10.3.2: Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison). “The Father of the Industrial Revolution” In 1769 he patented the water-frame which was the mechanism that made possible inexpensive yarns to manufacture cheap fabric, on which the subsequent great expansion of the cotton industry was based. In 1771, Arkwright and a partner built a the world's first water-powered mill at Cromford, England. Known for developing the first factory system and applying water power to the spinning frame. Born on January 19, 1736, in Scotland Made improvements to Thomas Newcomen’s 1712 engine that was used to pump water out of mines. Watt’s designed and improved engines from 1763 to 1775 Increased fuel efficiency By 1824, he and his partner Matthew Bolton had produced 1164 steam engines to be used in manufacturing and transportation. Freed British manufacturing from dependency on water powered mill, allowing for greater industrial growth. Born in Massachusetts, December 8, 1765 Invented the Cotton Gin in 1793, which cleaned cotton removing its seeds Made cotton a much more profitable crop by reducing the cost of labor involved in cleaning the cotton Resulted in cheaper cotton products that could be purchased at affordable prices by more and more people. Extended slavery throughout the southern U.S. The American System of Manufacturing The combination of power machinery, interchangeable parts, and division of labor that would underlie the nation’s industrial revolution. Born January 19, 1813 in England Most widely know for the development of the Bessemer Process used to develop steel. Bessemer first described this process on August 24, 1856. Essentially the process allows for a blast of air to be sent through the molten which releases impurities such as carbon in the form of gas or slag. The mass production of steel lowered its price to the cost of wrought iron allowing for the production of better buildings, bridges, and guns (the original motivation). Born on December 27, 1822 in Franc Developed Germ Theory Proved that fermentation process was caused by the growth of microorganism not spontaneous generation Discovered that some beverages, like milk, had bacteria and molds present in them that could be killed through a heating process that would become known as pasteurization Developed a method of creating weakened diseased organisms to be injected into hosts as vaccines against various diseases like rabies. Born in Milan, Ohio on February 11, 1848 Considered to be one of the most prolific inventors of all time. Over 1000 patents “Wizard of Menlo Park” Inventions: a marketable light bulb, phonograph, power stations, electric chair, kinetoscope (machine for viewing short films).