MedievalSummary - wilsonworldhistory1213

Decline of Roman Empire- Germanic Barbarians took
and everything fell apart
Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000
High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250
Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
Europe in the 6c
Middle Ages
• Had roots in classical Rome, Roman
Catholic Church, Germanic customs
• Y?
1) Trade decreased, less $$
2) Downfall of cities– went to villages
3) Population went from city to Rural
4) Decline of Learning
5) Loss of common language- different
“Clovis” (NC)
• Who: Warrior king of the Franks
• What: conquered part of the Roman
Empire & established the Frank
kingdom; converted to Christianity
• Where: France, Western Europe
• When: 496 CE
• Why: his Frank kingdom replaced the
great Roman Empire; his kingdom
became what is today France
“Medieval” (NC)
• Who: Germanic tribes
• What: from the latin words for
“Middle Age”; time period after
Roman Empire
• Where: Western Europe
• When: 500-1500
• Why: culture blended Greco-Roman,
Germanic, & Christian traditions to
make a new civilization
• Who: Germanic People, Clovis
• What: group of people that conquered
parts of the Roman Empire
• Where: Gaul (France & Switzerland
• When: 511
• Why: The leader Clovis converted to
Christianity & united all the Franks =
made them all Christian; their area &
customs eventually became France
“Charles Martel” (NC)
• Who: leader of Frankish warriors
• What: won the Battle of Tours &
stopped Muslims from entering
• Where: Gaul, France, Western
• When: 732
• Why: he pushed the Muslims back,
out of Europe, which showed God
was on the Christians’ side= WE
stays Christian
“Battle of Tours” (NC)
• Who: Charles Martel, Frankish
warriors vs. Muslim
• What: a battle between Muslims &
Christians over control of Europe
• Where: Gaul, France, WE
• When: 732
• Why: the Christians pushed the
Muslims back= Muslims did not
conquer France; made WE
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Charlemagne’s Empire
Pope Crowned Charlemagne
Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
• Who: Charles the Great; grandson of
Charles Martel; ruler of Franks
• What: built an empire reaching across
France, Germany, & Italy
• Where: France, WE
• When: 768• Why… on the next slide…
1) Built an empire greater than any known
since Rome (Holy Roman Empire);
created unified Christian Europe
2) He was crowned HRE by the pope = Pope
had more power than a king… will be a
prob for a LONG time…
3) Furthered the blending of Germanic,
Christian, & Roman traditions
4) Set up strong, efficient gov’ts- ex for ppl
after him
5) His death = break up of power & lands =
feudalism & diff. countries in Europe
Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:
Treaty of Verdun, 843
The Carolingian Renaissance
European Feudalism
Section 2
• Who: lords, vassals, kings (Europeans)
• What: decentralized political & economic
structure in which powerful local lords
divided their landholdings among lesser
• Where: WE
• When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
• Why: serve as protection against invaders;
system of mutual obligations b/n lords &
• Who: lesser lords
• What: pledged service & loyalty to the
greater lord in exchange for protection
• Where: WE
• When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
• Why: his service was important to
making the new gov’t & econ system
(Feudalism) work
Feudal Contract
• Who: lords & vassals
• What: a pledge of an exchange of
land & loyalty for protection
• Where: WE
• When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
• Why: the Lord grants “fief” to vassal
for protection; the vassal pledges his
loyalty to lord & promises military
• Who: Lords & Vassals
• What: estate (land) that is granted to
the vassal in exchange for his loyalty
• Where: WE
• When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
• Why: the Vassal would receive land
with peasants(serfs) to work it-this
exchange was an important part of
the Feudal contract
Feudalism- Main Ideas:
(for worksheet)
• Feudalism- a new govt/econ system
focused on protection develops
• Feudal contract promised exchange of
land (fief) for loyalty (mutual obligations)
• Society was structured with king, lord,
vassal, serf- relationships were complexloyalties were confused
• Who: mounted warriors
• What: fought for lords in battle in return for
land (fief)
• Where: WE
• When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
• Why: serf boys sent away to train @ 7,
fought in battles for the lord= the
protection that Feudal system was based
on= without the knight- no protection
Who: knights
What: mock (fake) battles
Where: WE
When: MA 500-1500
Why: this served as entertainment for
society; practice for the knights for real
• Who: Lords & peasants (serfs)
• What: Lord’s estate, villages &
surrounding lands
• Where: WE
• When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
• Why: most imp thing to Feudal econ;
peasants worked on the manor in return
for protection from the lord; Self-sufficient
• Who: Peasants
• What: not slaves, but bound to lord’s land
& couldn’t leave; worked the lord’s land
• Where: WE
• When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
• Why: worked the land- w/o them the
Feudal econ wouldn’t have existed; hard
life, disease & hunger = most died by 35;
limited diet
The Manor- main ideas
(for worksheet)
• Manor was the lord’s estate, worked by
the serf for protection- most imp part of
Feudal economy
• Peasants worked the land for the lord, in
return they got protection & housing from
the lord
• Self-sufficient- produced everything they
needed, didn’t need others
• Serfs- hard life, died by 35, limited diet
What: A political, economic, and
social system based on loyalty and
military service- governed
Europe during Middle Ages
Pyramid social structure
Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle
Parts of a Medieval Castle
The Medieval Manor
Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work
Village Bakery
Village Church
Peasant Home
Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior
The Power of the Church
Section 3
The Power of the Church
• Weak political gov’ts around Europe
= Church #1
• Center of everyone’s lives in Middle
Ages (remember the picture- center
of the village)
• Religion: Christianity
Structure of the church
• Hierarchy of Clergy- just like
• Clergy: religious officials
(Clergy) Why?
