File - Erin Berg: Agriculture @ North Lenoir High School

Agriscience defined
Agriscience is the application of
scientific principles and new technologies to
 Also
considered an
applied science
because it applies
knowledge of
biology, chemistry
and physics in
practical ways.
Agronomists use
biology and chemistry
to develop new ways
to control weeds.
Entomologists use
biology and chemistry
to develop new ways
to control insects.
Agricultural engineers
use physics to
develop new, more
efficient machinery
 Agriscience
employs the
scientific method
to solve problems
in agriculture.
 Agriculture
concerned with
the production,
marketing and
distribution of all
products, related
supplies and
Wheat – production farmer, grain,
processing- grain
mills, flour, marketing
- bakery, bread,
transportation - grain
trucks, rail, related
supplies and services
– fertilizer dealer,
crop scouting,
machinery dealer,
Cattle – productionfarmer, cow-calf,
feeder steers,
processing- slaughter
facility, rendering,
beef, leather,
marketing- butcher,
grocery, steaks,
transportation – plane,
rail, truck, related
supplies and servicesveterinarian, feed
Roses – production flower grower, roses,
processing/marketing –
harvesters, wholesale
and retail florist,
transportation – plane,
truck, floral delivery
driver, related supplies
and services – glass
vase sales, greenhouse
manufacturers, floral
Agribusiness defined:
Agribusiness refers to commercial firms
(businesses) that have developed with or
stemmed out of agriculture.
Examples of Agribusiness:
Farm related: Chemical Company, Tractor
Manufacturer, Pharmaceutical Company
(veterinary medicines)
Horticulture related: Landscape or nursery
business, Seed company, Mower
Renewable natural resources defined:
 Resources provided by nature that can
replace or renew themselves.
 Examples
natural resources
 Wildlife – deer,
songbirds, birds of
prey, fish, rabbits
 Forests – trees,
 Progress
in U.S. Agriculture
 Mechanization helps 2% of America’s
work force produce the food and fiber to
meet the needs of our nation.
 There has been a reduction from 90% of
nations populace involved in farming 200
years ago to less than 2% in 2012.
Major inventions/improvements
and inventors/researchers
 Cotton
gin (1793) - Eli Whitney invented
the cotton gin to transform cotton to a
usable product by removing the
cottonseed from the cotton fiber.
Soil improvement and
crop rotation (late
1890’s) - George
Washington Carver
developed crop
rotations and the use
of legumes (plants that
“make” their own
nitrogen, ie. peanuts)
to significantly improve
soil fertility in the U.S.
 Grain
reaper (1834)
Cyrus McCormick
invented the
reaper to save
labor in cutting,
wheat, oats, and
similar crops.
 Iron
plow (early
1800’s) Thomas
Jefferson inventor
of first iron plow.
 Seed
(1834) and Cotton
planter (1836) Henry Blair
 Steel
moldboard plow (1837) – John
Deere improved the iron plow by
inventing the steel moldboard plow.
 Corn
picker (1850) Edmund Quincy
 Barbed
wire (1874) Joseph Glidden –
dramatically changed raising livestock.
Barbed wire tattoos came much later.
 Milking
machine (1878) Anna Baldwin
changed the dairy industry by inventing a
machine to replace hand milking.
 Perishable
food preservation (1879)
Thomas Elkins designed a device that
helped with the task of preserving
perishable foods by way of refrigeration.
 Tractor
(1904) Ben
Holt invented the
tractor which
came to replace
the mule as the
sources of power
(horse power).
 Gene
gun (1987) John Sanford
developed a device for injecting cells
with genetic information.
technology (1993) – tractor based
GPS systems together with sophisticated
GIS (Geographic Information Systems)
uses a wide variety of techniques to
gather data such as soil condition,
humidity, temperature and other
variables , which the system then uses to
control such things as intensity of planting,
application of fertilizer and pesticides,
watering schedules, etc.
 Robotic
milking Machines (late 1990’s) –
First used in Ontario, Canada. Many
benefits one of which is reduction in labor.
Initial cost is primary disadvantage
especially to small producer.
