Accounting for Lawyers Professor Bradford Fall 2001 Exam 2001 The following answer outlines are not intended to be model answers, nor are they intended to include every issue that students discussed. They merely attempt to identify the major issues in each question and some of the problems or questions arising under each issue. They should provide a pretty good idea of the kinds of things I was looking for. If you have any questions about the exam or your performance on the exam, feel free to contact me to talk about it. I graded each question separately. Those grades appear on the front cover of your blue books. To determine your overall average, each question was then weighted in accordance with the time allocated to that question. Question 1 Journal entries: 11/1 Cash 5,000 Partner’s Equity: George 11/1 11/1 5,000 Rent Expense Prepaid Rent Expense Cash 1,000 1,000 Cash 2,000 2,000 Note Payable 11/2 11/2 11/5 11/7 11/11 2,000 Cash Furniture and Fixtures Partner’s Equity: Mary 4,000 2,000 Supply Expense Cash 50 Purchases Cash 300 Purchases Cash 220 Cash 150 6,000 50 300 220 Sales 11/13 Cash 150 280 Sales 11/17 Cash 280 160 Sales 11/18 11/20 11/26 160 Purchases Cash 90 Partner’s Equity: George Cash 500 Cash 130 Sales 90 500 130 11/30 11/30 11/30 11/30 11/30 11/30 11/30 11/30 Purchases Accounts Payable 240 Telephone Expense Cash 75 Interest Expense Interest Expense Payable 10 Cost of Goods Sold Purchases 850 Inventory Cost of Goods Sold 300 Theft Loss Inventory 100 Profit and Loss Theft Loss Rent Expense Interest Expense Supply Expense Telephone Expense Cost of Goods Sold 1,785 Sales 720 240 75 10 850 300 100 100 1000 10 50 75 550 Profit and Loss 11/30 Partner’s Equity: George Partner’s Equity: Mary Profit and Loss [T-accounts on separate spreadsheet.] 720 532.50 532.50 1,065 ZuZu’s Petals Partnership Balance Sheet As of Nov. 30, 2001 Liabilities and Partners’ Equity Assets Cash Prepaid Rent Expense Inventory Furniture and Fixtures TOTAL $8,485 1,000 200 2,000 $11,685 Liabilities Accounts Payable Interest Expense Payable Note Payable Partners’ Equity George Mary TOTAL $ 240 10 2,000 3,967.50 5,467.50 $11,685 ZuZu’s Petals Income Statement For the Month of November, 2001 Sales Less: Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit on Sales Operating Expenses: Rent Interest Supplies Telephone Theft Total Operating Expenses NET LOSS $720 550 170 $1,000 10 50 75 100 1,235 ($1,065) Question 2 To decide whether this is a good investment for Alice, we must compare the present value of all the payments Alice must make to the present value of the payments she will receive, using as the discount rate the 7% return she can earn in her best alternative investment. If the discounted returns exceed the sum of the discounted payments, this is a good investment. The calculations are easiest if we look at the present values as of January 1, 2002. Alice’s Payments. The present value of Alice’s first payment is simply $2,600. We can consider the other nine $2,600 payments as an annuity in arrears (payable at the end of each year). From Table IV in Appendix B of the book, the present value factor for a nine-year annuity with a 7% discount rate is 6.51523. Thus, the present value of these nine payments is $2,600 x 6.51523 = $16,939.60. The total present value of Alice’s payments is therefore $2,600 + $16,939.60 = $19,539.60. Alice’s Return. In return for her investment, Alice receives two payments. The first payment is $10,000 paid 5 years from Jan. 1, 2002. From Table III in Appendix B, the present value factor for a payment in 5 years with a 7% discount rate is .71299. Thus, the present value of this first receipt is $10,000 x .71299 = $7,129.90. Alice also receives a second payment of $24,000 in ten years. From Table III, the present value factor for a payment in ten years with a 7% discount rate is .50835. Thus, the present value of this second receipt is $24,000 x .50835 = $12,200.40. The total present value of the investment return is therefore $7,129.90 + $12,200.40 = $19,330.30. Comparison. The present value of the payments, $19,539,60, is greater than the present value of the return, $19,330.30. Therefore, this is not a good investment for Alice. Question 3 When to Recognize Revenue and Expenses: The revenue recognition principle says to recognize revenue when (1) there is an exchange transaction and (2) the seller has substantially completed the earnings process. The first requirement is met by the contract. The more difficult issue is determining when Inter substantially completed the earnings process. Arguably, Inter has completed everything it is required to