August 12, 2013 Crime-scene investigators (police) arrive to find, collect, protect, and transport evidence. (More on this later!) Crime-scene investigators (police) arrive to find, collect, protect, and transport evidence. (More on this later!) Most often, the CSI will call in various experts to analyze different types of evidence. (Unlike TV where the lead investigator does nearly everything) A physician with special training in pathology (disease) Collects and analyzes evidence from the victim’s body (living or dead) and determines cause of death A physician with special training in pathology (disease) Collects and analyzes evidence from the victim’s body (living or dead) and determines cause of death Other responsibilities: Reviews medical history Reviews witness statements Performs autopsy Collects evidence (toxicology, microscopic examination of organs, DNA analysis, etc.) Writes a report, include an official cause of death Provides testimony in criminal court In complicated cases, a forensic pathologist may also be asked to examine and photograph the crime scene himself. Educational Requirements 4 years Medical school 4 years of post graduate work in hospital 1 year of post graduate work in a medical examiner’s office Many will undertake even more training in special areas (e.g. toxicology, fire arms, etc.) and a few also obtain law degrees Salary 70K – 200K Coroner, medical examiner, forensic pathologist … What’s the difference? The person appointed by a county to perform autopsies and determine cause of death may be either a medical examiner or a coroner. The person appointed by a county to perform autopsies and determine cause of death may be either a medical examiner or a coroner. Medical examiners MUST BE licensed forensic pathologists Coroners MAY BE licensed forensic pathologists, or they may be doctors with a different specialty (e.g. obstetrics), or they may not even have any medical training at all. Most counties have adopted the newer medical examiner system, but some rural areas still employ coroners. 1) Match the name with the job description Show me before you move on, then copy to your guided notes 2) Organize the jobs into groups – form 2 different job groupings, and jot down your results on your white boards -- 10 minutes -- How did you divide up the jobs into different groups? The forensic investigators (who study biological evidence) typically all require advanced degrees (MD or PhD). Salary: 50K – 100 K The criminalists (who study physical evidence) usually require a bachelor’s degree in science, though sometimes former police officers without formal degrees train for these specialties. Salary: 40K – 80K Who can be an expert witness? In any case involving a death, the forensic pathologist will testify Experts in other specialties may also be called to testify It is the judge who decides who is qualified to be considered an expert and what evidence they are allowed to present Frye vs. United States (1923) “Frye Standard”: expert testimony must be based on “well-recognized scientific principle” that is “sufficiently established” and has obtained “general acceptance” in the scientific community Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc. (1993) “Rule 702” Explicitly states that it is up to judge’s discretion whether to allow testimony Offered judges the following guidelines for admissible techniques and theories subject to testing and peer review standardized known error rates Attained widespread acceptance Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc. (1993) “Rule 702” Explicitly states that it is up to judge’s are to theallow major discretionWhat whether testimony differences between these Offered judges the following guidelines for admissiblestandards? techniques and theories subject to testing and peer review Stop & Jot standardized known error rates Attained widespread acceptance Expert witnesses are qualified before the jury What does this mean? Experts testify as to their education, experience, and other qualifications before presenting evidence. Because they must explain complicated information, expert witnesses have much greater freedom in how they testify What does this mean? They can narrate and explain, rather than just giving short answers to questions Read the article and complete the worksheet. Stop at designated points for discussion! CSI effect worksheet if not completed in class Forensic Scientist Quiz next class! What were our objectives, and what did you learn? What was our learner profile trait and how did we demonstrate it? How did we address our unit statement of inquiry? 1. Identify 2 ways real forensics differs from TV 2. Who examines blood evidence? 3. Name one difference between a medical examiner and a coroner. 4. Who decides which expert testimony is admissable?