 Establishment
of Land Grant Institutions
 Definition: An institution designated by its
state legislature to receive funding (Morrill
Acts of 1862 &1890) to teach agriculture,
military tactics and the mechanical arts. A
key component is the agricultural
experiment station (Hatch Act 1887).
North Carolina A&T (1890) Greensboro, NC
North Carolina State University (1887) Raleigh,
Clemson University (1889) Clemson, SC
University of Georgia (1785) Athens, GA
University of Tennessee (1794) Knoxville, TN
Virginia Tech. University (1872) Blacksburg, VA
 Agriculture
related Government
 Established to assist farmers, ranchers and
the general public with information,
professional assistance and, in some
cases, funding.
Examples of some of the
agencies we now have:
(1862) – United States Department
of Agriculture provides leadership on
food, agriculture, natural resources, rural
development, nutrition, and related issues
based on sound public policy, the best
available science, and efficient
management. Examples of
branches/agencies of USDA:
NRCS (1935) - Natural Resource Conservation
2) APHIS (1972) – Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service
3) NASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics
4. USFS (1905) –United States Forest Service
mission is to sustain the health, diversity, and
productivity of the nation’s forests and
grasslands to meet the needs of
NCCES (1914) North Carolina Cooperative
Extension Service -to help, individuals, families,
and communities put research –based
knowledge to work for economic prosperity,
environmental stewardship and an improved
quality of life.
North Carolina Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services (NCDA&CS) – To provide
services that promote and improve
Origins of Major Food Crops
1. Fruits and Vegetables
 Peaches - China
 Tomato – South America
 Peanut – Peru, South America
 Sweet potato – Central America
2. Grain, Oil and Fiber Crops
 Corn – Cuba, Mexico
 Soybeans – Southeast Asia
 Cotton – Mexico, Africa, Pakistan
 Wheat – Southwest Asia (Syria, Jordan, Turkey, India)
 Note: Sources vary on actual country of origin but
generally agree on region of the world.
 Major
US Agricultural Production Regions
for Selected Crops and Livestock
 Regions develop based on a variety of
factors including soils, weather, market
development, feed availability, etc.
 Examples
of agricultural production
regions and/ or states that generally rank
high in U.S. production.
 Citrus fruit – Florida, Texas and California
 Corn belt – Includes all or parts of these
Midwestern states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Missouri,
Kansas and Nebraska,
Wheat –
Hard Red Spring Wheat – (highest protein content,
excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking
Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Montana,
Idaho, (also Oregon, Washington, California)
Soft Red Winter Wheat – (high yielding, low
protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastries) Several
southeastern states including North Carolina,
Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and others, as well
as Midwestern states including Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, Missouri and others.
 Spearmint
– Washington, Oregon, Idaho
 Floriculture crops- California, Florida,
Michigan, Texas, North Carolina
 Beef
cattle – Texas, Kansas, Nebraska,
Iowa, Colorado, Oklahoma, Missouri,
South Dakota (corn belt area)
 Dairy – Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont,
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine,
(California, Idaho and Texas are leading
producers but are not located in this
 Hogs
– North Carolina and Iowa, Illinois,
Indiana, Minnesota (Corn belt area)
Poultry (broilers) – Several southern and
southeastern states including North
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas,
Mississippi, Texas
 North
 NC
Carolina Agriculture
is divided into three basic geographic
and agricultural regions; mountains,
piedmont and coastal plains. (Although
counties from another region may
currently rank higher in production of a
particular commodity, the commodities
listed below represent what the region is
traditionally known for producing.)
 Mountain
 Christmas trees
 Apples
 Trout
 Piedmont
 Greenhouse and Nursery crops
 Broilers
 Turkeys
 Dairy
Eastern counties
Tobacco- flue-cured
Sweet potatoes
Soybeans (world’s most important source of
vegetable oil).
Farm Cash Receipts (all numbers are from 2011
a. Statewide exceeds $10,000,000,000 ($10B)
b. Livestock, Dairy and Poultry generate
approximately 2/3 of all farm cash receipts. Broilers
and hogs account for nearly half of this amount.
c. Crops generate approximately 1/3 of all farm
cash receipts with greenhouse, nursery, floriculture
and Christmas trees currently being the leaders in
this category.