Decline of Roman Empire- Germanic Barbarians took over and everything fell apart Periodization Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500 Europe in the 6c Middle Ages • Had roots in classical Rome, Roman Catholic Church, Germanic customs • Y? 1) Trade decreased, less $$ 2) Downfall of cities– went to villages 3) Population went from city to Rural (country) 4) Decline of Learning 5) Loss of common language- different dialects “Clovis” (NC) • Who: Warrior king of the Franks • What: conquered part of the Roman Empire & established the Frank kingdom; converted to Christianity • Where: France, Western Europe • When: 496 CE • Why: his Frank kingdom replaced the great Roman Empire; his kingdom became what is today France “Medieval” (NC) • Who: Germanic tribes • What: from the latin words for “Middle Age”; time period after Roman Empire • Where: Western Europe • When: 500-1500 • Why: culture blended Greco-Roman, Germanic, & Christian traditions to make a new civilization “Franks” • Who: Germanic People, Clovis • What: group of people that conquered parts of the Roman Empire • Where: Gaul (France & Switzerland today) • When: 511 • Why: The leader Clovis converted to Christianity & united all the Franks = made them all Christian; their area & customs eventually became France “Charles Martel” (NC) • Who: leader of Frankish warriors • What: won the Battle of Tours & stopped Muslims from entering Europe • Where: Gaul, France, Western Europe • When: 732 • Why: he pushed the Muslims back, out of Europe, which showed God was on the Christians’ side= WE stays Christian “Battle of Tours” (NC) • Who: Charles Martel, Frankish warriors vs. Muslim • What: a battle between Muslims & Christians over control of Europe • Where: Gaul, France, WE • When: 732 • Why: the Christians pushed the Muslims back= Muslims did not conquer France; made WE Christian Charlemagne: 742 to 814 Charlemagne’s Empire Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800 Charlemagne • Who: Charles the Great; grandson of Charles Martel; ruler of Franks • What: built an empire reaching across France, Germany, & Italy • Where: France, WE • When: 768• Why… on the next slide… 1) Built an empire greater than any known since Rome (Holy Roman Empire); created unified Christian Europe 2) He was crowned HRE by the pope = Pope had more power than a king… will be a prob for a LONG time… 3) Furthered the blending of Germanic, Christian, & Roman traditions 4) Set up strong, efficient gov’ts- ex for ppl after him 5) His death = break up of power & lands = feudalism & diff. countries in Europe Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843 The Carolingian Renaissance European Feudalism Section 2 Feudalism • Who: lords, vassals, kings (Europeans) • What: decentralized political & economic structure in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords • Where: WE • When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 • Why: serve as protection against invaders; system of mutual obligations b/n lords & vassals Vassal • Who: lesser lords • What: pledged service & loyalty to the greater lord in exchange for protection • Where: WE • When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 • Why: his service was important to making the new gov’t & econ system (Feudalism) work Feudal Contract • Who: lords & vassals • What: a pledge of an exchange of land & loyalty for protection • Where: WE • When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 • Why: the Lord grants “fief” to vassal for protection; the vassal pledges his loyalty to lord & promises military service Fief • Who: Lords & Vassals • What: estate (land) that is granted to the vassal in exchange for his loyalty • Where: WE • When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 • Why: the Vassal would receive land with peasants(serfs) to work it-this exchange was an important part of the Feudal contract Feudalism- Main Ideas: (for worksheet) • Feudalism- a new govt/econ system focused on protection develops • Feudal contract promised exchange of land (fief) for loyalty (mutual obligations) • Society was structured with king, lord, vassal, serf- relationships were complexloyalties were confused Knight • Who: mounted warriors • What: fought for lords in battle in return for land (fief) • Where: WE • When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 • Why: serf boys sent away to train @ 7, fought in battles for the lord= the protection that Feudal system was based on= without the knight- no protection Tournaments • • • • • Who: knights What: mock (fake) battles Where: WE When: MA 500-1500 Why: this served as entertainment for society; practice for the knights for real battle Manor • Who: Lords & peasants (serfs) • What: Lord’s estate, villages & surrounding lands • Where: WE • When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 • Why: most imp thing to Feudal econ; peasants worked on the manor in return for protection from the lord; Self-sufficient Serfs • Who: Peasants • What: