AP English Language & Composition Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Many of the argument analyses and argument construction prompts will assess your ability to manipulate three levels of argumentation: ethos, pathos, and logos. But here is the rub—the graders will not be impressed if you only use the generic terms; they want you to cite specific techniques that fall within each term (better an emotional anecdote than only pathos; better provides eye-witness testimony rather than only logos). To that end, the list below should be useful on the exam. Ethos 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Demonstrates that the writer has put in research time. Supports reasons with logical evidence. Provides a carefully crafted and edited argument. Demonstrates that the writer knows and respects the audience. Makes the audience believe the writer is trustworthy. Convinces the audience that the writer is reliable and knowledgeable. Pathos 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Uses language that involves the senses. Includes a bias or a prejudice. Uses emotional diction. Includes a compelling anecdote. Uses description. Uses figurative language. Develops a charged tone. Logos 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Incorporates inductive and deductive reasoning. Cites traditional culture and commonly held beliefs. Alludes to history, religious texts, literature and mythology. Cites authorities. Provides and classifies apt examples. Uses facts. Explores causes and effects. Uses chronological order. Argues from precedent. Constructs analogies and metaphors.