies for the problem.

 It is a systematic analysis of the instruction.

 A systematic analysis of what is required of the student.

 A systematic analysis of the components of the task.

The last point requires the teacher to break complex tasks into their component skills – TASK ANALYSIS.

Evaluating Student Learning

 Ways that students are usually evaluated (testing, grading) can be problematic  Current climate of expectations and accountability complicates the process  Accommodations must assist students without compromising their ability to meet standards on high-stakes tests

Making Accomodations for Classroom Tests Accomodations Before the Test

 Prepare a Study Guide  Give a Practice Test  Offer Tutoring  Teach Test-Taking Skills  Demonstrate Memorization Techniques

Making Accomodations for Classroom Tests Accomodations Before the Test

 Teach Students to Organize Materials  Demonstrate a Rehearsal Strategy  Show How to Take Essay Tests  Modify Your Test Construction

Making Accomodations for Classroom Tests Accomodations During the Test

 Use Alternative Forms of Questions  Use Alternative Ways to Administer Tests  Use Alternative Test Sites

Making Accomodations for Classroom Tests Accomodations After the Test

 Change Letter or Number Grades  Change Grading Criteria  Use Alternatives to Letter or Number Grades (such as Competency Checklist)

Performance-Based and Portfolio Assessments

Measure learning process rather than focusing only on learning product.

Benefits of Performance-Based Assessments

 Involve authentic learning tasks (those presented in real-world contexts that have real-world outcomes)  Allow students to demonstrate knowledge without relying on reading and writing  Are not subject to time restraints of traditional tests  Help make connections to real life and real skills

Problems with Performance-Based Assessments

 Have difficulty making connections between tasks and real world issues  Lack important preskills for problem solving  Need problem-solving taught directly  Need demonstrations of tasks

Benefits of Portfolio Assessments

 Offer purposeful collection of work to measure effort, progress, and achievement  Contain observable evidence (though may or may not reflect authentic tasks)  Assist in evaluation of progress toward IEP goals  Emphasize products rather than test scores  Allow for student self-evaluation

Problems with Portfolio Assessments

 Need help in understanding how to select work  Need help in understanding how to evaluate work

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