Introduction to Management
 What is management?
 What is management coordination?
 What are objectives?
 Management characteristics
 Management skills
 In the home
 In the community
 In school
 In government
 In business/enterprise
 Management v Enterprise
Management (2006 SQ 3)
 Management is the process of setting and achieving
objectives by making the best use of people, time,
money and equipment.
 A manager (CEO) or (MD) is responsible for the
overall day to day running of the business.
Co-ordination (2001 SQ 4)
 Managers must ensure that all parts of an
organisation is working towards a common goal.
 Everyone needs to be aware of the overall objectives.
 Good managers ensures that the plans and activities
of each section fits in with each other.
What is an Objective?
 An objective is a target to be achieved some time in
the future.
 Business Example: Increase sales by 10% in the next
 Personal Example: Get an A1 in Business in the
Leaving Certificate!!
A general objective
 Is a mission statement.
 It gives an outline of the overall aims of the
 Example: Pfizer’s mission is to apply science and
our global resources to improve health and wellbeing at every stage of life
A specific objective
 A statement of a more narrow and defined target.
 Example: The company will increase the workforce
by 10% this year.
Tactical Objective
 A short to medium term goal.
 It will take 1 to 5 years to achieve.
 Example: increase sales by 20% within three years
Strategic Objective
 A long term goal.
 It will take 5 to 20 years to achieve.
 Example: expand internationally by opening 20
shops around the world.
Management Terms
 Effectiveness
 Efficiency
 Productivity
Management Terms
 Effectiveness – measure the success of the business
in achieving it’s objective
 Efficiency – a business is efficient when it uses the
least amount of resources to achieve the best results
 Productivity – is the relationship between inputs
(raw materials) and outputs (finished products
Productivity is high when few inputs generate many outputs
High productivity reduces costs and increases profits
Management Characteristics
Desire for achievement
 Managers are self-starters.
 They have the initiative to do things themselves.
 Managers have confidence in themselves to make
decisions and promote their business.
 Managers are positive in their approach.
 Managers must have the innate ability to be flexible
and be able to cope with different situations.
 They don’t mind moving outside their “comfort
 They don’t mind change or trying something new.
 Managers must have an air about them that
commands respect.
 They must be liked by their subordinates if they are
to be successful in influencing them to achieve
Hard working
 Managers must be willing to spend long hours at
 They should be the first to arrive and the last to
 They must lead by example.
Hard working
 Managers must have the intelligence & judgement
to make quick and effective decisions.
 They must be confident in their own ability to make
Desire for achievement
 Managers must have a strong desire to see their
business succeed.
 They must be willing to put in the effort needed
for this.
Management Skills
 Leadership
 Communication
 Motivation
 A leader is a person who gives direction by guiding
people towards achievieng goals.
 They delegate tasks and responsibilities to others in
order to involve them, share the work load and reduce
 They coordinate the efforts of staff in each
department in order to ensure that harmony and
common goals are known achieved. (2001 SQ 4)
 They motivate staff by being aware of the factors
that entice workers to be more productive.
Communication is a management skill that involves the
transfer of information from one person to another in a
way that it is received and understood.
Communication involves being able to:
 Read and write in the appropriate language
 Speak to individuals and groups
 Be aware of the recipient(s)
 Stimulate, motivate and negotiate
 Listen, filter and absorb
 Act on feedback
 Is a management skill that involves persuading
people to act in a certain way.
 It involves being aware of the factors that lead
people to act in a certain way.
 Theories of motivation include McGregor’s Theory X
and Throry Y and Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.
Management skills in the home
 Leaders: Parents/Guardians
 Communicate with: Children, school, doctors, banks,
 Motivate: children to do house & school work & have
healthy lifestyle.
Management skills in the community
 Leaders = Volunteers
 Communicate with: Businesses, voluntary groups,
government agencies.
 Motivate: Government to give grants, businesses to
give sponsorship, locals to give free time.
Management skills in school
 Leaders: Principal & Deputy Principal
 Communicate with: Teachers, students, parents,
HSE, doctors.
 Motivate: Teachers & students to work hard, parents
to support children, fundraise…
Management skills in government
 Leaders = Ministers
 Communicate with: Civil servants, social partners
 Motivate: All social partners to agree on national
wage agreements and policies
Management skills in business/enterprise
 Leaders: Entrepreneurs
 Communicate with: Investors, suppliers, customers…
 Motivate: Investors to give them money, suppliers to
give credit & discount.
Similarities between Enterprise & Management
Choose three characteristics that are the same and
explain each one using a heading and bullet points.
Distinguish between Enterprise & Management
(2009 SQ 7)
 Enterprise is the ability to generate new ideas,
identify opportunities and have the confidence,
motivation & determination to take an uninsurable
risk to turn an idea into reality.
 Example: Mark Zuckerberg took the risk to setup
 Management is the process of getting objectives &
activities completed efficiently & effectively through
the use of human & financial resources on a day to day
 Management skills
Leadership, Communication & Motivation.
 Management activities
 Planing Organising & Controlling.
 Example: Manager of a branch of Dunnes Stores
Sample Exam Questions
 2009 Q 7. Enterprise v
 2006 Q 3. Management
 2001 Q 4. Co-ordination
 2009 Q4
 2002 Q 4 (Management
skills in home,
community, government,
business start up)
 1999 Q 4 (Letter:
Applied Business Questions
 2010 (C): Management Skills
 2004 (C): Management Skills
 1999 (C): Management Skills
Recap and Review
 What is management?
 What is management coordination?
 What are objectives?
 Management characteristics
 Management skills
 In the home
 In the community
 In school
 In government
 In business/enterprise
 Management v Enterprise