Review: The Brain 1. Embryonic development that forms the brain by increasing the number of neurons is called? 2. What is the name of the embryonic tissue that all brain tissues come from? 3. Prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalen refer to what respectively? 4. The telencephalon is made up of two structures…they are? 5. The diencephalon makes up 3 structures…they are? 6. The spinal cord comes from what embryonic structure? 7. Name the 2 Flexures. 8. Convolutions and fissures form because….. 9. Ventricles are spaces that allow for the flow of what? 10. Lateral ventricles are found where? 11. The third and fourth ventricle are found where? 12. CSF fills the ventricles from what space? 13. What form the majority of the brain in mass…roughly 83%. 14. Name the three brain markings. 15. Which brain marking divides the brain into 5 areas or sulcus 16. Name the 5 sulcus of the brain 17. Each cerebral hemisphere has three regions…they are? 18. Which region hold the conscious mind? 19. The Cortex is divided into 3 functional areas…what are these functions? 20. What does contralateral refer to? 21. Characterize the Primary Motor Cortex 22. What area would control learned motor skills like putting your arm thru a maze? 23. Brocas area is for what? Where is it located? 24. What area would detect conscious awareness of sensation? 25. The primary Somatosensory Cortex allows you to make spatial discrimination with the use of what receptors in your muscles? 26. Where is there a high concentration of theses receptors? 27. The Humunculus is a exaggerated drawing over the cortex to show what part controls what…why is the face and hands drawn so large? 28. What areas integrate with primary cortices to enhance general brain function whether its motor or sensory in nature? 29. Wernicles area is where and what’s it for 30. This area is for smell and is connected to an older area of the brain that is for emotion. 31. The limbic system is for what? 32. What area is for taste? So if someone refers to you as having no Gustatory cortex they just inferred… 33. What area controls Equilibrium and is located near your ears? 34. The most complex area because it holds our intellect, personality and reasoning skills. 35. Not to be confused with Wernicle’s area this area houses written and spoken language and allows you to sound out words. 36. This area allows you to perceive the whole picture in terms of danger because it receives neurons from all the association areas. 37. Cerebral dominance refers to…. 38. The right brain is more creative where the left in more…. 39. If the surface or cortex of the brain is grey matter, then underlying deeper brain tissue is made of? 40. What is the difference between grey and white matter? 41. What part of the brain connects the rt and lft hemispheres and is a type of commisure. 42. What are basal nuclei? How does their function differ from corticle functions? 43. Dissconecting or shorting out the fibers that connect basal ganglia to the cortex would be evidence of what disease? 44. What is the function of the thalamus since almost all ascending sensory neurons cross thru here. 45. Name the 4 functions of the hypothalamus…are these voluntary in nature? 46. The limbic system controls more than emotions of pleasure, fear and rage…what else does it control? 47. Why would we associate so many different emotions to food intake? 48. Where is our circadian or biological clocks stored? 49. Which thalamus controls our sleep/wake cycle? 50. What are the three structures that make up the brain stem? 51. The structures of the brain stem exert what type of control? Voluntary or unvoluntary? 52. The amygdala can shut down pain when it receives what emotional stimulus? 53. The startle reflex is located where? 54. This part of the brain stem relays impulses between motor cortex and the cerebellum 55. This part controls mainly breathing as well as cardiovascular. 56. This area coordinates movement with the motor cortex such as Equilibrium and balance.