Lodging Management

Lodging Management
Year 1A
Electronic Flashcards
A file that holds information
needed for serving a client’s
basic business needs. The File is
started at the time of initial
contact with a prospective client
Account File
A network for communication
reservations in which each
participating property is represented
in a computer system data base
and is required to provide
availability data to the central
reservations center on a timely
Central Reservation
When people in authority must
accept responsibility for their
decisions and be able to justify
their actions to those above them
in the chain of command.
Properties that are affiliated with
Chain Property
A management strategy in which
capacity can, to a limited extent,
be varied to suit the level of
Chased-demanded strategy
Responsible for a hotel’s physical
operation and maintenance
Chief engineer
Something that could cause harm
over a long period
Chronic Hazard
A report, typically prepared by the
night auditor, that summarizes the
hotel’s financial activities during a 24hour period and provides insight into
revenues, receivables, operating
statistics, and cash transactions
related to the front office
Daily Operations Report
The collection of all non-guest
accounts, including house
accounts and unsettled departed
guest accounts
City Ledger
Constructed for each revenue
center and used to track all
transactions posted to other
Control Folio
An upgrading/upselling method used
when a guest has already made a
reservation or has requested a lowpriced room. During the registration
process, the agent can suggest extra
amenities or a higher priced rooms.
Bottom-up method
A type of reservation guarantee in
which the corporation signs a
contractual agreement with the
hotel to accept financial
responsibility for any no-show
travelers it sponsors
Corporate guaranteed
A type of guarantee supported by
credit card companies
Credit Card Guaranteed
Compare a guest’s current folio
balance with a credit limit(also
called house limit) that is
predetermined by management
Credit monitoring routine
Turning away a guest who has a
reservation because of a lack of
The ratio of actual rooms revenue to
potential rooms revenue
Yield Statistic
How often should equipment wires
and connections be checked?
The structure of authority where
each higher level carries more
responsibility and greater
authority than the levels below
Chain of command
Individuals or families moving to
an area and required lodging until
permanent housing can be found
Long-term stay/relocation
Delegate who stay in hotels
where a negotiated package
price covers rooms, meals, and
Convention and association
Business travelers whose rooms
are booked or blocked by their
company or a travel agency; they
usually stay for two to four days
Corporate Groups
An approach to setting prices
whereby the hotel determines its
actual cost, then adds on a
reasonable percentage to arrive
at the final retail price.
Cost-plus pricing
Job task that is fundamental to a
Essential functions
Sheryl has just sold a block of 12
rooms that will be held each night
for passengers who get bumped
from flights. What guest segment
has Sheryl sold to?
Airline-related guests
The number of room nights the
specific property would sell if
demand were distributed based
on the number of rooms in each
property in the local marketplace
Fair share
A device linked to the hotel
telephone system that accurately
accounts for guest telephone calls
by identifying each phone number
dialed fro guestroom telephones
and tracking charges
Call Accounting System
Businesses that produce
“products” or services that cannot
be inventoried or stored for future
Replaces traditional mechanical
locks with computer-based
guestroom access devices
Electronic Locking System
In a hotel, who would typically be in
charge of computerized information
Systems Manager
An amount of money given to a
cashier at the start of each work
shift so that he or she can handle
the carious transactions that
Cash Bank
Which type of analysis helps a
property discover profitable guest
groups being overlooked by the
property, competitive benefits or
advantages, and weaknesses in
the marketing strategies or other
Competition Analysis
A credit card arrangement,
normally established through
correspondence between a guest
or a company and the hotel, in
which the hotel agrees to bill the
guest or the company for the
charges incurred
Direct Billing
Guest expected to check out on a
given day who have not yet done
A key that opens all guestroom
doors, even when they are
double locked
Emergency Key
A billing arrangement under
which meals are priced
separately from rooms
European Plan
A pre-departure activity that
involved the production and early
morning distribution of guest folios
for guest expected to check out
that morning
Express Check-out
The process of recording
transactions on a guest folio
An approach to settling prices
whereby companies determine
what customers want and are
willing to pay- and then figure out
a way to deliver it.
Customer-based pricing
A computer software package that
supports a variety of applications
related to front office and back office
Property Management
System (PMS)
The standard rate established by a
hotel for a particular category of
Rack rate
The practice of influencing a
guests’ purchases decision by
highlighting available choices and
using sales phrases.
