Overhead squat Lecture 2011

Paul Thawley BSc (Hons), MSc, Pg Dip
Simple movement Patterns and
This an extra Lecture
You will not have a written paper on this
However sports medicine uses and understands
physical and functional movements
Movement dysfunction can be caused by a range of factors,
Structural instability: which occurs when the body structure fails, usually as a result of a direct
Loss of Range of Motion (ROM): which can be due to joint stiffness, muscle tightness or motor
patterning (acts performed with less skill and in which movement is stressed)
Functional rigidity: which often develops if an athlete tries to cope with a higher balance or
stability challenge than they are capable of
Insufficient Control of Momentum: if an athlete can't control their momentum, their change in
direction will be slow, or, alternatively, will throw them off balance
Poor balance: balance requires an interplay between your vision, inner ear and body's
Poor co-ordination: Most obvious in racket sports, and golf
Timing: Poor stability is often related to timing problems
Poor understanding of the movement required: Caused by a misunderstanding
between the coach and athlete
Poor training design: unsuitable training practices
Stress: Stress from the mind can manifest itself in the body
Clinical Movement Analysis to Identify Muscle Imbalances and Guide
MOVEMENT is an essential component of athletic
performance. Human movement is
influenced by an individual’s structural alignment, muscle
flexibility, muscle strength, and nervous system coordination
of muscle responses to a changing environment. (Padua
The Overhead Squat Test can be used to qualitatively assess
an individual’s overall movement patterns. The results of this
test can then be related to goniometric measures (muscle
flexibility) and manual muscle testing (muscle strength) to
develop a comprehensive view of the individual’s movement
characteristics. (Ford et al 2003)
Observable functional test can provide the
basis for therapeutic exercise
recommendations for stretching of potentially
overactive and tight muscles and for
strengthening of underactive and weak
musculature. To optimize function, the
individual should be progressed to an
integrated functional exercise program. (Clark
et al 2005)
The Overhead Squat
Is used regularly in screening by medical teams
It can help identify Common dysfunctional
movement patterns.
It can be linked to Muscle testing etc
Over head Squat
Two legged squat with the arms raised
The athlete is instructed to stand with feet
hip-width to shoulder width apart with
toes pointing straight ahead and arms
raised above the head.
After Padua 2007
The athlete is instructed to squat down as if sitting in a chair.
The observation is made from three views: anterior, lateral,
and posterior.
5 Squats are preformed whilst the clinician observes from
anterior view, lateral view posterior view (15 squats in total
The clinician notes the movement pattern characteristics by
recording whether or not a particular characteristic was
identified during performance of the test.
Anterior View
Foot and Ankle
Observations made from the anterior view of the overhead squat are
focused at the feet and knees
A common compensation at the feet is the
foot turning outwardly
When observing for the presence of toe out
assess the position of the first
metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint in relation
to that of the medial malleolus.
The 1st MTP joint will align with the medial
malleolus in a normal foot, whereas the first
MTP joint will appear lateral to the medial
malleolus with foot turn-out.
This can identify potentially overactive/tight
muscles and underactive/weak muscles
Anterior View
Inward movement of the patella
over the first MTP joint during the
squatting movement creates valgus
stress at the knee
Lateral View
lumbo-pelvic hip complex (LPHC) and upper
body positions.
Two common compensations are excessive
forward leaning and arms falling forward.
Trunk should remain parallel to the lower leg
during the descent phase of the squat. If the
two imaginary lines do not remain parallel,
forward leaning is excessive (Figure 4).
Arms should be held over the head in an
elbow-extended position parallel to the
torso. If the arms move forward in
relation to the torso, the observation is
designated as “the arms falling forward”
Posterior View
Observations made from the posterior view
include the positions of the feet and the
lumbo-pelvic hip complex.
The calcaneus should stay parallel with the
lower leg
A common compensation seen at the feet is
During the descent phase of the Overhead
Squat Test may observe flattening of the
medial longitudinal arch with eversion of
the calcaneus in the frontal plane
Identifying possible causes of common
movement dysfunction
Single Leg Squat
• Increases demand and need for balance +
• Can be specific to sport / running single stance
• Requires Rotational control