Unit 4 Review #2 KEY - Mr. Lesiuk

Unit 4 Review #2
1. Mosses belong to phylum BRYOPHYTA.
2. Most taxonomy systems throw mosses, liverworts
(hepatophyta) and hornworts (anthocerotophyta)
into this phylum.
3. Three reasons why bryophytes are still dependent
on a moist environment are:
- No waxy cuticle on epidermis to reduce water
- Sperm cells are flagellated and must swim in
water to reach egg.
- Non-vascular. They possess no transport tubules
to move water and the products of
photosynthesis around their plant body.
4. Bryophytes are very short plants as they must live
near the ground close to water because they move
water from cell to cell through osmosis. They are
5. You should know the difference between
gametophyte generation and sporophyte
generation in a moss, also the terms rhizoid, stalk
and capsule.
6. Like all higher plants, mosses use chlorophyll “a”
and chlorophyll “b”.
7. Haploid cells contain a nucleus that has only one of
each chromosome type  1N
Diploid cells contain a nucleus that has two of each
chromosome type.  2 N
8. In humans the only haploid cells are the egg and
sperm cells. In humans the rest of the cells are all
9. In a moss the haploid plant is the gametophyte
10. In a moss the diploid plant is the sporophyte
11. The part of the haploid gametophyte plant that
produces sperm cells is the “ANTHERIDIUM”.
12. The part of the haploid gametophyte plant that
produces egg cells is the “ARCHEGONIUM”.
13. The very first cell to form when an egg and a
sperm unite is called a ZYGOTE and it is diploid.
14. From this diploid zygote, normal cell division
(mitosis) takes place to give rise to a diploid plant
known as the sporophyte.
15. Inside the capsule of the sporophyte diploid
cells need to undergo reduction division (MEIOSIS)
to form haploid cells known as haploid spores.
16. These haploid spores are properly called
MEIOSPORES and they are dispersed to germinate
out to give rise to the next haploid gametophyte
17. All vascular plants belong to phylum
Tracheophyta, but ferns belong to Subphylum
18. Trachea = PIPE
Phyta = PLANT
These are the “piped plants”
19. Because all Tracheophytes posses vascular
bundles/pipes to transport water and the products
of photosynthesis.
20. XYLEM is a vascular tissue that is responsible
for forming tubules that transport water and
dissolved minerals. Primarily made up of dead
Tracheid cells and Vessel Element cells.
21. PHLOEM is a vascular tissue that is responsible
for forming tubules that transport the products of
photosynthesis. Phloem consists mostly of living
Sieve Tube Elements and Companion cells.
Tracheid cells are hollow, rigid and dead.
23. Other than possessing vascular bundles for
transportation, tracheophyte also possess a waxy
cuticle and majority of tracheophytes produce
seeds that are drought tolerant.
The ferns are the most abundant.
25. The creeping underground stem of a fern is
known as the RHIZOME.
Leaf structures of ferns are called FRONDS.
27. The main generation of a fern is DIPLOID. The
haploid gametophyte structure/generation
(PROTHALLUS) is diminished.
28. Sori are the cluster-like structures of sporangia
on the underside of a ferns leaflets.
29. Haploid fern spores germinate and grow into a
haploid gametophyte known as the PROTHALLUS
30. Ferns are still somewhat dependent on
standing water for a small part of their life cycle as
they still rely on flagellate sperm cells rather than
on air-borne pollen capsules like the higher
tracheophytes. Also they lack seeds.
Archegonium of the prothallus produces EGGS.
Antheridium of the prothallus produces SPERM.
33. Frond sprouts are known as FIDDLE HEADS
which are diploid.
Adaptation for Living On Land
1. Water
2. Rigid xylem provide plants with the support they
need to grow up against gravity to out-compete
other plants in obtaining sunlight for
3. Vascular plants transport water and minerals
through their Xylem and they transport sugars for
energy through their Phloem.
4. A cuticle is a waxy covering on the outside of the a
plant’s epidermis that helps reduce water loss.
5. The biggest advancement that most land plants
posses is the SEED. The seed contains an embryo
that may remain dormant in drought periods for
several years. This allows seed plants to inhabit
drier environments.