Greco_Roman Mediterranean

and hills,
surrounded by
Sea and
limited rich
Mediterranean Basin:
Influence of
geography on
next to a
river; city
built on
many hills;
limited rich
soil; focal
point for an
Greece and Rome
Greek culture
Columns and engineering
Controlled the Mediterranean
Golden Ages
Former colonies of each other
Great militaries (army and navies)
Both held colonies
Merchants important
Large slave population
Pantheon vs Parthenon
Centralized vs decentralized
Roman Empire larger
Republic vs Direct Democracy
Latin vs Greek
Christianity (Rome and
Silk road for Roman trade
Extended citizenship to
conquered subjects
Roman fell to nomadic barbarians
Roman Roads
From 600 B.C.E-600 C.E in the Classical Mediterranean,
The role of civic participation in government would
Continue from Athenian to Roman democracy, the
Mediterranean would serve as a conduit of goods
And ideas, however, the introduction of Christianity
By Roman Emperor Constantine would change the
Religious Ideology for countless souls throughout
The Mediterranean region
Or just a snapshot
The classical age in the Mediterranean saw the decline and fall of the Greek Poleis
And the rise of Alexander’s Macedonian Empire. The traditionally Greek (Hellenic)
Culture became intermingled with Persian, Egyptian and Indian cultures (Hellenistic).
The polytheistic religion, however, of the Mediterranean would remain solidly intact
Social Studies SOL 3.1 The student will explain how the contributions of ancient Greece and Rome have
the present world in terms of architecture, government (direct and representative democracy), and sports.
The ancient Greeks and
Romans have influenced the
lives of people today.
Direct democracy: a government in which
people vote to make their own rules and
Representative democracy: a government in
which people vote for (elect) a smaller
group of citizens to make their rules and
laws for everyone
Republic – system of government in which
representatives are chosen by the people. It
is a form of democracy
Rule of law - government by law. The rule
of law implies that government authority
may only be exercised in accordance with
written laws, which were adopted through
an established procedure.
Classical Greece
emerged ca. 750 BCE, flourished for
about 400 years
• Distinctiveness of
Hellenic civilization
• City-states (POLIS)
political units made up
of a city & surrounding
lands, shared common
language and common
• Each polis had a distinct
form of government
• Colonization around
Mediterranean basin
and Black Sea
How did the geography of
Greece present obstacles to
a unified Greek country?
Popular participation in political
life of city-states (polis)
• Equality of all citizens before law
• Extent of citizenship varied by time period &
– Only wealthy and well-born at first
– Gradually expanded to middle- & lower-class
– Element was ability to afford armor & weapons to
fight as hoplites
– Tyrants (dictators) emerged in many areas,
supported by poorer classes against the rich
• Athens
• Sparta
• Government:
• Limited democracy (only male
citizens could participate),
Council of 500 which made
the laws, voting Assembly.
• Soldiers:
• Citizen soldiers - only during
• Slaves:
• No political rights or
freedoms. Owned by
• Women:
• Cared for the home, limited
political rights.
• Education:
• Upper class boys only.
Military training and
preparation for government
involvement. Knowledge was
important for a democratic
• Government:
• Two kings (military generals)
and a council of elders.
Citizens were male, native
born, over 30.
• Soldiers:
• Military society, all males
prepared to be soldiers from
birth. Soldiers from age 7 – 30.
• Slaves
• Owned by the State
• Women:
• Prepared physically for
fighting, right to inherit
property, must obey men.
• Education:
• Boys only. Military based
training from age 7. Taught to
fight. Prohibition against
trade, travel and mixing with
other city-states.
Athenian "democracy" was
restricted in scope and in time
• Citizens had time for public service largely because
they owned slaves.
• Most residents of Athens were not citizens and had
no say in government.
• During the era of Pericles (about 30 years), the
population was about 450,000, and less than 10%
were adult male citizens with the power to vote.
• About 18% of the population were foreign-born with
no legal rights and 55% of the residents of Athens
were enslaved. Women had no political rights.