• Served as the unifying force among
the people in M.A.– brought people
• Served as the main contact with the
Church and God– aka Salvation
• Administered Sacraments (important
Religious ceremonies/rites)
– Ex: Baptism, Marriage, Communion
Who: Priests & Christians
What: the sacred rights of the church
Where: WE
When: Middle Ages, 500-1500
Why: Christians thought by taking
sacraments it would lead them to salvation
after death, these guided ppl to be moral
(ex. Baptism, marriage, becoming priest)
Benedictine Rule
• Who: Monks & nuns
• What: rules that regulated the monastic
lives of Monks & nuns
• Where: monasteries & convents across
• When: 500-1500
• Why: they took vows of obedience,
poverty, purity; this told them when/what to
Main Idea:
• The church dominated Medieval life- the
people of WE converted to Christianity &
anyone who didn’t belong to the church =
• Role of the Parish Priest: the priest (in
charge of local church) practiced Christian
rituals & helped put the rituals into
everyday life
Main ideas:
• The importance of village church: The
church was a social center & largest
building in the village; supported by tithes,
or tax
• Rise of Cathedrals: Bishops manages
Cathedrals (larger church);
• Church taught ppl men & women were =;
In society, women viewed as weak; the
church tried to protect women but would
punish women more harshly
Main ideas:
• Monasteries & Convents: Benedict
organized a monastery & developed
Benedictine Rule- regulated monks’ lives
• Service & Scholarship: Monasteries
provided health & education; kept learning
alive; didn’t like women to learn
• Church’s role in society:
• Who: W. Europeans
• What: a worldly force in Medieval Europe;
non-religious (ex. Kings, emperor)
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: the church was so powerful that it
even controlled the Secular life (i.e. Pope
was in charge of secular leaders-kings)
Papal Supremacy
Who: Medieval popes
What: the Pope had authority of all people
(Kings & Emperors included)
Where: WE
When: 500-1500
Why: the Pope was viewed as a
representative of God here on earth; he was
higher than anyone else= Pope was #1
Main Idea:
• The church was the most important thing
in life during Middle Ages= Pope was the
most important and powerful person
Canon Law
• Who: Christians
• What: the church’s body of laws based on
religious teachings that Christians had to
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: governed many aspects of life- wills,
marriages, & morals; if you broke these
rules- you’d be punished
• Who: Christians
• What: a punishment Christians received
for breaking Canon law- kicked out of the
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: most severe of punishment- you
could not receive sacraments or Christian
burial = condemned to hell for eternity
• Who: powerful noble, Christian
• What: a punishment for not obeying
Canon law- an order excluding a noble’s
entire land/region from the church
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: if the noble received this- his people
couldn’t get sacraments or Christian burial
Main idea:
• Religious authority: Christian church
dedicated to God- anyone who broke
Canon law = punishment such as
excommunication or interdict
• Corruption & Reform: Christians left land &
wealth to monasteries – Clergy took this
wealth = corrupt = started breaking rules
(getting married) = reform
• Who: Monks
• What: Monks that did not live in isolated
monasteries, they traveled through Europe
preaching to the poor
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: they had an impact on religion in
WE- converted the poor ppl to Christianity
= Christianity became most popular
St. Francis of Assisi
• Who: wealthy Italian monk
• What: founded the 1st order of Friars called
the Fransiscans
• Where: WE
• When: 1181- 1226
• Why: devoted himself to preaching the
Gospels & teaching through his examples
of good works; preached poverty, humility,
& love of God
Economy in Middle Ages
Section 4
Main ideas:
• I. An Agricultural Revolution
– A. new technologies allowed farmers to grow
more crops
– B. New farming methods = More land was
used = more food = more people
• II. The Revival of Trade & Travel
– A. Europe’s pop grew= they wanted more
stuff= trade expanded to other countries =
went to Asia= got new goods they’d never
