Imperialism Notes - Ms. Costas' History Class

• Do Now
• Finish “Imperialism & Anti-Imperialism”
• “U.S. Foreign Policy” Notes
• Homework:
• Research Question due Wednesday
• Reflect on this quote. Apply it to your general
knowledge of imperialism and foreign policy.
• “If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to
work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner.”
–Nelson Mandela
U.S. Foreign Policy
American History
Ms. Costas
March 2015
Essential Question:
• Why did the United States join
the Imperial Club at the end of
the 19th century?
Motivation for U.S. Imperialism
• Commercial/Business Interests
• Military/Strategic Interests
• Social Darwinist Thinking
• White Man’s Burden
• Religious/Missionary Interests
• Closing the American Frontier
• Manifest Destiny
Imperialism & Anti-Imperialism
• In pairs or small groups – look through the political
cartoons regarding imperialist sentiment
• Answer the questions for each cartoon [in the
• When you finish, answer the open response question
at the end of the packet
• Packet will be collected for 2 classwork grades
Changing U.S. Foreign Policy
• 1790 – 1865 U.S. policy centered around:
• Westward expansion
• Protecting U.S. interests abroad
• Limiting foreign influence in the Americas
• Industrial boom shifts U.S. relations with the world
• Isolationists  World Power
Seward, Alaska, and French in Mexico
• William H. Seward
• Secretary of State (1861 – 1869)
• The French in Mexico
• French tried invading Mexico
• U.S. invoked Monroe Doctrine
• The Purchase of Alaska
• Russia vs. Great Britain
• “Seward’s Icebox” for $7.2 million
The “New Imperialism”
• Growth of industrialization led to
foreign involvement
• Worldwide markets
• Sources of raw materials
• Advocates of expansionist policy hoped
to achieve ends by economic and
diplomatic means
• Not military action
International Darwinism
• “Survival of the fittest” applied competition among nations
• Manifest Destiny
• Imperialism
• Acquiring new territory or gaining control over the political or economic
life of other countries
• Advocates of American expansion included:
Naval Strategists
Latin America
• U.S. views self as protector of Latin America
• Beginning with Monroe Doctrine
• Pan-American Conference (1889)
• Founded organization for nations of Western Hemisphere
• James G. Blaine
• Organization of American States (1948)
• Cleveland and Olney vs. Great Britain
• Boundary dispute between Venezuela and Guiana
• Turning point in U.S. and British relations
The Spanish-American War
• Cuba = target of American imperialism between 1850 –
• Investments in Cuban sugar
• Spanish misrule in Cuba
• Monroe Doctrine
Causes of War
• Jingoism  intense form of nationalism calling for
aggressive foreign policy
• Cleveland & McKinley – military action was morally wrong
and economically unsound
• Events that led to demand for war against Spain
Cuban Revolt
Yellow Press
De Lome Letter (1898)
Sinking of the Maine
McKinley’s War Message
Teller Amendment
Fighting the War
• “A splendid little war”
• The Philippines
• Roosevelt orders naval fleet to Spanish ruled Philippines
• Commanded by Commodore George Dewey
• Secured Manila on August 13, 1898
• Invasion of Cuba
• American and Cuban forces defeat Spanish army
• Turning points
• Battle of San Juan Hill (July 1, 1898)
• Battle of Santiago Bay (July 3, 1898)
Annexation of Hawaii
• Settled by American missionaries and entrepreneurs
• 1893 overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani
• Presidential Response:
• Cleveland opposed efforts to annex Hawaii
• McKinley OK’s annexation following war
• Hawaii becomes territory in 1900
• Fiftieth state in 1959
Controversy Over the Treaty of Peace
• Treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898) provided for:
• Cuban independence
• U.S. acquisition of Puerto Rico and Guam
• U.S. acquisition of Philippines for $20mil to Spain
• The Philippine question – to take over?
• Treaty of Paris Ratified
• Filipinos were outraged
• Philippine-American War (1899 – 1902)
• Led by Emilio Aguinaldo
Other Results of the War
• Insular Cases
• Constitutional rights were not automatically guaranteed
• Cuba and Platt Amendment (1901)
• Never sign treaty with foreign power that impaired independence
• Never build up excessive public debt
• U.S. may intervene in affairs to preserve independence and maintain
law and order
• Allow U.S. to maintain naval bases, including one in Guantanamo
• Election of 1900
• McKinley & Roosevelt for growing economic prosperity
• Recognition of U.S. Power
Open Door Policy in China
• John Hay, Secretary of State, declares “Open Door Policy” to
• All nations have equal trading privileges in China
• Boxer Rebellion (1900)
• Boxers – Chinese nationalists – rebel against Christian missionaries
• U.S. troops crush rebellion
• Hay’s second round of notes
• U.S. commitment:
• Preserve China’s territorial integrity
• Safeguard “equal impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese
Roosevelt’s Big-Stick Policy
• “Speak softly and carry a big stick”
• Roosevelt’s attempt to establish U.S. as a word power
• Criticized for breaking from the tradition of noninvolvement
in global politics
The Panama Canal
• Canal through Central America to connect Atlantic and Pacific
• Revolution in Panama
• Granted independence from Colombia
• Granted U.S. long-term control of canal zone
• Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
• U.S. can build canal without British involvement
• Building the Canal
• 1904 – 1914
• George Goethals
• Dr. William Gorgas
• Congress paid Colombia $25mil for Panama
The Roosevelt Corollary
• Added to the Monroe Doctrine
• U.S. would intervene in delinquent
Latin American countries
• Manage collection of customs taxes
• Result  poor U.S. relations with
Latin American region
East Asia
• Relationship between Japan and U.S. grows competitive
• Russo-Japanese War
• Roosevelt organized diplomatic conference – Treaty of Portsmouth
• “Gentleman’s Agreement”
• Discrimination against Japanese Americans
• Japanese gov’t restricted emigration to U.S.
• Great White Fleet
• Sent by Roosevelt to show Naval Power
• Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)
• Mutual respect for each nation’s Pacific possessions
• Support for Open Door Policy in China
Peace Efforts
• Big-Stick policy was to maintain peace between rival
• Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1906
• Second International Peace Conference (1907)
Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
• Foreign policy was mildly expansionist
• Depended more on investors’ dollars than on the navy’s
• Promote U.S. trade by supporting American enterprising
• Named dollar diplomacy
Dollar Diplomacy Cont’d.
• Growing anti-imperialism
• U.S. and overseas
• Railroads in China
• U.S. participation in building of RR (1911)
• Manchuria  U.S. excluded
• Defiance of U.S. Open Door Policy
• Intervention in Nicaragua
• U.S. intervention to protect American investments
• Civil War in Nicaragua (1912)
• U.S. Marines until 1933
The Lodge Corollary
• Passed by Henry Cabot Lodge (R) MA
• Protect U.S. from Asian powers
• Non-European powers were excluded from owning
territory in the Western Hemisphere
• Opposed by Taft
• Offended Japan & Latin America
Wilson and Moral Diplomacy
• New Freedom  Moral approach to foreign affairs
• Moral Diplomacy
• Righting past wrongs
• The Philippines
• Puerto Rico
• The Panama Canal
• Conciliation Treaties
• Submit disputes to international commissions
• Observe a one-year cooling off period before military action
Military Intervention in Latin America
• Used U.S. marines to fix financial and political troubles
in Central America and Caribbean
• Haiti
• Dominican Republic
• Necessary to protect Panama Canal
Conflict in Mexico
• Mexican revolution tested Wilson’s
moral approach
• Tampico Incident
• Joint mediation between U.S. and
• Pancho Villa and the U.S.
expeditionary force