Collision: Persian Wars
490 – 479 BCE
The Greek city-states did not unite until
faced with a common enemy: Persia
Notion of East/West divide
as dominant theme in
European thought:
Greece: Europe, freedom
Persia: Asia, despotism
Athens –
The City Pericles Built
 Direct Democracy – Citizen assembly
voted directly on laws
 Huge construction projects –
Acropolis and Parthenon rebuilt
 Emphasis on arts, architecture,
philosophy and medicine
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 BCE)
• Sparta led resistance to Athenian imperialism
(Athenian naval power had led to dominance
over allies)
• Athens defeated
• Greek states were exhausted, distrusted each
• Opening the way to takeover by Macedonia, a
frontier region on the northern edge of Greece
Collision: Alexander
& The Hellenistic Era
The World of Alexander the
Great, 333 BCE – 323 BCE
 Philip conquered Greece in 359 BCE; his next conquest
was to be the Persian empire.
 The Macedonian army was the most superbly trained in
the world. It made use of the phalanx configuration.
 Philip was assassinated before he could attack and
conquer Persia.
 His son, Alexander, at the age of 20 took the throne and
created a massive Greek empire that reached from Egypt
and Anatolia to Afghanistan and India.
The Legacy of Alexander
Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, his
empire began to divide and dissolve. However, Alexander
left behind a legacy of Greek thought, language and
custom that survives in part today.
 Local cultures assimilated Greek ideas and
language. They became Hellenic – or “Greek like” The
Hellenistic Age is the age of the dissemination of
Greek culture after through much of Asia and Egypt.
 A simplified form of Greek was widely spoken from
Mediterranean to India.
 Encouraged the work of scholars in cities that were
newly founded. Built libraries all over the empire –
especially at Alexandria, Egypt. Emphasized
mathematics, medicine, science and philosophy.
Roman Empire across three continents - Roman rule
Replaced that of Greeks in western part of Hellenistic
world, continuing to spread Greek culture and ideas.
Social Studies SOL 3.1 The student will explain how the contributions of ancient Greece and Rome have
the present world in terms of architecture, government (direct and representative democracy), and sports.
The Republic of Rome,
about 509 BCE
Republic: System of
government in which
officials are elected by the
Senate: Most powerful
governing body. 300
members – all patricians.
Made the laws.
First laws codified into the
Twelve Tables
Two Consuls – elected by
Senate. Ran the
government and the army.
Conflict with poorer
classes developed into a
political role for Tribunes
– elected by the people
(plebeians) and could vote
Judges – Oversaw courts
Pride in
values: rule of
law, citizens'
rights, lack of
morality and a
work ethic - "the
way of the
The Creation of Empire
Beginning in 490s BCE with wars to control Italian
peninsula, the creation of empire was extended to a
competition for control of the Mediterranean Sea with the
Carthaginians in Africa.
After three wars
with the
Carthaginians –
called the Punic
wars – the Romans
emerged as the
supreme rulers of
the Mediterranean
Creation of Empire
• “The Carthaginians fought for their own
preservation and the sovereignty of Africa.
The Romans for supremacy and world
domination.” ( a Greek witness to the
destruction of Carthage.)
• The Romans were committed to a policy of
imperialism - domination by one state of
the political, economic or cultural life of
another weaker state or region.
Political Crisis of
First Century BCE
• Widespread use of slave labor from
conquered territories. Slave labor forced
small farmers out of business. Led to mass
unemployment and poverty.
• Mob riots and corruption in the government.
Attempts at reform failed.
• Civil wars began. Julius Caesar emerged as
dictator of Rome, decline of republican
• Caesar Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 BCE) as first
emperor with sole authority
Pax Romana
Latin for "the Roman peace", is the long period
of peace experienced by states within the
Roman Empire. The term stems from the fact
that Roman rule and its legal system pacified
regions which had suffered from the quarrels
between rival leaders, sometimes forcefully.
During this time Rome still fought a number of
wars against neighboring states and tribes,
most notably the Germanic tribes and Parthia. It
was an era of relative tranquility, in which Rome
endured neither major civil wars, such as the
perpetual bloodshed of the first century BCE,
nor serious invasions. Characterized by rule by
emperors and a lack of democracy but security
and relative prosperity.
Roman Achievement
 Roman Roads - As early as the 4th century BCE, a
good road system was recognized as vital for military
deployment, communication and increasing
commerce. By having an option to traveling around
the peninsula or along the coast line of Italy, travelers
and merchants could avoid some threat of storms,
pirates and navigational problems.
 Well trained and extensive military. Because the
military presence on Roman roads was so extensive,
travel and trade were safer and much faster.
 Roman rule of law - An accused person is innocent
until proven guilty.
The Colosseum
ROME: Aqueducts
ROME: The Pantheon