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Principles of Biology, BI 212
Dr. Kristin Latham
Welcome! Please find a seat.
Introduction
Lecture Website:
http://www.wou.edu/~lathamk/BI212_Summer_2015/Latham.htm
Dr. Kristin Latham
[email protected]
503.838.8868
My office hours: M, T, W, R; 9 - 9 50 am
BI 212: Principles of Biology is 4 credits, lecture and lab.
Per week, 8 hours of lecture and 6 hours of lab for four weeks.
Introduction
Who do I ask…….
BI212 has a lecture professor, a course coordinator, and three TAs.
If you question/concern is about
Lab content, assignments and grades: contact your TA.
Also see this person first for help understanding lecture material.
Laboratory issues, class enrollment, registration, grading, scheduling and final
grades: contact the course coordinator, Lori Kayes.
Basically, if it is not content/lecture material related, or lab assignment
related it should go to Dr. Kayes.
Lecture content and exam content: talk to me (Dr. Latham)! To send email,
please be sure to put BI212 in the subject line
Tentative Schedule
Dates
July
20-23
Lecture 1
Monday
Introduction;
Course Tips
Biomolecules
Lecture 2
Tuesday
July
27-30
Metabolism and
Cell Respiration
Cell Structure
and Function
Respiration &
Photosynthesis
Lab: Enzymes
August
3-6
Exam #2
(Ch. 9-11)
Plant Structure,
Growth, Development
August
10-13
Nutrition & Digestion
Readings
Cell Membrane
and Transport
Cell Energy and
Enzymes
Lab: Diffusion & Osmosis
Photosynthesis
Cell
Communication
Lab: Photosynthesis
T: Ch. 6
W: Ch. 7
R: Ch. 8
M: Ch. 9
T: Ch. 9,10
W: Ch.10
R: Ch. 11
M: Ch. 35
Plant Transport
& Nutrition
Lab: Plant Anatomy
Exam #3
(Ch. 35-37,39-40)
Lecture 4
Thursday
M: Ch. 2,5
Lab: Scientific Investigation
Exam #1
(Ch. 2, 5-8)
Lecture 3
Wednesday
Plant Response
to Signals
Animal Form &
Function
Lab: Plant Growth
Final Exam
Circulation &
Gas Exchange
Lab: Fetal Pig Dissections
Osmoregulation
& Excretion
(Ch. 41-42,44) +
Cumulative
Lab: Fetal Pig Dissections
T: Ch. 36,37
W: Ch. 39
R: Ch. 40
M: Ch. 41
T: Ch. 42
W: Ch.44
R: ---
Lecture 1 Outline (Ch. 2, 5)
I.
Atoms and bonds
II.
Biomolecules/Macromolecules
III. Carbohydrates
IV. Lipids
VI. Proteins
VII. Nucleic Acids
VIII. Summary
Basic Chemistry
Diagram the general structure of an atom.
Protons
Neutrons
Atoms
Chemical Bonds - Covalent
• Strongest bond
• e- attracted to (+) in nucleus
• e- attracted to nearby nucleus
• bond = e- pair shared
What if one atom attracts the
electrons more highly?
Why might this situation occur?
Chemical Bonds - Covalent
• electronegativity: attraction of e- by atom
• non-polar = e- shared equally
• polar = e- unequal
• bonds can differ in polarity
Chemical Bonds - Ionic
• electronegativity so unequal, e- stripped
• Example: sodium chloride
Chemical Bonds - Hydrogen
• H atom (covalent bond), attracted to electronegative atom
• between like or unlike molecules
Carbon isomers
• Organic compounds all contain carbon
- vary atoms with which carbon bonds
- vary shape/structure of molecules
• Isomers = same molecular formula, different shape
C4H10
C4H10
butane
isobutane
Functional groups
• functional groups – common atom combinations, reactions
1. Hydroxyl (-OH)
4. Amino (-NH2)
2. Carboxyl (-COOH)
5. Sulfhydryl (-SH)
-
3. Phosphate (-PO42-)
6. Methyl (-CH3)
Images
Penicillin
Cysteine
ATP
Macromolecules
Macromolecules = giant molecules
Four biological classes/groups
Synthesis –
Monomers (single units) joined into polymers (multi-unit)
Macromolecules
Dehydration synthesis =
remove H2O, new bond
Hydrolysis = add H2O, break bond
Macromolecules
Which stores more energy – polymer or monomer?
Which is more “orderly” – polymer or monomer?
What does this say about order and energy?
Carbohydrates
1. Carbohydrates
• Monosaccharide –
simplest sugar molecule
- multiple of CH2O
- C @ each corner
See also - Fig. 5.3
for fuel/energy &
building materials
Carbohydrates - disaccharides
• How are carbohydrate monomers joined (name of process)?
glycosidic bond
Carbohydrates - disaccharides
Glucose + Galactose
Lactose
Carbohydrates - polysaccahrides
• Polysaccharide – 100s – 1000s of monosaccharides
Two purposes:
Storage:
- plants – starch
- animals – glycogen
Structure:
- plants – cellulose
- (animals – chitin)
Carbohydrates - storage
Animal storage glycogen
Plant storage starch
Carbohydrates
α glucose
starch
digestible (humans)
β glucose
cellulose
indigestible (humans)
Lipids
lipids – fats, phospholipids, steroids
i. fats – glycerol + fatty acid – process?
– ester bond
Hydrophilic or
hydrophobic?
Functional
groups present?
fat molecule (aka triglyceride):
one glycerol, plus 3 fatty acids
• not made of
monomers
Lipids - Fats
• saturated fats – all Carbon bonded to
as many Hydrogen as possible
• unsaturated fats – one or
more Carbons with fewer
Hydrogens (1 instead of 2)
Lipids - Fats
• difference is in
the orientation of
unsaturated bonds
• trans fats – type of
unsaturated fat
- synthetically hydrogenated oils
- for texture and preservation
Lipids - phospholipids
ii. phospholipids – glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate + choline
Lipids - phospholipids
• lipid bilayer
Why does it make sense for a membrane to be a phospholipid bilayer?
Lipids - steroids
iii. Steroids – C skeleton 4 fused rings
cholesterol
estradiol
How might steroids
interact with
phospholipids?
testosterone
cortisol
Protein monomer unit – amino acid
Proteins
R-group
• peptide bond
Proteins
Proteins have various structures
Many are large & globular
Have “nooks” for different functions
Proteins - structure
N
i.
Primary – unique sequence of a.a.
*determined by peptide bonds
C
MET
TYR
CYS
Proteins - structure
ii. Secondary – coiled and
folded (sheet or helix)
*determined by H-bonds
Proteins - structure
iii. Tertiary – regions linked
*determined by R-group bonds
iv. Quaternary: two or more protein subunits
*determined by protein-protein interaction
Nucleic Acids - Intro
DNA: polymer
nucleotide: monomer
Relationship of DNA to RNA, Proteins?
DNA
RNA
Proteins
Nucleic acid - Polymers
Nucleic acids
H
OH
• Monomers – linked by ???
• Bond formed – phosphodiester bond
Nucleic acid - components
Nitrogenous bases:
- different between nucleotides
Pentose sugars:
Be able to RECOGNIZE/ID purines vs pyrimidines
DNA Structure
DNA Structure
Hydrogen bonds link paired nucleotide
bases across the DNA double helix.
DNA Structure
• double helix
• Covalent bonds
- sugars to phosphates
- bases to sugars
• Hydrogen bonds
– base to paired base
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