Toxins Slackers Facts by Mike Ori Disclaimer The information represents my understanding only so errors and omissions are probably rampant. It has not been vetted or reviewed by faculty. The source is our class notes. The document can mostly be used forward and backward. I tried to mark questionable stuff with (?). If you want it to look pretty, steal some crayons and go to town. Finally… If you’re a gunner, buck up and do your own work. List the staph aureus toxins Alpha toxin Exfolatin Pyrogenic Toxin Superantigens (PTSAgs) Enterotoxin Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin (TSST) Alpha toxin effects Pore forming exotoxin Exfolatin symptoms Exfoliation at epidermal stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum PTSags action Activates T cells via MHC-II interaction with APC regardless of TCR fit Staph food poisoning toxin Staph Enterotoxins (PTSags) Enterotoxin effect Vomiting by direct action on nerves. TSST effects Superantigen based shock M protein producer Group A strep (pyogenes) M protein effect Surface antigen Fixes serum factor H which inactivates complement Group A Strep (GAS) toxins Streptolysin O Streptococcal Pryogenic Exotoxin (Spe) Streptolysin O function Pore forming exotoxin Streptolysin O serum sign Anti Strep O antibodies (ASO) Toxin similar to Strep Pyrogenic Exotoxin (Spe) PTSAgs Spe effects Systemic effects like fever, rash Strep agalactiae surface antigen Polysaccharide capsule Strep pneumoniae pore forming exotoxin Pneumolysin Pneumolysin function Pore forming exotoxin Pneumolysin target cells Respiratory epithelium Strep pneumoniae antigen Polysaccharide capsule Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin Diphtheria toxin (DT) DT function A-B toxin that ADP-ribosylates ribosome EF-2 to halt protein synthesis. Internalin producer Listeria Interalin function Facilitates Listeria entry into cell Listerlysin O function Pore forming exotoxin Bacillis anthracis capsule characteristic D-glutamic acid capsule with antiphagocytic properties Anthrax exotoxin description Three component exotoxin composed of lethal factor, protective antigen, and edema factor. Not well described in notes. I think we only need to know it has one. Clostridium perfringens toxin Alpha toxin Alpha toxin function Kills muscle cells. Not well described in notes. Toxin produced by Clostridium difficile Toxin A – enterotoxin Toxin B – cytotoxin Toxin A effects Hemorrhagic necrosis Toxin B effects Disrupts microfilaments and decreases protein synthesis Name the other two Clostridia toxins Tetanospasmin toxin Botulism toxin Tetanospasmin toxin function Inhibits the action of inhibitory neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord to produce rigid paralysis Botulism toxin effects Blocks the release of Ach at the neuromuscular junction to produce flaccid paralysis. Removes wrinkles in foreheads. Bacteriodes fragilis capsule characteristics Polysaccharide capsule that confers resistance to phagocytosis Gram negative endemic toxin Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) AKA endotoxin Common to all Gram-negatives Neisseria menigitidis toxin LPS blebs Neisseria gonorrhea toxin LPS Cholera toxin characteristics An A-B toxin that inhibits GTPase activity of Gas to cause overproduction of cAMP thus causing Cl-, K, HCO3, Na to exit the cell drawing water with them resulting in watery diarrhea. Cholera toxin systemic effects None to speak of as cholera are not invasive. Helicobacter pylori toxin Vacuolating cytotoxin Vacuolating cytotoxin function Causes apoptosis that results in large cytoplasmic vaculoles Cag secretor H pylori Cag entry mechanism Direct injection Cag function Alters cellular proteins and has a strong association with virulence Antecedant cause of gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma Cag+ strains of H pylori Alpha hemolysin secretor E. Coli Alpha hemolysin function Pore forming exotoxin Shiga toxin secretor EHEC Shigella dysenteriae type 1 Shiga toxin effects A-B toxin that binds to the 60s ribosome on the 28s subunit to block the tRNA binding site thus disabling protein synthesis. Labile toxin and stabile toxin secretor ETEC EPEC (?) (Others ??) LT function Increase cAMP LT stability Breaks down at low temp Stabile toxin function Increase cGMP ST stability Breaks down at higher temp and thus is more stabile than LT. Salmonella typhi toxin LPS Hib capsule characteristics Ribose, ribitol, and phosphate (polyribitol phosphate) capsule that is associated with virulence Bordetella pertussis toxin characteristics An A-B toxin that ADP-ribosylates a Gai thus leading to prolonged activation of adenylyl cyclase and a concomitant in cAMP. This interferes with immune cell function, Soluble adenylate cyclase producer B pertussis AC characteristics Increases cAMP production when activated by Ca/calmodulin. Tracheal toxin producer B pertussis Tracheal toxin characteristics A cytotoxic compound that is a fragment of the cell wall of B pertussis. It has direct cytotoxic effects on ciliated respiratory epithelium. Name the Psuedomonas aeruginosa toxins Exotoxin A Elastase Exoenzyme S Exotoxin A function Enters cells to interfere with ribosomal EF-2 to shut down protein synthesis. It is analogous to but not homologous to DT. Elastase function Degrades elastase Exoenzyme S function ADP-ribosylates intracellular proteins including cytoskeleton filament vimentin P aeruginosa capsule description A thick alginate that forms a protective biofilm that is particularly troublesome in CF patients.