Suggestive Selling
A computer network that allows
electronic cash registers at the
hotel’s points of sale to
communicate directly with a front
office guest accounting module
POS (point-of-sale) system
A type of reservation guarantee that
required a payment in full before the
day of arrival
Prepayment guaranteed
A brief statement explaining why
the team exist and how it
contributed to the overall goals of
a department or organization
Mission statement
A code generated by an online
credit card verification service,
indicating that the requested
transaction has not been
Denial Code
An episode in which the
customer comes into contact with
any aspect of the organization
and gets an impression of the
quality of its service
Moment of truth
A level of service which stresses
the personal attention given to
World-class service
A measurement used to forecast
food and beverage revenue, to
indicate clean linen
requirements, and to analyze
daily revenue rate
Multiple occupancy ratio
The amount of cash and checks
in the cashier’s drawer, minus the
about of initial cash bank
Net cash receipts
A daily comparison of guest
accounts (and non-guest accounts
have activity) with revenue center
transaction information
Night audit
A division of the flow of business
through a hotel that identifies the
physical contracts and financial
exchanges between guests and
hotel employees
Guest Cycle
A form used to chart transactions
on an account assigned to an
individual person or guestroom
Guest Folio
A collection of guest history
records, constructed from the
expired registration cards or
created through sophisticated
computer based systems, that
automatically direct information
about departing guest into a guest
history database
Guest History File
A record of personal and finical
information about hotel guest
relevant to marketing and sales
that can help the hotel serve the
guest on return visits
Guest history record
An acceptable amount of work
that must be done within a
specific time frame according to
an established performance
Productivity standard
What report would an executive
housekeeper use to determine
the number of check-out rooms
that need to be cleaned?
Occupancy Report
A service or item offered to
guests or placed in guestrooms
for convenience and comfort at
not extra cost.
A type of reservation guarantee
that required the guest to pay a
specified amount of money to the
hotel in advance of arrival
Advance deposit
guaranteed reservation
A hotel chain’s reservation
system in which all
participating properties are
contractually related
Affiliate Reservation
A posting or closed-circuit
broadcast of daily events at a
Reader board
A code generated by an online
credit card verification service,
indicating that the requested
transaction has been approved
Authorization code
A billing arrangement under
which room charges include the
guestroom and three meals; also
called full pension
American Plan
To settle in full the balance of a
folio account as the guest checks
Zero Out
Independent hotels which have
banded together for some
common purpose
Referral group
Permits another party (the
franchisee) to sell products or
services in the name of a specific
The functional area of the hotel in
which employees have extensive
guest contact
Front of the house
A hotel pricing system used to
track advanced bookings and
then lower or raise prices
accordingly to yield the maximum
room revenue
Yield Management
The formula used in posting
transactions to front office
Previous Balance + Debits –
Credits = Net Outstanding
Accounting posting formula
Something that could cause
immediate harm
Acute Hazard
An occupancy ratio derived by
dividing net rooms revenue by
the number
Average Daily Rate
An occupancy ratio derived by
dividing net rooms revenue by
the number of guest
Average rate per guest
The practice of suggesting more
expensive(and often better
quality) items than those the
guest first mention
The functional areas or the hotel
in which employees have little or
no guest contact, such as
engineering and maintenance
Back of the House
A statement of all transaction
affecting the balance of a single
Directs the production and
service of food and beverages
Food and Beverage
What employers must do to make
the workplace accessible to
people with disabilities, unless
doing so imposes an undue
hardship on the employer
The variety, or mixture, of guests
who stay at a hotel
Guest mix
An easy and effective upgrading/up
selling method used to sell middle-rate
rooms to guest who might otherwise
choose a lower rate. The reservations
provides the guest with a choice of three
or more rate-category alternatives and
puts no pressure on the guest.
