ENT450/550 T1-1 Introduction to the Product Development Process Jonathan Weaver UDM Mechanical Engineering Department [email protected] ENT450/550 T1-2 References Karl T. Ulrich & Steven D. Eppinger: Product Design and Development. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2004. Ullman, David G.: The Mechanical Design Process. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1997. Pugh, Stuart: Creating Innovative Products Using Total Design. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1996. Bishop and Magleby: A Review of Technology Push Product Development Models and Processes, Proceedings of DETC’04, DETC2004-57496. ENT450/550 T1-3 Big Opportunities Come From Big Problems • Show khosla9.mp4 (available at STVP) ENT450/550 Picturephone: The Answer to a Question Nobody Asked T1-4 ENT450/550 T1-5 Agenda • • • • • Intro to Product Development A Generic Product Development Process A Closer Look at the Concept Development Phase IDEO as an Example What does all of this have to do with design, innovation, and creativity? • Final Remarks ENT450/550 T1-6 Product Development • Product: A product is something sold by an enterprise to its customers. • Product Development: Product development is the set of activities beginning with the perception of a market opportunity and ending in the production, sale and delivery of a product. • Here we will focus on products which are engineered, discrete, and physical. ENT450/550 Who Designs and Develops Products? • Product design is an interdisciplinary activity requiring contributions from nearly all the functions of a firm • A function (in organizational terms) is an area of responsibility usually involving specialized education, training, or experience • Three functions are almost always central to a product development project: - Marketing - Design - Manufacturing T1-7 ENT450/550 T1-8 The Challenges of Product Development • Some of the characteristics that make product development challenging are: – Trade-offs – Dynamics – Details – Time pressure – Economics ENT450/550 T1-9 The Product Development Process • A process is a sequence of steps that transforms a set of inputs into a set of outputs • A product development process is the sequence of steps or activities that an enterprise employs to conceive, design, and commercialize a product • Some organizations define and follow a precise and detailed product development process, while others may not even be able to describe their processes ENT450/550 A Generic Product Development Process • We will consider here a generic product development process that can be used in a market-pull situation • The input to the process is a mission statement and the output of the process is the product launch • Mission statement: identifies the target market for the product, provides a basic functional description of the product, and specifies the business goals of the effort; results from a well-executed product planning phase • Product launch: occurs when the product becomes available for purchase in the market place T1-10 ENT450/550 T1-11 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • One way to think about the product development process is as the initial creation of a wide set of alternative product concepts and then the subsequent narrowing of alternatives and increasing specification of the product until the product can be reliably and repeatably produced by the production system ENT450/550 T1-12 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) Mission Statement Product Planning Concept Development System-Level Design Detail Design Testing and Refinement Production Ramp-Up Product Launch ENT450/550 T1-13 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Note: Rarely does the entire process proceed in purely sequential fashion, completing each activity before beginning the next. In practice, many of the activities may be overlapped in time and, at almost any stage, new information may become available or lessons learned which can cause a loop back or iteration. There is little point to cluttering the process diagram with overlaps and iterations, so we’ll use the simplified “appearing linear” model. ENT450/550 T1-14 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Concept development: - The needs of the target market are identified, alternative product concepts are generated and evaluated, and a single concept is selected for further development - A concept is a description of the form, function and features of a product and is usually accompanied by a set of specifications, an analysis of competitive products, and an economic justification of the project ENT450/550 T1-15 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • System-level design: - Includes the definition of the product architecture and the division of the product into subsystems and components - The final assembly scheme for the production system is usually defined during this phase - The output of this phase is usually a geometric “layout” of the product, a functional specification of each of the product’s subsystems, and a preliminary process flow diagram for the final assembly process ENT450/550 T1-16 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Detail design: - Includes the complete specification of the geometry, materials, and tolerances of all the unique parts in the product and the identification of all the standard parts to be purchased from suppliers - A process plan is established and tooling is designed for each part to be fabricated within the production system - The output of this phase is the control documentation for the product ENT450/550 T1-17 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Testing and refinement: - Involves the construction and evaluation of multiple preproduction versions of the product - Early (alpha) prototypes are usually built with productionintent parts (parts with the same geometry and material properties as intended for the production version of the product but not necessarily fabricated with the actual process to be used in production) ENT450/550 T1-18 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Testing and refinement (Cont.): - Alpha prototypes are tested to determine whether or not the product will work as designed and whether or not the product satisfies the key customer needs - Later (beta) prototypes are usually built with parts supplied by the intended production process but may not be assembled using the intended final assembly process - Beta prototypes