Inventors and Inventions of the Industrial Revolution

10.3.2: Examine how scientific and technological changes and new
forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and
cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James
Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas
 “The Father of the Industrial Revolution”
 In 1769 he patented the water-frame
which was the mechanism that made
possible inexpensive yarns to
manufacture cheap fabric, on which the
subsequent great expansion of the cotton
industry was based.
 In 1771, Arkwright and a partner built a
the world's first water-powered mill at
Cromford, England.
 Known for developing the first factory
system and applying water power to the
spinning frame.
 Born on January 19, 1736, in Scotland
 Made improvements to Thomas
Newcomen’s 1712 engine that was used
to pump water out of mines.
 Watt’s designed and improved engines
from 1763 to 1775
 Increased fuel efficiency
 By 1824, he and his partner Matthew
Bolton had produced 1164 steam
engines to be used in manufacturing
and transportation.
 Freed British manufacturing from
dependency on water powered mill,
allowing for greater industrial growth.
 Born in Massachusetts, December 8,
Invented the Cotton Gin in 1793, which
cleaned cotton removing its seeds
Made cotton a much more profitable
crop by reducing the cost of labor
involved in cleaning the cotton
Resulted in cheaper cotton products
that could be purchased at affordable
prices by more and more people.
Extended slavery throughout the
southern U.S.
 The American System of
 The combination of power
machinery, interchangeable
parts, and division of labor
that would underlie the
nation’s industrial
 Born January 19, 1813 in England
 Most widely know for the development of
the Bessemer Process used to develop
 Bessemer first described this process on
August 24, 1856.
 Essentially the process allows for a blast
of air to be sent through the molten
which releases impurities such as carbon
in the form of gas or slag.
 The mass production of steel lowered its
price to the cost of wrought iron allowing
for the production of better buildings,
bridges, and guns (the original
 Born on December 27, 1822 in Franc
 Developed Germ Theory
 Proved that fermentation process was
caused by the growth of microorganism
not spontaneous generation
 Discovered that some beverages, like
milk, had bacteria and molds present in
them that could be killed through a
heating process that would become
known as pasteurization
 Developed a method of creating
weakened diseased organisms to be
injected into hosts as vaccines against
various diseases like rabies.
 Born in Milan, Ohio on February
11, 1848
Considered to be one of the most
prolific inventors of all time.
Over 1000 patents
“Wizard of Menlo Park”
Inventions: a marketable light
bulb, phonograph, power
stations, electric chair,
kinetoscope (machine for
viewing short films).