Which report list rooms that have
been sold at other than their rack
Room rate variance report
The number of rooms occupied by
more than one guest divided by the
number of rooms occupied by guest
Multiple occupancy
OSHA’s regulation requiring
employers to inform employees
about possible hazards related to
chemical they use on the job
Hazard Communication
(HazComm) Standard
An upgrading/up selling method
used to encourage guest to
reserve middle- or high-rate
Top-down method
Short-term planning that
approximates the number of
rooms available for sale on any
future date
A form completed by front office
cashiers that list each receipt or
disbursement of cash during a
work shift
Front office cash sheet
The chief operating officer of a
hotel or restaurant
General Manager
A reservation that assures the guest
that a room will be held until
checkout time of the day following
the day of arrival
Guaranteed reservation
A detailed report that list every job
task performed by all housekeeping
Job Safety Analysis
A distribution channel for
reservations that provides
worldwide distribution of hotel
reservation information and allows
selling of hotel reservation around
the world
Global Distribution Systems
A summary of all a group’s
activities, billing instructions, key
attendees, recreational
arrangements, arrival and departure
patterns, and other important
Group Resume
A process in which a company
operates a property for a fee
Management contract
A room status term indicating that
the guest is being allowed to
check out later than the hotel’s
standard check-out time
Late check out
The revenue that would be
realized if all the property’s
rooms were sold at full rack
Revenue Potential
An employee who checks the
accuracy of front office accounting
records ad complies a salary
summary of hotel financial data as
part of the night audit
Night Auditor
A central reservation system that
connects independent (nonchain) properties
Non-affiliate reservation
A billing arrangement under
which the daily rate includes
charges for the guestroom and
two meals- typically breakfast
and dinner
Modified American Plan
Critical moments when guest
and staff interact, offering
opportunities for staff to make a
favorable impression, correct
mistakes, and win repeat
Moments of truth
The date when a booked meeting
rooms should be taken off hold. A
hold periods should not extend
beyond the time when they space
can be sold if the commitment is
not firmed up
Release Date
An accurate way to determine
how a property is doing against
the competition. It is determined
by dividing room revenue by the
number of rooms available for
Revenue per available
Charged purchases made by guest
that are posed to folios after guests
have settled their accounts
Late Charges
A service that allows guest to
order an enjoy food in the privacy
of their own guestrooms or
suites; it can be viewed as a
status symbol or just a matter of
Room Service
A central reservations system that
contacts to handle reservations for
more than one product line
Intersell agency
Lodging and food service
businesses that provide short-term
or transitional lodging and / or food
Hospitality Industry
A folio used to chart transactions on
an account assigned to more than
one person or guestroom
Master Folio
A key that opens all guestroom
doors which are not double-locked
Master Key
A form this is supplied by
chemical’s manufacturer
containing information about a
Material Safety Data Sheet
What department administers
insurance and other benefit
Human Resources
What does a guest mix refer to?
The variety of guests who
stay at a hotel
A reservation agreement in
which the hotel agrees to hold a
room for the guest until a stated
reservation cancellation hour on
the day of arrival
Non-guaranteed reservation
A folio used to chart transactions on
an account assigned to: (1) a local
business or agency with charge
privileges at the hotel, (2) a group
sponsoring a meeting at the hotel,
(3) a former guest with an
outstanding account balance
Non-guest folio
A guest who made a room
reservation but did not register or
An occupancy ratio that indicated
the proportion of rooms sold to
rooms available for sale during a
specific period of time
Occupancy percentage
A measurement of the success
of the hotel in selling rooms
Occupancy ratios
A report prepared each night by
a front desk agent which list
rooms occupied that night and
indicated guest who are
expected to check out the
following day
Occupancy Report
A broad set of rules that protects
workers in all trades and
professions from a variety of unsafe
working conditions
Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA)
A group of ratios that assist in the
analysis of hospitality operations
Operating ratios
A schematic representation of the
relationships between positions within
an organization, showing where each
position fits into the overall organization
and illustrating the decisions of
responsibility and lies of authority
Organizational Chart
Projects future revenue by
multiplying predicted occupancies
by current house rates.
Revenue forecast report
An imbalance that occurs when
the total of cash and checks in a
cash register drawer is greater
than the initial bank plus net cash
A property selected to receive
central system reservation request
after room availabilities in the
system’s participating properties
within a geographic region have
been exhausted
Overflow facilities
A guest who pays his or her room
charges in cash during registration;
PIA guests are often denied in
house credit
Paid-in-advance (PIA) guest
A required level of performance that
establishes the quality of work that
must be done
Performance standard
Used to track guest folio balances
that are settled to a credit card
Permanent Folio
A guest who pays his or her room
charges in cash during registration
PIA (paid-in-advance)
A collection of important guest
information created by the front
desk agent following the guest
Registration record
A manual record created by the
reservations as a result of the
initial inquiry procedures
Reservation record
An operating division or department
which sells good for services to
guests and thereby generates
revenue for the hotel. The front
office, food and beverage outlets,
room service, and retail stores are
typical revenue centers
Revenue center
An operating division or department
which does not generate direct
revenue but plays a supporting role
to the hotel’s revenue centers
Support center
An acronym for Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities, and
An important step in the strategic
planning process; its helps
companies assess how well that are
serving their current markets
SWOT analysis
A revenue management statistic
that measure the revenuegenerating capability of a hotel
Revenue per available room
The price a hotel charges for
overnight accommodations
Room rate
The perception of a property by
its guest or potential guest
Market Position
A report listing rooms that have not
been sold at rack rates
Room rate variance report
A situation in which the
housekeeping department's
description of a room’s status
information that guides front desk
employees in assigning rooms to
Room status discrepancy
A report that allows hotel employees
to identify the occupancy, status,
and condition f properties rooms,
typically prepared as part of the
night audit
Room status report
Lists, by room type, the number
of rooms available each day (the
net remaining rooms in each
Rooms availability report
The process of identifying or
defining smaller market
segments within the larger
Market segmentation
Compares actual revenue and
expense figures with budgeted
Rooms division budget report
A lodging market segment that
often travels with their families on
sightseeing trips, or on trips to
visit friends or relatives.