are extensively evaluated internally and are also typically tested by customers in their own use environment ENT450/550 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Testing and refinement (Cont.): - The goal of the beta prototypes is usually to answer questions about performance and reliability in order to identify necessary changes for the final product T1-19 ENT450/550 T1-20 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Production ramp-up: - The product is made using the intended production system - The purpose is to train the work force and to work out any remaining problems in the production process - The artifacts produced during production ramp-up are sometimes supplied to preferred customers and are carefully evaluated to identify any remaining flaws - The transition from production ramp-up to ongoing production is usually gradual and continuous ENT450/550 A Generic Product Development Process (Cont.) • Production ramp-up (Cont.): - At some point is this transition, the product is launched and becomes available for widespread distribution. Next a deeper look at Concept Development – arguably the most critical stage of the process! T1-21 ENT450/550 T1-22 Concept Development Mission Statement Identify Customer Needs Establish Target Specifications Generate Product Concepts Analyze Competitive Products Select a Product Concept Refine Specifications Perform Economic Analysis Plan Remaining Development Project Development Plan ENT450/550 T1-23 Concept Development (Cont.) • Identifying customer needs: - The goal of this activity is to understand customer’s needs and to effectively communicate them to the development team - The output of this step is a set of carefully constructed customer need statements, organized in a hierarchical list, with importance weightings for each need - Many breakthrough innovations are the result of addressing unarticulated customer needs detected by careful observation of customers and anthropological research by the developing team ENT450/550 T1-24 Concept Development (Cont.) • Establishing target specifications: - Specifications are a precise description of what the product has to do - They are the translation of the customer needs into technical terms - Targets for the specifications are set early in the process and represent the hopes of the development team - The output of this stage is a list of specifications - Each specification consists of a metric and a target value for that metric. ENT450/550 T1-25 Concept Development (Cont.) • Analysis of competitive products (competitive benchmarking): - An understanding of competitive products is critical to successful positioning of a new product and can provide a rich source of ideas for the product and production process design - It is performed in support of the specifications activity as well as in support of concept generation and concept selection ENT450/550 T1-26 Concept Development (Cont.) • Concept generation: - The goal is to explore thoroughly the space of product concepts that may be applied to meeting the customer needs - It includes a mixture of external search, creative problem solving within the team, and systematic exploration of the various solution fragments the team generates - The result of this activity is usually a set of 10 to 20 concepts, each typically represented by a sketch and brief descriptive text ENT450/550 T1-27 Concept Development (Cont.) • Concept selection: - Is the activity in which various product concepts are analyzed and sequentially eliminated to identify one preferred concept - In some cases, “proof of concept” prototypes may be necessary to evaluate the function of various concepts and/or “form models” may be used to evaluate customer reaction to ergonomics and style - The process usually requires several iterations and may initiate additional concept generation and refinement ENT450/550 T1-28 Concept Development (Cont.) • Refinement of specifications: - The target specifications set earlier in the process are revisited after a concept has been selected - At this point, the team must commit to specific values of the metrics reflecting the constraints inherent in the product concept, limitations identified through technical modeling, and trade-offs between cost and performance ENT450/550 T1-29 Concept Development (Cont.) • Economic analysis: - The team, often with the support of a financial analyst, builds an economic model for the new product - This model is used to justify continuation of the overall development program and to resolve specific trade-offs among, for example, development costs and manufacturing costs ENT450/550 T1-30 Concept Development (Cont.) • Project planning: - The team creates a detailed development schedule, devises a strategy to minimize development time, and identifies the resources required to complete the project - The major results of the concept development phase can be usefully captured in a contract book that contains the mission statement, the customer needs, the details of the selected concept, the product specifications, the economic analysis of the product, the development schedule, the project staffing, and the budget ENT450/550 T1-31 Adapting the Generic PDP • The process shown so far is generic, and particular processes will differ in accordance with a firm’s unique context ENT450/550 T1-32 IDEO • Next, let’s watch how one particular firm develops a product, As we watch, think about the following questions: – Does IDEO follow a structured process? – If so, how does it compare to the generic process just presented? – What are the key enablers allowing IDEO to innovate? – Note: dvd available for purchase from ABC News (the Deep Dive Episode). A lower resolution version and can be found online; a separate file will be posted which links to that version. ENT450/550 T1-33 Discussion • What do you think of the resulting cart design? • What does all of this have to do with design, innovation, and creativity? ENT450/550 T1-34 Final Remarks • It is extremely important to follow a structured process to develop a new product or a new idea • A structured process and creativity are by no means mutually exclusive • We have presented a generic product development process which can be “fine tuned” for the particular types of products that your team (or company) develops • There are opportunities for creative, innovative solutions at ALL phases of the product development process! • A poor concept, flawlessly executed, will never be competitive!