Unit 1: Matter and Energy Unit Review Name: KEY Date: ________________ Class: _________ Directions: Complete the following review questions. Review your Cornell notes, learning targets, worksheets, labs, and other assignments to adequately prepare for the unit test. Learning Target(s): 1, 2, 3, 4, 10 1. In the Melting of a Solid lab, you heated (or cooled) an unknown solid and recorded its temperature at 30-second intervals. From this data you created a heating (or cooling) curve to identify the substance. a. Identify the independent variable of this experiment: the time you heat the solid for b. Identify the dependent variable of this experiment: the temperature of the solid c. Identify the control for this experiment: substance used; method of heating 2. Decide whether the following observations are qualitative or quantitative: a. The solution began to get cloudy once the second reagent was added. Qualitative b. The piece of magnesium was 1.25 centimeters in length. Quantitative c. The mass of the block decreased by fifteen grams. Quantitative d. The test tube appeared to have a dark orange solid suspended in the solution. Qualitative e. The residue left in test tube 5 was slightly larger than in test tube 4. Qualitative Learning Target(s): 15 3. Suggest a process to use to separate each of the following mixtures: a. A mix of salt and water: ____________________ b. A smoothie drink with veggies and fruits of different densities: ____________________ 4. Which physical property does filtration use to separate a mixture? ____________________ Learning Target(s): 5, 6 5. Describe at least two safety precautions to use when using a Bunsen Burner in lab: a. Tie back hair and loose clothing b. Light match first then turn on gas valve 6. Which type of lab equipment would be most appropriate to measure 4 mL of water in? Choose one and explain why. a. A 250 mL beaker d. A 50 mL graduated cylinder b. A 10 mL graduated cylinder e. A large test tube c. An electronic balance f. A thermometer You would get the most accurate measurement with this size. This piece of equipment has graduations to measure volume. Learning Target(s): 7, 11, 12 7. Define the term “matter:” Anything that has mass and takes up space 8. Why is “energy” not “matter?” Energy is only seen by how it transforms matter. Energy doesn’t have mass or take up space. 9. Choose the four evidences of a chemical change from the list below in column one and circle them. For each of the evidences of a chemical change you circled, choose an example that demonstrates that evidence from the second column. Draw a line to connect the two. Column 1 Column 2 a. Dissolving of a solid in a liquid j. Salt is placed in water and seems to b. Formation of a mixture disappear c. Energy transfer k. Red litmus paper is dipped in a d. Formation of a gas (bubbling) solution and turns blue e. Heating a liquid to its boiling point l. A metal is added to acid and fizzes f. Unexpected color change m. Two solutions are mixed and a solid g. Formation of a precipitate appears h. A substance crystallizes n. Water is heated and starts to bubble i. Breaking a substance into smaller o. Tin and copper filings are mixed pieces p. Two solids are mixed and the beaker becomes cold 10. In each of the four boxes, write the type of matter described by the picture. Then, give two examples of that type of matter. Type: element Type: heterogeneous Examples: mixture silver magnesium Examples: salad muddy water Type: homogeneous Type: compound mixture Examples: Examples: salt water , tap water jello Table salt (NaCl) Baking soda (NaHCO3) Learning Target(s): 13, 14 11. On the following phase diagram, write the letter of the labels in their correct spots, choosing from the list below: a. Time (seconds) b. Temperature (Celsius) c. Freezing point d. Condensing point e. Solid cooling f. Liquid cooling g. Condensing h. Kinetic energy changing 12. Explain the difference between kinetic and potential energy: kinetic energy is the energy of particle movement; potential energy is stored energy. 13. Of the following phase changes, which are endothermic and which are exothermic? a. Boiling endo b. Melting endo c. Freezing exo d. Condensing exo Learning Target(s): 8, 9 14. Define “element:” substance cannot be broken down into simpler components. All one type of atom. 15. Define “compound:” a chemical combination of two or more atoms with uniform composition. 16. Give one similarity and one difference between a compound and a homogeneous mixture: a. Similarity: uniform composition b. Difference: mixture is a physical blend but compound is a chemical blend. 17. Give two properties of each of the three states of matter: Solid Liquid Gas Solids: definite shape and volume, has lowest energy respectively. Liquids: definite volume but not shape, has intermediate amount of energy, respectively. Gas: indefinite volume and shape, has greatest amount of energy, respectively.