Leisure travelers
A charge imposed by some hotels
on guest who do not check out by
the established check-out time
Late check-out fee
The number of purchase units
consumed between the time that a
supply is placed and the time that
the order is actually received
Lead-time quantity
A management strategy in which the
same amount of capacity is offered,
no matter how high the consumer
Level-capacity strategy
A document detailing a transaction
to be posted to a front office
account; used to communicate
information from a point of sale to
the front office
A guest who arrives at a hotel
without a reservation
A list of significant points to make
when you present information
A computerized system, usually
located in the hotel lobby, that
allows the guest to review his for
her folio and settle the account to
the credit card used at check-in
Self check-out terminal
Used to track “bill to”
accounts receivable
Semi-permanent folio
Meeting customer needs in the way
that they want and expect them to
be met
An imbalance that occurs when the
total cash and checks in a cash
register drawer is less than the
initial bank plus net cash receipts
A guest who leave with not intention
of paying for the room
A printed voucher, usually serially
numbered for internal-control
purposes, from the revenueproducing department showing an
amount that is charged to a folio
Source document
Determined by dividing the
number of property room nights
sold by the total market room
nights sold
Market Share
A folio in which a guest’s charges
are separated into two or more
Split folios
A fully automated audit routine that
accomplishes many of the same
functions as a non-computerized
night audit
System Update
Manages a hotel’s computerized
information system. May write
simple computer programs and
instruction manuals for employees
Systems manager
The market segments for which
a property is best suited
Target markets
A type of reservation guarantee
under which the hotel generally
bills the travel agency after a
guaranteed reservation has been
classified as a no-show
Travel agent guaranteed
A sales technique whereby a
guest is offered a more expensive
room than what he or she
reserved or originally requested,
and then persuaded to rent the
room based on the rooms
features, benefits, and his or her
The presence in the workplace of
people who differ in gender,
culture, race, ethnicity, and other
The standard rate for a particular
room is typically called…
The rack rate
In the night audit, the process of
balancing front office accounts
with transactions information by
Trial Balance
An independent, nonprofit
organization that test electrical
equipment and devices to ensure
that the equipment is free of
defects that could cause fire or
Underwriters Laborites (UL)
A forecast specially prepared for
food and beverages, banquet, and
catering operations which generally
includes the expected number of
House count
The amount which guest can charge
to their accounts without partial
settlement; this high balance
amount is set by the hotel
House Limit
A report the housekeeping
department prepares that indicated
the current housekeeping status of
each room, based on a physical
Housekeeping status report
Food and beverage service for small
groups meetings, corporate
meetings, organizations entertaining
guest during conventions, and other
occasions, which are typically held in
hotel suites
Hospitality Suite
What key is capable of opening all
guestroom doors, even when they
are double locked?
Emergency Key
A property that is not affiliated with
any other property, chain, or
Independent hotel
Legislation that provides consistent
guidelines about who is responsible when
third parties suffer because of an intoxicated
person actions. Although these acts very
form state to state, bartenders, servers, and
owners can often be help jointly liable if
minor or an intoxicated person who then
causes injury to others
Dram Shop Acts
Assigned to an in-house guest for
the purpose of charting the
guest’s finical transactions with
the hotel
Individual Folio
The primary products of hospitalityoriented organizations
Intangible Products
Part of the marketing audit that
includes a written, unbiased, self
appraisal used to assess the
strength and weaknesses of a
Property Analysis
A journal in which important
front office events and decisions
are recorded for reference
during subsequent shifts
Log Book
A reservation system that offers
seating at specific intervals; at
least 30 minutes must be allowed
between serving periods to clean
up, reset tables, and otherwise
get ready for the next thing
Interval Reservation
What report projects future revenue
by multiplying predicted
occupancies by current house
Revenue forecast report
Generally, the first few letters of
a guest’s last name.
Identification Code
A document that lists the number
of guestrooms allotted to each
group and indicated whether the
allotment is firm or tentative.
Guestroom control book
A collection of information kept at
the front desk for front desk
agents to use in responding to
guest request
Information Directory
A systematic approach to
maintenance in which situations are
identified and corrected on the
regular basis control cost and keep
large problems from occurring
Preventive maintenance
When booking events, the letter
of agreement which list every
detail that the two parties have
discussed and agreed upon
A process whereby managers divide
a varied market into distinctive and
relatively homogenous subgroups or
Market segmentation
A printed form from a registration
Registration card
A modest but sufficient level of
service which appeals to the largest
segment of the traveling public
Mid-range service