Raytheon Seekers Infrared Seeker Calibration Mechanism Raytheon Seekers 1 Raytheon Seekers Aaron Scrignar……Team Leader Eric Draves………..Historian Trevor Moody…….Web Page Des., Mediator Stacy Davison……..Document Coord., Financial Officer LaTanya Williams…Communicator Raytheon Seekers 2 Presentation Outline • • • • • • • • • • Client Description Problem Definition What is Infrared Imaging? Project Requirements Design Method Prototype Design Analysis Process Project Spending Time Log Conclusion Raytheon Seekers 3 More about… Raytheon • One of the largest defense electronics contractors in the world. Leader in defense electronics, including: – Missiles; Radar, Sensors and Electro-Optics – Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) – Missile Defense • Chairman & CEO: Daniel P. Burnham • 2002 Revenue – $16.8 Billion – 62% of sales to U.S. Department of Defense • 79,000 employees worldwide • Headquarters located in Lexington, MA Raytheon Seekers 4 Client Contact • Brian Scott – B.S.E. in Mechanical Engineering at NAU – M.S. in Mechanical Engineering at UofA – Employee of Raytheon since graduation • Missile Systems – Future Combat Systems • Tucson, Arizona Raytheon Seekers 5 Problem Statement A preliminary design and a proof-of-principal prototype are needed for a window positioning system to be used in a tank-launched projectile. The device must position a small germanium window into an infrared sensor’s optical path to perform NonUniformity Compensation. Raytheon Seekers 6 Project Requirements NUC Mechanism must: • Survive 10KG launch acceleration normal to the window face • Packaged in 0.235” thick by 2.89” diameter cylinder, excluding electronics • Move a 0.50” x 0.44” x 0.04” thick Germanium lens to cover a photocell array • Require less than 24 Watts at a maximum of 24 Vdc for less than 1 second • Move lens in and out of the field of the array in less than 1 second, and remain in position for 1 second Raytheon Seekers 7 What Is Infrared Imaging • Light at frequencies below visible red are considered infrared • All objects emit infrared energy at ordinary temperatures • Objects with higher temperatures emit more infrared energy Raytheon Seekers 8 Infrared Seeker Operation • Modern “Heat Seekers”: – Employ advanced infrared sensor arrays – Utilize computer programs to select, target, and guide munitions towards specific images Raytheon Seekers 9 Non-Uniformity Compensation (NUC) NUC is necessary to adjust for different pixel sensitivities which could cause erroneous targeting by seeker computer Germanium Lens Moved in Front of IR Array Blurred IR Image with Lens in Position Raw IR Image before NUC Raytheon Seekers Non-Uniformity Compensation (NUC) Computer algorithm adjusts gain factors of individual pixels so that a uniform image results from a uniform scene NUC Germanium Lens Moved Out of Position Raytheon Seekers Seeker Head Layout Raytheon Seekers Rail Gun Test • 155mm Howitzer fires projectile into water filled trough to provide firing conditions and “soft catch capability Raytheon Seekers 13 Acceleration Time Histories Raytheon Seekers 14 Acceleration Definition • Launch Conditions – Set Back 10,000G – Set Forward 2,000G – Lateral Balloting 3,300G Set Forward • Flight Conditions – Lateral: 0-3G – Vibration: 5G Set Back Lateral Balloting Raytheon Seekers 15 Scope of Design Constraints • One quarter subjected to 10,000 G’s weighs approximately 120 lbs. • The restricted thickness of the available volume is less than ¼ of an inch Raytheon Seekers 16 Design Philosophy • K.I.S.S. - Minimize complexity of the design to reduce probability of failure • Keep close contact with client – Bring attention to potential design problems before it’s too late Raytheon Seekers 