William Shakespeare (his life and times) 1485-1625 THE RENAISSANCE ELIZABETHAN ERA A time of rebirth for the arts and literature Named for Queen Elizabeth I Politics and religion were intertwined Age of Exploration Age of Discovery Elizabethan Era –continued BANN A notice of intended marriage A legal, binding contract Therefore, 1 in 3 brides are pregnant on their wedding day. The Elizabethan Era – Bad Times #1 Killer – Bubonic Plague Nearly half of all babies born died of disease, infection, or poor diet. Over 20% of those who survived died before reaching adulthood. And Yet… London, 1563 – population 93,000 London, 1605 – population 224,000 Which is Surprising because… Toothbrushes won’t be invented for another century. People rarely bathed. Many people have stomach pains and sores all over their bodies. Children had to work as soon as they were big enough (6) Ditches are public toilets Butchers throw dead carcasses into the streets Doctors’ primary methods of care: leeches and amputations 10,000 homeless people wandered the streets of London Working for the Weekend Theatre Bear and bull baiting Cockfighting Brawling and rioting Witching burning Public executions William Shakespeare Born April 23, 1564 in Stratford-uponAvon, England. Parents Shakespeare’s birthplace in Stratford-upon-Avon http://www.aboutbritain.com/ShakespearesBirthplace.htm Father: John glove maker, wool merchant, and “High Bailiff” mayor; died 1601 Mother: Mary Arden, daughter of a successful farmer; died 1608 3rd of 8 children First born son Education Began at about age 5 Stratford grammar school Long days: 6 a.m.5:30 p.m. Year-round school (except major holidays) Shakespeare’s School Room, King Edward VI School Marriage – Rock the Cradle of Love He married Anne Hathaway on Nov. 1582. He was 18; she was 26 and pregnant Anne Hathaway’s Cottage http://www.onlineshakespeare.com/hathaway.htm Children Susanna: born May 26, 1583; married Dr. John Hall in 1607; had one child Elizabeth; died 1649 Hamnet: a twin born February 2, 1585; died at age 11 and buried on August 11, 1596 Judith: a twin born February 2, 1585; married Thomas Quiney and had 3 children (none lived to be older than 21); died 1662 The Lost Years 1585-1592 There is no documented record of Shakespeare’s activities from the birth of the twins until 1592. Theories forced to flee Stratford to escape prosecution for poaching deer Soldier Sailor studied law studied medicine worked as an apprentice actor/writer The Theater – In 1592, we the first documented evidence of Shakespeare’s rise to prominence in the London theatre He was an actor and a playwright Part owner of the acting company he wrote for, Lord Chamberlain’s Men LC’sM renamed King’s Men after James was king in 1603 He became rich from acting company rather than sale of plays The Globe First opened in 1599 Destroyed by fire in 1613 Rebuilt in 1614 Demolished by the Puritans in 1640s Reopened in 1997 1614 reconstruction today More on The Globe It accommodated an audience of about 3000 people from all social classes. The Globe was open to the sky. The groundlings stood on the three sides of the raised stage. Richer people paid extra money for seats. The stage is 40 feet across and 27 feet deep. Scenery was minimal. Women were forbidden from acting in public. Plays, Sonnets, and More 37 plays: comedy, history, tragedy Over 150 sonnets 2 lengthy narrative poems Comedy History Tragedy All’s Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love’s Labours Lost Measure for Measure The Merry Wives of Windsor The Merchant of Venice A Midsummer Night’s Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Troilus and Cressida Twelfth Night Two Gentlemen of Verona Winter’s Tale Henry IV, pt Henry IV, pt Henry V Henry VI, pt Henry VI, pt Henry VI, pt Henry VIII King John Richard II Richard III 1 2 1 2 3 Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Our Language, Thanks to Shakespeare Words that first appeared in his plays: attorney bedroom fashionable frugal mimic successful Phrases: Admirable Distasteful Laughable “at one fell swoop” or “sick at heart” Sentences: “all the world’s a stage” “to thine own self be true” “the course of true love never did run smooth” More Words and Phrases . . . Of the 17,677 words that Shakespeare used in all of his plays and sonnets, he was the first to use over 1,700 of them. He wrote many of the words and phrases that we consider clichés today. Which of the following words and phrases do you think Shakespeare coined? Heartsick Heart of gold One fell swoop Long-haired Naked truth Foregone conclusion Break the ice It’s Greek to me Hot-blooded Eat out of house and home Leapfrog Too much of a good thing Fancy-free Wear one’s hear on one’s sleeve Live-long day The milk of human kindness Even More Words and Phrases Some of the words we write and speak today in the English language many not have come into use without Shakespeare. The following is a list of some of the words he was first to write: gnarled countless dwindle laughable amazement hurry frugal lonely radiance misplaced obscene road bump eventful control impartial generous critic His Gravesite Died April 23, 1616 of unknown causes Shakespeare is buried at Church of the Holy Trinity in Stratford An inscription on his tombstone reads: Good friend, for Jesus´ sake forbeare To digg the dust enclosed here! Blese be y man that spares thes stones And curst be he that moves my bones. Stratford Today William’s Will Dated March 25, 1616 10 pounds to “the poor of Stratford” Money to 3 actors of his company 150 pounds to Judith (another 150 pounds 3 years later) Most to his daughter Susanna Wife, Anne, afterthought, “Item, I give unto my wife my second best bed with the furniture” Miscellaneous Notes Romeo and Juliet is based on a poem. The play takes place in the 14th century in Verona, Italy. Most marriages during this time were arranged. Marriages took place at a younger age. Romantic love was recognized as a powerful force, but society did not generally view it as the basis of a sound marriage. Drama Terms Aside: A comment by a character onstage that is intended to be heard by the audience, but not by other characters. Foreshadowing: Hints to the audience of what will happen later. Monologue: A lengthy speech addressed to other characters on the stage, not to the audience. Soliloquy: A relatively long speech in which the character talks to the audience or to no one in particular, expressing the character’s innermost thoughts or providing background information for the audience. Couplet: Two consecutive lines that rhyme Foil:A foil is a person who contrasts with another character in order to highlight various features of the main character's personality Be familiar with… Imagery Simile Metaphor Dramatic Irony On a piece of binder paper, agree or disagree with the following statements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I believe in love at first sight. My parents know more about love and relationships than I do. I would be willing to die for a friend. Sometimes it is necessary to disobey your parents. Older people are more prejudiced than young people. There is never a good reason to kill someone. You shouldn’t fight your friends’ fights. *What do you know or think you know about the play Romeo and Juliet? Ongoing assignment for Romeo and Juliet 19 page Studyguide worth 60 points. First Folio Written by John Heminges & Henry Condell (actors) Published in 1623 36 of his plays included (18 for the first time) “to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and fellow alive” 1. Please open your books to page 769. Read “Literary Analysis” and “Reading Strategy. 2. In your notebook, paraphrase the Prologue on 771. 3. Preview Act I for possible reading parts.