```AP CHEMISTRY REVIEW
Topics for 1st Semester Final
Chapter 1: Intro. to Science, etc. (Lesson 1)
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Metric system
o Units
o Abbreviations and symbols (kilo, etc.)
o Conversions within the metric system (kg to g, etc.)
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Measurements
o How to measure: Measure as much as possible then estimate next place
o Sig figs: Measuring with them, counting them, & calculating with them
o Accuracy and precision
o Percent error
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Classifying matter: Elements, compounds, hetero and homo mixtures
Chapter 2: Atomic Theory (Lessons 2 and 3)
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Proust’s law of definite proportions
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Dalton’s atomic theory: Be familiar with 4 parts
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Thomson, CRT’s, electrons, and plum pudding. Be able to explain results of his experiments.
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Rutherford, gold foil, radiation, the nucleus, and the nuclear model. Be able to explain results of his
experiment.
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Element symbols and notation (xQ+y, etc.)
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Atomic number (Z) and mass number
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Isotopes and ions
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Ionic vs. covalent bonding
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Periodic table
o Rows and periods
o Columns, groups, and families
o Family names
o How it’s organized and repeating properties, etc.
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Nomenclature
o Ionic compounds
 Regular (w/polyatomic)
 Transition metals and roman numerals
o Covalent compounds
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Polyatomic ions
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Predicting formulas of ionic compounds (by balancing charges)
AP Chem 1st Semester Review Topics
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Chapter 3: Stoichiometry (Lessons 4 – 6)
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Atomic mass
Definition: a weighted average
How to calculate
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The mole (like, duh!)
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Calculating numbers of molecules/atoms in a sample (the bicycle thing)
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Molar mass
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Percent composition
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Empirical formulas
Definition and examples
Determining from percent composition
Determining molecular formula given EF and MM
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Hydrates: determining hydration of a compound
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Writing and balancing equations
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Stoichiometry, limiting reactants, and percent yield
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Types of reactions: synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and
combustion
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Lab: Determination of empirical formula, stoichiometry
Chapter 4: Solutions (Lessons 7 – 11)
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How things dissolve: the role of water molecules
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Strong, weak, and nonelectrolytes: Definitions, how to determine, and examples
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Drawing solutions: how electrolytes break apart
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Solvent, solute, and solution: definitions
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Molarity
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How to make solutions
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Glassware and its use
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Beer’s Law: A = lєc
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Precipitation reactions
Predicting precipitates using memorized solubility rules
Molecular, complete ionic, and net ionic equations
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Solution Stoichiometry
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Acid-base reactions
Definitions of acids and bases
Titrations, endpoints, and calculating equivalence points
Fall 09
AP Chem 1st Semester Review Topics
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More Chapter 4: Solutions
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Redox
Definition of reduction and oxidation
Assigning oxidation numbers
Identifying elements reduced and oxidized
Identifying oxidizing and reducing agents
Balancing redox reactions
Writing half-reactions
Acidic vs. basic solutions
Know common oxidizing and reducing agents and their products
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Possible lab questions: Qualitative analysis, Beer’s Law and spectrophotometry/colorimetry,
titrations (acid-base or redox), Determining molar mass of acid, etc.
Chapter 5: Gases (Lessons 12 – 13)
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Pressure
Units and conversions
Instruments to measure pressure and how they work
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Gas laws
Boyle, Charles, Avogadro, Combined, and Ideal
Absolute zero and Kelvin scale
Plugging and chugging
Graphs
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Gas stoichiometry
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STP (0oC and 1 atm)
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Mole fractions, χ
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Partial pressures
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Kinetic Molecular Theory
4 assumptions; know which are incorrect
Explaining gas laws using KMT
Relation of Temp, average KE, and velocity
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Effusion and diffusion
Definitions
Calculations
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Real gases
What’s wrong with KMT
When a gas behaves most ideally (High T and low P) and why
How van der Waal’s equation compensates
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Acid rain and the atmosphere
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Possible lab question: Plotting Boyle’s or Charles’ law, Determining molar volume of a gas
Fall 09
AP Chem 1st Semester Review Topics
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Chapter 6: Thermochemistry (Lessons 14 – 15)
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We can divide the universe into 2 parts:
 System – What we’re looking at
 Surroundings – Everything else
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Processes are either endothermic or exothermic:
 Endothermic – Requires input of heat from surroundings for reaction to go; system feels
cool to the touch; ΔH < 0
 Exothermic – Releases heat into the surroundings as process occurs; system feels hot to
the touch; ΔH > 0.
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At constant pressure, Enthalpy (H) = Heat (q)
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Enthalpy is a state function: Only initial and final conditions matter, not how you got there.
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5 ways to determine enthalpy change (ΔH) of a reaction:
1. Coffee Cup Calorimetry: Using q = H = mcT
2. Bomb calorimetry: Using q = H = cT
3. Stoich: the more stuff you use in your reaction, the more heat involved
4. Hess’s Law: Adding reactions and their enthalpy changes
5. Standard Enthalpies of Formation, H of , and standard states: Using tabulated data
Chapter 12: Kinetics (Lessons 16 – 17)
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Reaction Rates: Relative rates, initial rates, instantaneous rates, average rates, and how to read
them from a concentration vs. time graph
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Rate laws: regular (differentiated) and integrated: 0th, 1st, and 2nd order
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Determining the rate of a reaction:
o Method 1: Initial rates and the regular rate law
o Method 2: Graphing and the integrated rate law
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Half-lives
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Activation energy (Ea) and transition state
Identifying points on a reaction diagram (both forward and reverse reactions): energies of
reactants, products, and transition state; activation energy; ∆H
Catalysis: How it works and how it affects a reaction diagram
Mechanisms: How a reaction happens, writing a rate law for each elementary step, determine
overall rate law given slowest step OR determine slowest step given overall rate law
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Fall 09
AP Chem 1st Semester Review Topics
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Exam Format
Our final will mimic the format and style of the AP test and use actual test questions, but will of course be only
half as long.
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Part 1 will be 30 multiple choice questions. Time = 40 minutes. Only a periodic table is provided; no
equations are given and calculators are not allowed. There will be a ¼-point deduction for each incorrect
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Part 2 is free response. Time = 55 minutes. There will be two calculation-based questions, two essay-based
questions, and a predicting products question. One of the questions will cover a lab we’ve done. Pay
attention to sig figs. A periodic table and a sheet of equations and constants will be provided; calculators
are allowed.
The test will be scaled like the AP exam to give you a “feel” for your projected AP score should you continue
Start studying early!
Typical Averages: 50% before the curve (77% after the curve)
Fall 09
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