do as of Dec. 15, when Geekway is supposed to pick up the processors. The shipment is segregated and ready for pickup at that point, so there’s an excellent argument for revenue recognition, even stronger than in Pacific Grape. Usually, substantial completion occurs as of shipment, but not here, where Inter is not required to ship. Nevertheless, revenue is usually recognized when the risk of loss and title pass and that probably would not be until Geekway picks up the processors in 2001. The possibility of return does not preclude revenue recognition under SFAS No. 48. SFAS No. 48 lists several requirements that must be met for revenue to be recognized before a right of return expires. Several of these are clearly met: the price is fixed; as far as we know, the buyer has economic substance apart from resources provided by Inter; Inter has no significant future obligations under the contract; and, given its past experience, Inter can reasonably estimate future returns. However, one requirement is problematic. It’s not clear that the risk of loss has passed to Geekway when the processors were segregated. If not, SFAS precludes revenue recognition in 2000, and revenue would not be recognized until 2001, when Geekway picked up the processors. Even if revenue is not recognized for most of the contract until 2001, an argument can be made that revenue should be recognized for the initial shipment of 500 processors because that portion of the contract clearly has been substantially completed and the risk of loss has passed as to those processors. If this is done, the related expenses, including estimated returns for that portion, must also be recognized in 2000. When revenue is recognized, the amount of future returns must be estimated and taken as an expense. This is a contingency which must be recognized under Paragraph 8 of SFAS No. 5. Given past history (5-10%), it is probable that a liability of at least 5% has been incurred and the amount of that loss (at least the 5%) can be reasonably estimated. As to the remainder, the likelihood is less certain, but disclosure is still required by Paragraph 10 of SFAS No. 5. Whenever, the revenue is recognized, the corresponding shipping expense should also be recognized under the matching principle. Journal Entries (if revenue recognized in 2001): Nov. 1 Dec. 1 Dec. 15 Jan. 2 Deferred Shipping Expense Cash $700 Deferred Shipping Expense Cash $500 Cash Deferred Sales $100,000 $100,000 Deferred Sales $400,000 $400,000 Cash $700 $500 Jan. 5 Deferred Sales Sales $500,000 $500,000 Jan. 5 Shipping Expense Deferred Shipping Expense $1,200 Jan. 5 Sales Returns Estimated Liability: Sales Returns $25,000 $25,000 Dec. 31 Estimated Liability: Sales Returns Cash $20,000 $20,000 $1,200 [If they are certain this is all the returns—that their initial estimate was too high, they should also make the following entry to get rid of the remaining estimated liability: Estimated Liability: Sales Returns Sales Returns $5,000 $5,000] Journal Entries (if revenue recognized in 2000): Nov. 1 Dec. 1 Dec. 15 Deferred Shipping Expense Cash $700 Deferred Shipping Expense Cash $500 Cash $100,000 $100,000 Deferred Sales Dec. 31 Deferred Sales Accounts Receivable Sales $700 $500 $100,000 $400,000 $500,000 Dec. 31 Shipping Expense Deferred Shipping Expense $1,200 Dec. 31 Sales Returns Estimated Liability: Sales Returns $25,000 $25,000 Jan. 2 Cash $400,000 $400,000 Deferred Sales Dec. 31 Estimated Liability: Sales Returns Cash $1,200 $20,000 $20,000 [If they are certain this is all the returns—that their initial estimate was too high, they should also make the following entry to get rid of the remaining estimated liability: Estimated Liability: Sales Returns Sales Returns $5,000 $5,000] Journal Entries (if only part of revenue recognized in 2000): Nov. 1 Shipping Expense Cash $700 Nov. 1 Accounts Receivable Sales $25,000 $25,000 Nov. 1 Sales Returns Estimated Liability: Sales Returns $1,250 Deferred Shipping Expense Cash $500 Cash Accounts Receivable Deferred Sales $100,000 $25,000 $75,000 Deferred Sales $400,000 $400,000 Dec. 1 Dec. 15 Jan. 2 Jan. 5 Cash Deferred Sales Sales $700 $1,250 $500 $475,000 $475,000 Jan. 5 Shipping Expense Deferred Shipping Expense $500 Jan. 5 Sales Returns Estimated Liability: Sales Returns $23,750 $23,750 Dec. 31 Estimated Liability: Sales Returns Cash $20,000 $20,000 $500 [If they are certain this is all the returns—that their initial estimate was too high, they should also make the following entry to get rid of the remaining estimated liability: Estimated Liability: Sales Returns Sales Returns $5,000 $5,000] Question 4 A. To