17 Design Process • Brainstorming - Mechanism ideas • Mechanism Selection - Based on size constraints • Modeling - Cardboard & CAD models to assess geometries • Analysis - Hand calculations, Adams, COSMOS/M • Fabricate Prototype – CNC Raytheon Seekers 18 Final Design • • • • • • Frame Solenoid Positioning Arm Pin Bushing Return Spring Raytheon Seekers 19 Final Design Frame Design • Frame supports components and other seeker optics – Modified to eliminate unnecessary weight – Recessed regions for return spring and counterweight clearance Raytheon Seekers 21 Frame Design • Frame – 6061-T6 Aluminum – Sult = 45 ksi – CNC work done by R&D Specialty Manco – Phoenix, Arizona Selected Solenoid • 3 VDC pulling solenoid – – – – Electro Mechanisms, Inc Commercially available PO-25 Fits within required dimensions Provides minimum of 2 oz. of force at 3X nominal voltage (18 Watts) Raytheon Seekers 23 Positioning Arm • Positioning Arm – 7075-T6 Aluminum – Sult = 82.7 ksi • Bushing – Oilite Bronze - Oil Impregnated – Self Lubricating Bushing • Pin – AISI 4130 Steel – Sult = 106 ksi Pin Connection Design Press Fit Withstands 120lb Vertical Force Raytheon Seekers 25 Analysis Justification • Deformation of surfaces are within tolerances defined by the optical engineer • Deformation of support structure for optics is within tolerance and creates no interference – No yielding through cross section of part • No ultimate failures occur Raytheon Seekers 26 Analysis Focus • Static Analysis – Pin joint withstands launch accelerations – Arm deflection does not produce ultimate failure • Dynamic Analysis – Solenoid and spring actuation times – Verification of solenoid adequacy Raytheon Seekers 27 Finite Element Analysis • COSMOS/M – 3-D 20 Noded Quadrilateral Elements – Body (Acceleration) Load • Modeled Positioning Arm & Components – – – – 7075-T6 Al Arm Germanium Lens Oilite Brass Bushing Tungsten Counterweight • Material properties specified for each component Raytheon Seekers 28 FEA Mesh Von Mises Stress Plot smax = 80.3 ksi F.S. = 1.03 Does Not Yield Through Cross-Section Raytheon Seekers 30 Dynamic Analysis • Adams software used for dynamic analysis w.r.t. arm rotation • Employed actual solenoid force function curve and spring force • Analysis Performed: – Actuation & return times – Forces due to snubbing of arm rotation – Verification of solenoid strength sufficiency over entire actuation distance Raytheon Seekers 31 Adams Simulation Actuation time = 0.027 sec Spring Return = 0.028 sec Prototype Cost Machine Work & Parts Frame (2) Arm (2) Pin & Bushing (2) Solenoids (14) Solenoid Screws (144) Miscellaneous (Spring, Wire, etc.) $ $ $ $ $ $ TOTAL Cost Per Unit Raytheon Seekers 450.00 115.00 89.92 24.00 5.00 $ 683.92 $ 341.96 33 Total Project Spending Modeling Supplies $ 42.00 Prototype Cost $ 683.92 Documentation $ 400.00 Presentation Supplies $ 50.00 Travel & Miscellaneous $ 730.00 TOTAL Raytheon Seekers $1,905.92 34 Project Budget • Provided Funds by Raytheon – $ 3,000 • Total Project Spending – $ 1,906 • Donation to the College of Engineering & Technology – $ 1,094 Raytheon Seekers 35 Time Log Total Project Hours for Spring Semester 684.5 hrs Avg. Hours Per Team Member: 136.9 hrs Raytheon Seekers 36 Conclusion • The balanced swing arm design is simple and efficient in providing the required lens motion while withstanding the environmental constraints • A prototype that meets project specifications will be delivered to Raytheon on time and within budget Raytheon Seekers 37 Acknowledgements • Brian Scott – Raytheon Missile Systems • • • • Dr. Ernesto Penado, Advisor Dr. David E. Hartman, P.E. Dr. John Tester NAU Machine Shop – Don McCallum, Daniel, & Rus Raytheon Seekers 38 Questions?