not slaves, but bound to lord’s land & couldn’t leave; worked the lord’s land • Where: WE • When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 • Why: worked the land- w/o them the Feudal econ wouldn’t have existed; hard life, disease & hunger = most died by 35; limited diet The Manor- main ideas (for worksheet) • Manor was the lord’s estate, worked by the serf for protection- most imp part of Feudal economy • Peasants worked the land for the lord, in return they got protection & housing from the lord • Self-sufficient- produced everything they needed, didn’t need others • Serfs- hard life, died by 35, limited diet Feudalism What: A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service- governed Europe during Middle Ages Pyramid social structure Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle Parts of a Medieval Castle The Medieval Manor Life on the Medieval Manor Serfs at work Village Bakery Village Church Peasant Home Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior The Power of the Church Section 3 The Power of the Church • Weak political gov’ts around Europe = Church #1 • Center of everyone’s lives in Middle Ages (remember the picture- center of the village) • Religion: Christianity Structure of the church • Hierarchy of Clergy- just like Feudalism Pope Bishop Priest Nuns/Monks • Clergy: religious officials (Clergy) Why? • Served as the unifying force among the people in M.A.– brought people together • Served as the main contact with the Church and God– aka Salvation • Administered Sacraments (important Religious ceremonies/rites) – Ex: Baptism, Marriage, Communion Sacraments • • • • • Who: Priests & Christians What: the sacred rights of the church Where: WE When: Middle Ages, 500-1500 Why: Christians thought by taking sacraments it would lead them to salvation after death, these guided ppl to be moral (ex. Baptism, marriage, becoming priest) Benedictine Rule • Who: Monks & nuns • What: rules that regulated the monastic lives of Monks & nuns • Where: monasteries & convents across WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: they took vows of obedience, poverty, purity; this told them when/what to do Main Idea: • The church dominated Medieval life- the people of WE converted to Christianity & anyone who didn’t belong to the church = suspicious • Role of the Parish Priest: the priest (in charge of local church) practiced Christian rituals & helped put the rituals into everyday life Main ideas: • The importance of village church: The church was a social center & largest building in the village; supported by tithes, or tax • Rise of Cathedrals: Bishops manages Cathedrals (larger church); • Church taught ppl men & women were =; In society, women viewed as weak; the church tried to protect women but would punish women more harshly Main ideas: • Monasteries & Convents: Benedict organized a monastery & developed Benedictine Rule- regulated monks’ lives • Service & Scholarship: Monasteries provided health & education; kept learning alive; didn’t like women to learn • Church’s role in society: Secular • Who: W. Europeans • What: a worldly force in Medieval Europe; non-religious (ex. Kings, emperor) • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: the church was so powerful that it even controlled the Secular life (i.e. Pope was in charge of secular leaders-kings) Papal Supremacy Who: Medieval popes What: the Pope had authority of all people (Kings & Emperors included) Where: WE When: 500-1500 Why: the Pope was viewed as a representative of God here on earth; he was higher than anyone else= Pope was #1 Main Idea: • The church was the most important thing in life during Middle Ages= Pope was the most important and powerful person Canon Law • Who: Christians • What: the church’s body of laws based on religious teachings that Christians had to follow • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: governed many aspects of life- wills, marriages, & morals; if you broke these rules- you’d be punished Excommunication • Who: Christians • What: a punishment Christians received for breaking Canon law- kicked out of the church • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: most severe of punishment- you could not receive sacraments or Christian burial = condemned to hell for eternity Interdict • Who: powerful noble, Christian • What: a punishment for not obeying Canon law- an order excluding a noble’s entire land/region from the church • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: if the noble received this- his people couldn’t get sacraments or Christian burial =revolts! Main idea: • Religious authority: Christian church dedicated to God- anyone who broke Canon law = punishment such as excommunication or interdict • Corruption & Reform: Christians left land & wealth to monasteries – Clergy took this wealth = corrupt = started breaking rules (getting married) = reform Friars • Who: Monks • What: Monks that did not live in isolated monasteries, they traveled through