While in Italy the Renaissance was developing in the rest of Europe the Gothic remains to early 16th century The beginning Italy coexist with the Roman Antiquity and can inspire on it. Florence (1400s) the starting point of the new style the first works from here will be extended to the rest of Italy the development of a rich bourgeoisie aid the deployment of the forces of the Renaissance. the protection of the Medici Research of Classical Antiquity Humanism Positivism Modern spirit of individuality & Self-awareness Realism in sculpture and painting New ideal of beauty Scientific development New relationship with Nature Search for harmony, balance and serenity Rational attitude to the world, but without abandoning religious faith Characteristics Italian city states 1494 Religion on the Eve of the Reformation Between 1450 and 1520 a series of popes failed to meet the Church’s spiritual needs. They were more concerned with the political interests of the Papal States. Julius II, the “warrior-pope,” even led armies against his enemies. Many people were disgusted with him and the Catholic Church. Church Corruption • Church officials seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties, especially instructing the faithful on achieving: salvation – acceptance into Heaven. • As a result, obtaining salvation became almost mechanical; by collecting relics, for example. • Venerating a saint could gain an indulgence–release from all or part of punishment for sin–according to the Church of the time. Oct. 31, 1517 - Martin Luther, an obscure, Augustian Catholic monk nailed 95 thesis (complaints about Roman Catholic Church) to the door of his castle church and was soon excommunicated increased wealth and worldliness, selling of indulgences (exchanging grace for money) abuse of power Protestant Reformation The Reformation : Questioning Tradition Luther wrote the 95 Theses and nailed it to a cathedral door on October 31, 1517 c. 1526 - Martin Luther wrote a new church liturgy (in German and Latin) based on Catholicism launched the Protestant movement - felt mostly in Germany, Switzerland, England, France, Austria, Poland, Hungary, and the low countries. opened doors for new compositions and shook the foundation of the Roman Catholic Church Martin Luther was also a musician who wrote new music for this new religion Counter Reformation 1545 - Pope Marcellus led the Catholic response to Protestant reform movement Council of Trent- a group of cardinals and bishops had several sessions to organize the “new” rules of the Catholic church Charles the Great Charlemagne, a.k.a. Charles the Great The Church of the Middle Ages Black Death Hits Europe After the Reformation, Western Europe would never again under one Church. The power of the Church was weakened and the power of local rulers increased. The Counter Reformation Many historians agree that the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603 marked the end of both the Elizabethan era and the Renaissance.