calculate the depreciation expense, we must first determine the depreciable cost of the machine, its useful life, and its salvage value. Depreciable Cost. The depreciable cost of the machine includes all expenses to acquire the machine and to bring it to the location and condition of its intended use. That would include the $50,000 purchase price, the $3,000 to ship the machine to Ajax, and the $2,000 to modify the machine for its intended use by Ajax. It would not include expenditures for ordinary repairs and maintenance (the $500), which are period costs. The depreciable cost of the Widget 990 is therefore $50,000 + $3,000 + $2,000 = $55,000. Useful Life and Salvage Value. The relevant useful life is the useful life to Ajax, not how long the machine will last. The useful life of the machine to Ajax is only 10 years, after which it will upgrade. The salvage value to Ajax at the end of this useful life is $15,000. Straight-line depreciation. The expense for both 2001 and 2002 will be ($55,000 - $15,000) 10 = $4,000. Double-declining balance method: Year 2001 2002 $55,000 x 1/10 x 200% = $44,000 x 1/10 x 200% = Expense $11,000 $8,800 Balance $44,000 $35,200 B. The depreciation expense in 2001, using the straight-line method, is $4,000. Thus, the net book value of the machine on the balance sheet is $55,000 - $4,000 = $51,000. This book value must be written down to fair value if the asset is impaired pursuant to FASB No. 144 (which replaces No. 121). The machine is used in Ajax’s operations, so that portion of FASB No. 144 is used. FASB No. 144 uses a three-part analysis. First, some event or change in circumstances must trigger an impairment review. A significant decrease in an asset’s market value is one such trigger; a drop to $40,000 probably qualifies. However, we must believe that it is a permanent, not a temporary, decline in value for it to trigger an impairment review. If this drop in market value triggers a review, the second step is a cash-flow analysis to determine if the asset is impaired and a write-down is necessary. You compare the total undiscounted cash flows the machine is expected to produce to the undiscounted cash outflows to produce them. Here, Ajax expects the machine to generate cash of $10,000 a year over its ten-year life, plus the $15,000 Ajax expects upon disposal of the asset. The total cash inflow is ($10,000 x 10) + $15,000 = $115,000. The total cash outflow to produce that revenue is $3,000 x 10 = $30,000. The net undiscounted cash flow is a positive $85,000. A write-down is triggered only if the net cash flow is less than the book value of the machine. The book value is $51,000, so we do not need to write down the machine to its fair value. We don’t get to the third part of the analysis. Question 5 A. Return on Sales = Net Income Net Sales = $27,000 $150,000 = 0.18 B. Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory Average Inventory = [Inventory(1999) + Inventory(2000)] 2 = ($210,000 + $170,000) 2 = $190,000 Inventory Turnover = $60,000 $190,000 = .316 C. Debt to Total Assets Ratio = Total Liabilities Total Assets = $182,000 $527,000 = .345 Question 6 If, as here, circumstances do not reasonably assure that a company will collect the full sales price reflected in a receivable, APB No. 10 allows the company to use either the installment method or the cost recovery method. The question indicates that Armadillo uses the installment method. The installment method allocates part of each cash payment received from the buyer to cost recovery and the rest to profit. The proportion allocated to each is the proportion of the total sales price each represents. Here, the total sales price is $7 million. The book value of the land when Armadillo sold it was $3 million. Thus, $4 million, or 4/7 of the total price, is profit. For each cash payment, 4/7 of the payment will be recognized as gain. Therefore, the journal entries are as follows: 9/1 12/1 Cash Note Receivable Land Gain on Sale of Land Deferred Gain on Sale of Land $2,000,000 $5,000,000 Cash $1,000,000 $3,000,000 $1,142,857 $2,857,143 Note Receivable Deferred Gain on Sale of Land Gain on Sale of Land $1,000,000 $571,429 $571,429 Question 7 This transaction will add no goodwill to Alpha’s balance sheet. Under the purchase method, the purchase price is first allocated to the assets purchased, using their fair market values. Only after that is done is any excess allocated to goodwill. Here, the $810,000 purchase price paid exactly equals the combined fair market values of the assets purchased. There is no excess, so the transaction does not result in the creation of goodwill.