The Social Construction of Gender A. Background on Social Constructionism SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM Borrowed from a French school of modern philosophy. We do not uncover reality, we create it. We as societies create concepts of masculinity and femininity. DIFFERS FROM SLT Origins in philosophy not psychology. More of an emphasis on mental categories than on behavior. The interface of individual with society not the individual with her or his immediate social environment. The Social Construction of Gender B. Media Depictions of Women—Specific Patterns REPRESENTATION OF GENDER IN THE MEDIA Pattern 1: Underrepresentation of females Pattern 2: Underrepresentation of specific groups of females Ethnicity Age Double standard of aging Sexual orientation REPRESENTATION OF GENDER IN THE MEDIA Pattern 3: Portrayal of genderbased social roles Pattern 4: Depiction of female communion and male agency Pattern 5: Emphasis on female attractiveness and sexuality The Social Construction of Gender C. Representations of Gender in Language PERJORATIVE WOMAN Sexualization women. Trivialization. of MALE REFERENT--I.E. "MALE-ASNORMATIVE." Definition. Male-as-Normative language in titles. Masculine generic terms. MALE REFERENT--I.E. "MALE-ASNORMATIVE." A review by McKay indicated that males and females often interpret the generic he as being incapable of referring to women. For instance, One study by Bem and Bem demonstrated that female high-school students were less likely to respond to a job advertisement containing the generic he. Hyde has done similar studies on school children and found the results are even more pronounce.