Toward the Modern Era:
1870-Early 1900’s
The Growing Unrest
Belle époque
Was a period in European history that began during the late
19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring during the
time of the French Third Republic and the German Empire, the
Belle Époque was considered a "golden age" as peace prevailed
between the major powers of Europe, new technologies
improved people's lives, and the commercial arts adopted
modern forms
Growing frustration, restlessness
Economic disparity, resentment
Population growth
Capitalism vs. Socialism
Loss of religious security
Liberty Enlightening the World (French:
La liberté éclairant le monde), known
more commonly as the Statue of Liberty
(Statue de la Liberté), is a large statue
that was presented to the United States
Dedicated on October 28, 1886,
by France in 1886
commemorates the centennial of the
United States and is a gesture of
friendship from France to the U.S.
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi sculpted the
statue and obtained a U.S. patent useful
for raising construction funds through the
sale of miniatures. Alexandre Gustave
Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower)
engineered the internal structure. Eugène
Viollet-le-Duc was responsible for the
choice of copper in the statue's
construction and adoption of the repoussé
New Movements in the Visual Arts
Édouard Manet (1832-1883)
Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (1863)
 A Bar at the Folies-Bergére (1882)
 Break
from tradition
 View of the artist
Characteristics of Impressionism Style
•Not too much structure
•Ephemeral moment that is captured
•Moment captured as it fades from site
•Reflection of light on water, like sunrise/sunset
•An illusion
•Visible brushstrokes
•Inclusion of movement
Turner – 1834-fire
Monet - 1903
Sunrise by
Monet’s Water Lillies (The Clouds)
Edgar Degas
Orchestra Musicians
Self Portrait with
Bandaged Ear
Van Gogh
New Movements in the Visual Arts
Realism of light, color
 Fidelity
to visual perception, “innocent eye”
 Devotion to naturalism
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Impression: Sunrise (1872)
New Movements in the Visual Arts
Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
 Beauty
of the world, happy activity
 Women as symbols of life
 Le Moulin de la Galette (1876)
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
 Intimate
moments as universal experience
 Psychological penetration
 “Keyhole visions”
New Movements in the Visual Arts
Female Impressionist painters
 Mary
Cassatt (1844-1926)
 Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
Rodin’s Impressionist sculpture
The Kiss (1886)
New Movements in the Visual Arts
Rejection of Impressionism
 Personal artistic styles
 Georges
Pierre Seurat (1859-1891)
 Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
New Movements in the Visual Arts
Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
 Impose
order on nature
 Priority of abstract considerations
 Mont Sainte-Victoire (1904-1906)
van Gogh’s Starry Night (1889)
 Autobiographical,
pessimistic art
 Social, spiritual alienation
New Movements in the Visual Arts
“Les Fauves”
 Loss of traditional values of color, form
 Distortion of natural relationships
 Henri Matisse, The Red Studio (1911)
New Movements in the Visual Arts
Alarm and hysteria
 Edvard Munch, The Scream (1893)
 Autobiographical,
social, psychological
Antonio Gaudí, Casa Milá (1907)
Die Brücke, Der Blaue Reiter
 Emotional
impact, alienation and loneliness
 Heckel (1883-1970), Nolde (1867-1956)
New Styles in Music
Early Nineteenth-Century
Orchestral Music
Communication beyond musical values
 New
treatment of melody, harmony, rhythm
 Composer’s inner emotions, autobiography
Program music
 Symphonic,
tone poems
 Narrative + musical interests
Silhouettes / calling cards /
camera lucida
Silhouette portraits were fashionable
around the year 1800
 The term comes from Etienne de
Artists – Love/Hate Relationship with
Photography, like Gaugin - copied native art from
travel photography – very famous
1891 and 1892 paintings - Tahiti
"Photography" is derived from the Greek words photos
("light") and graphein ("to draw") The word was first used
by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. It is a
method of recording images by the action of light, or
related radiation, on a sensitive material. On a summer
day in 1827, it took eight hours for Joseph Nicéphore
Niépce to obtain the first fixed image.
About the same time a fellow Frenchman, Louis Jacques
Mandé Daguerre was experimenting to find a way to
capture an image, but it would take another dozen years
before he was able to reduce the exposure time to less
than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing…
ushering in the age of modern photography.
Alfred Stieglitz The Terminal, New York , 1892
Alfred Stieglitz
Winter on Fifth Avenue, New York
Ansel Adams – 1927 and 1932
Galloping Horse – All four legs
in the air?
Eadweard Muybridge
Ascending Stairs
Étienne-Jules Marey, French
physician, inventor
Motion Photography – around 1888.
Lumiere Brothers – French
Auguste and Louie
Arrival of A Train – 12/28/1895.
Grand Café Screening – people terrified.
A Trip to the Moon – Melies
Lumiere Brothers - More
“Cinema is an invention without any future”
and declined to sell their camera to other
filmmakers such as Georges Méliès.
Consequently, their role in the history of film
was exceedingly brief.
They turned their attentions to color
photography and in
A Trip to the Moon by Melies-The Father of Special Effects
Part I
Part II
New Styles in Music
Early Nineteenth-Century
Orchestral Music
Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
Don Juan
 Till Eulenspiegel
 Alpine Symphony
 Operas
 Autobiographical
New Styles in Music
Impressionism in Music
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
 Changing
flow of sound, shifting tone colors
 Ethereal, intangible, refined
 Natural atmospheres, Der Mer
Maurice Joseph Ravel (1875-1937)
 Classical
form, balance
Daphnis and Chloe
New Styles in Music
Search for a New Musical Language
Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951)
 Expressionistic atonal music
Pierrot Lunaire (1912), Sprechstimme
Twelve-tone technique (serialism)
 Row,
inversion, retrograde, retrograde
New Styles in Music
Search for a New Musical Language
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
 The Rite of Spring (1913)
 “the
destruction of music as an art”
 Russian folk subjects
Changing, complex, violent rhythms
New Subjects for Literature
Psychological Insights in the Novel
Nature of individual existences
 The
subconscious and human behavior
Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)
 Concern
for psychological truth
 Human suffering, salvation
Crime and Punishment
New Subjects for Literature
Psychological Insights in the Novel
Anton Chekhov (1860-1904)
 Irony
and satire, passivity and emptiness
Marcel Proust (1871-1922)
Remembrance of Things Past
 Evocation
of memory
 Stream of consciousness style
Responses to A Changing Society:
The Role of Women
Family life, society at large
 Right
to vote, marriage ties
Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House (1879)
 Criticism
of anti-feminist social conventions
Kate Chopin’s The Awakening (1899)
 Sexuality
as liberation from oppression
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