Europe preaching to the poor • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: they had an impact on religion in WE- converted the poor ppl to Christianity = Christianity became most popular St. Francis of Assisi • Who: wealthy Italian monk • What: founded the 1st order of Friars called the Fransiscans • Where: WE • When: 1181- 1226 • Why: devoted himself to preaching the Gospels & teaching through his examples of good works; preached poverty, humility, & love of God Economy in Middle Ages Section 4 Main ideas: • I. An Agricultural Revolution – A. new technologies allowed farmers to grow more crops – B. New farming methods = More land was used = more food = more people • II. The Revival of Trade & Travel – A. Europe’s pop grew= they wanted more stuff= trade expanded to other countries = went to Asia= got new goods they’d never seen before – B. More trade led to the development of towns & cities Charter • Who: Merchants, local lords, kings • What: a written document that set out the rights & privileges of ppl in the town • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: merchants paid the lord a large sum of $, a yearly fee, or both in return for protection of the merchants’ property; these charters protected the rights of the ppl in the town Partnerships • Who: merchants • What: merchants that joined together into a partnership where they owned a “business” together • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: they pulled their funds together to finance a large-scale business that would cost too much individually- this provided insurance to the merchant & helped reduce the risk of going into business Tenant Farmer • Who: peasants • What: a peasant who rents land (pays $) to the lord for land • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: they would sell farm products to the townspeople to give $$ to the lord for land instead of labor = the lords could buy nice things = trade & economy flourishes Main idea: • III. A Commercial Revolution – A. The changing economic needs (to protect the merchants’ businesses) led to a new way of doing business- i.e partnership = insurance – B. The Commercial revolution changed the economy b.c. lords wanted luxuries & got $$ from tenant famers to buy them- tenant famers were now making $ Middle Class • Who: merchants, traders, & artisans • What: a new social class that was in b/n nobles (top) and the peasants (bottom) • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: this changed the social order b.c Merchants, traders, artisans become more powerful than peasants = new social class Guilds • Who: merchants • What: an association or group of workers in one similar occupation • Where: WE • When: 500-1500 • Why: these dominated town life, passed laws, protected economic interests of the workers by: protecting the quality of goods, regulated the hours of labor, & set prices Apprentice • Who: children • What: a trainee to a guild master that learned a trade • Where: WE • When:500-1500 • Why: the guild master paid no wages but gave food &housing in exchange for learning the trade; would eventually bcome journeymen Journeymen • • • • • Who: What: Where: When: Why: Monasteries • Who: European Christians • What: religious communities where Monks lived; Nuns lived in convents • Where: Europe • When: Middle Ages 500-1500 • Why: 1) were Europe’s best educated communities: schools, libraries, copied A Medieval Monk’s Day A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium Illuminated Manuscripts Canon Law • Who: • What: system of justice- The law of the Church for matters such as marriage & religious practices • Where: • When: • Why: If you didn’t obey Canon Law, you would be excommunicated or not allowed to take Sacraments = Hell!!! Power: Pope or King? • The Pope had #1 power on earth.. • Kings thought they were from God & should have the #1 power… • = struggle… Who has the #1 power? • Examples: – Charlemagne – Otto (Power struggle contd) • The Church resented Kings/nobles having power over the church.. • The Pope BANS Lay Investiture… • Irritates King, so King says: “Step down!” • Pope Excommunicates King Henry • = The Pope has more power! Lay Investiture • Who: European Kings & the Pope • What: Kings & nobles appointed church officials • Where: _(you should know these by now…)_____ • When: __________ • Why: Kings had power over the church = the Church/Pope gets mad = Pope BANS Lay Investiture= King & Pope fight Concordat of Worms • Who: Pope & Kings • What: agreement b.n Pope & Kings that • Where: Worms, Germany • When: 1122 CE (Middle Ages) • Why: DON’T FORGET to do these cards that aren’t here… • • • • • • • • Carolingian Dynasty Lord Fief Vassal Knights Serf Manor Chivalry The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peter’s Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants]. Romanesque Architectural Style e Rounded Arches. e Barrel vaults. e Thick walls. e Darker, simplistic interiors. e Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.