seen before
– B. More trade led to the development of towns
& cities
• Who: Merchants, local lords, kings
• What: a written document that set out the
rights & privileges of ppl in the town
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: merchants paid the lord a large sum
of $, a yearly fee, or both in return for
protection of the merchants’ property;
these charters protected the rights of the
ppl in the town
• Who: merchants
• What: merchants that joined together into
a partnership where they owned a
“business” together
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: they pulled their funds together to
finance a large-scale business that would
cost too much individually- this provided
insurance to the merchant & helped
reduce the risk of going into business
Tenant Farmer
• Who: peasants
• What: a peasant who rents land (pays $)
to the lord for land
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: they would sell farm products to the
townspeople to give $$ to the lord for land
instead of labor = the lords could buy nice
things = trade & economy flourishes
Main idea:
• III. A Commercial Revolution
– A. The changing economic needs (to protect
the merchants’ businesses) led to a new way
of doing business- i.e partnership = insurance
– B. The Commercial revolution changed the
economy b.c. lords wanted luxuries & got $$
from tenant famers to buy them- tenant
famers were now making $
Middle Class
• Who: merchants, traders, & artisans
• What: a new social class that was in b/n
nobles (top) and the peasants (bottom)
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: this changed the social order b.c
Merchants, traders, artisans become more
powerful than peasants = new social class
• Who: merchants
• What: an association or group of workers
in one similar occupation
• Where: WE
• When: 500-1500
• Why: these dominated town life, passed
laws, protected economic interests of the
workers by: protecting the quality of
goods, regulated the hours of labor, & set
• Who: children
• What: a trainee to a guild master that
learned a trade
• Where: WE
• When:500-1500
• Why: the guild master paid no wages but
gave food &housing in exchange for
learning the trade; would eventually
bcome journeymen
• Who: European Christians
• What: religious communities where
Monks lived; Nuns lived in convents
• Where: Europe
• When: Middle Ages 500-1500
• Why:
1) were Europe’s best educated
communities: schools, libraries,
A Medieval Monk’s Day
A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium
Illuminated Manuscripts
Canon Law
• Who:
• What: system of justice- The law of the
Church for matters such as marriage &
religious practices
• Where:
• When:
• Why: If you didn’t obey Canon Law,
you would be excommunicated or not
allowed to take Sacraments = Hell!!!
Power: Pope or King?
• The Pope had #1 power on earth..
• Kings thought they were from God &
should have the #1 power…
• = struggle… Who has the #1 power?
• Examples:
– Charlemagne
– Otto
(Power struggle contd)
• The Church resented Kings/nobles
having power over the church..
• The Pope BANS Lay Investiture…
• Irritates King, so King says: “Step
• Pope Excommunicates King Henry
• = The Pope has more power!
Lay Investiture
• Who: European Kings & the Pope
• What: Kings & nobles appointed
church officials
• Where: _(you should know these by
• When: __________
• Why: Kings had power over the
church = the Church/Pope gets mad =
Pope BANS Lay Investiture= King &
Pope fight
Concordat of Worms
• Who: Pope & Kings
• What: agreement b.n Pope & Kings
• Where: Worms, Germany
• When: 1122 CE (Middle Ages)
• Why:
DON’T FORGET to do these
cards that aren’t here…
Carolingian Dynasty
The Power of the Medieval Church
 bishops and abbots played a large part in
the feudal system.
 the church controlled about 1/3 of the
land in Western Europe.
 tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40
days a year for combat.
 curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition
 tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to
the church.
 Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person
[paid by the peasants].
Romanesque Architectural Style
e Rounded Arches.
e Barrel vaults.
e Thick walls.
e Darker, simplistic interiors.
e Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.