Understanding global agriculture. Agriscience defined Agriscience is the application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture. Also considered an applied science because it applies knowledge of biology, chemistry and physics in practical ways. Agronomists use biology and chemistry to develop new ways to control weeds. Entomologists use biology and chemistry to develop new ways to control insects. Agricultural engineers use physics to develop new, more efficient machinery Agriscience employs the scientific method to solve problems in agriculture. Agriculture is concerned with the production, processing, marketing and distribution of all agricultural products, related supplies and services. Examples: Wheat – production farmer, grain, processing- grain mills, flour, marketing - bakery, bread, transportation - grain trucks, rail, related supplies and services – fertilizer dealer, crop scouting, machinery dealer, GPS Cattle – productionfarmer, cow-calf, feeder steers, processing- slaughter facility, rendering, beef, leather, marketing- butcher, grocery, steaks, transportation – plane, rail, truck, related supplies and servicesveterinarian, feed dealer, Roses – production flower grower, roses, processing/marketing – harvesters, wholesale and retail florist, transportation – plane, truck, floral delivery driver, related supplies and services – glass vase sales, greenhouse manufacturers, floral designers Agribusiness defined: Agribusiness refers to commercial firms (businesses) that have developed with or stemmed out of agriculture. Examples of Agribusiness: Farm related: Chemical Company, Tractor Manufacturer, Pharmaceutical Company (veterinary medicines) Horticulture related: Landscape or nursery business, Seed company, Mower Manufacturer Renewable natural resources defined: Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves. Examples of natural resources Wildlife – deer, songbirds, birds of prey, fish, rabbits Forests – trees, grasses, Progress in U.S. Agriculture Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force produce the food and fiber to meet the needs of our nation. There has been a reduction from 90% of nations populace involved in farming 200 years ago to less than 2% in 2012. Major inventions/improvements and inventors/researchers Cotton gin (1793) - Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to transform cotton to a usable product by removing the cottonseed from the cotton fiber. Soil improvement and crop rotation (late 1890’s) - George Washington Carver developed crop rotations and the use of legumes (plants that “make” their own nitrogen, ie. peanuts) to significantly improve soil fertility in the U.S. south. Grain reaper (1834) Cyrus McCormick invented the reaper to save labor in cutting, wheat, oats, and similar crops. Iron plow (early 1800’s) Thomas Jefferson inventor of first iron plow. Seed planter (1834) and Cotton planter (1836) Henry Blair Steel moldboard plow (1837) – John Deere improved the iron plow by inventing the steel moldboard plow. Corn picker (1850) Edmund Quincy Barbed wire (1874) Joseph Glidden – dramatically changed raising livestock. Barbed wire tattoos came much later. Milking machine (1878) Anna Baldwin changed the dairy industry by inventing a machine to replace hand milking. Perishable food preservation (1879) Thomas Elkins designed a device that helped with the task of preserving perishable foods by way of refrigeration. Tractor (1904) Ben Holt invented the tractor which came to replace the mule as the sources of power (horse power). Gene gun (1987) John Sanford developed a device for injecting cells with genetic information. GPS technology (1993) – tractor based GPS systems together with sophisticated GIS (Geographic Information Systems) uses a wide variety of techniques to gather data such as soil condition, humidity, temperature and other variables , which the system then uses to control such things as intensity of planting, application of fertilizer and pesticides, watering schedules, etc. Robotic milking Machines (late 1990’s) – First used in Ontario, Canada. Many benefits one of which is reduction in labor. Initial cost is primary disadvantage especially to small producer. Establishment of Land Grant Institutions Definition: An institution designated by its state legislature to receive funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 &1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics and the mechanical arts. A key component is the agricultural experiment station (Hatch Act 1887). Examples: North Carolina A&T (1890) Greensboro, NC North Carolina State University (1887) Raleigh, NC Clemson University (1889) Clemson, SC University of Georgia (1785) Athens, GA University of Tennessee (1794) Knoxville, TN Virginia Tech. University (1872) Blacksburg, VA Agriculture related Government Agencies Established to assist farmers, ranchers and the general public with information, professional assistance and, in some cases, funding. Examples of some of the agencies we now have: USDA (1862) – United States Department of Agriculture provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management. Examples of branches/agencies of USDA: NRCS (1935) - Natural Resource Conservation Service 2) APHIS (1972) – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 3) NASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics Service 4. USFS (1905) –United States Forest Service mission is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of NCCES (1914) North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service -to help, individuals, families, and communities put research –based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA&CS) – To provide services that promote and improve agriculture….. Origins of Major Food Crops 1. Fruits and Vegetables Peaches - China Tomato – South America Peanut – Peru, South America Sweet potato – Central America 2. Grain, Oil and Fiber Crops Corn – Cuba, Mexico Soybeans – Southeast Asia Cotton – Mexico, Africa, Pakistan Wheat – Southwest Asia (Syria, Jordan, Turkey, India) Note: Sources vary on actual country of origin but generally agree on region of the world. Major US Agricultural Production Regions for Selected Crops and Livestock Regions develop based on a variety of factors including soils, weather, market development, feed availability, etc. Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production. Citrus fruit – Florida, Texas and California Corn belt – Includes all or parts of these Midwestern states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, Wheat – Hard Red Spring Wheat – (highest protein content, excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking characteristics) Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, (also Oregon, Washington, California) Soft Red Winter Wheat – (high yielding, low protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastries) Several southeastern states including North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and others, as well as Midwestern states including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and others. Spearmint – Washington, Oregon, Idaho Floriculture crops- California, Florida, Michigan, Texas, North Carolina Beef cattle – Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado, Oklahoma, Missouri, South Dakota (corn belt area) Dairy – Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, (California, Idaho and Texas are leading producers but are not located in this region). Hogs – North Carolina and Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota (Corn belt area) Poultry (broilers) – Several southern and southeastern states including North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas North NC Carolina Agriculture is divided into three basic geographic and agricultural regions; mountains, piedmont and coastal plains. (Although counties from another region may currently rank higher in production of a particular commodity, the commodities listed below represent what the region is traditionally known for producing.) Mountain counties Christmas trees Apples Trout Piedmont counties Greenhouse and Nursery crops Broilers Turkeys Dairy Eastern counties Hogs Turkeys Broilers Tobacco- flue-cured Sweet potatoes Vegetables Peanuts Cotton Corn Soybeans (world’s most important source of vegetable oil). Farm Cash Receipts (all numbers are from 2011 statistics) a. Statewide exceeds $10,000,000,000 ($10B) annually b. Livestock, Dairy and Poultry generate approximately 2/3 of all farm cash receipts. Broilers and hogs account for nearly half of this amount. c. Crops generate approximately 1/3 of all farm cash receipts with greenhouse, nursery, floriculture and Christmas trees currently being the leaders in this category.