Chapter 3b – Tissues

Chapter 3b – Tissues
Multiple Choice:
1. a
2. c, d
3. a, b, c, d
4. e
5. c
6. a, c
7. b
8. b
9. a
10. a
11. a, b, d, e
Short Answer:
17. Tissue: a group of cells similar in structure and function. The four
major tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Connective tissue is the type most widely distributed in the body.
18. The most general characteristic of epithelial tissue is that it lines
body and organ cavities, covers the body surface, and forms glands.
It is avascular and regenerates well. Its most important functions are
protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion. For example, the
external epithelium (epidermis) protects against bacterial, chemical,
and thermal damage; that of the respiratory system has cilia which
sweep debris away from the lungs; that of the digestive system is
able to absorb substances; in the kidneys epithelium absorbs and
filters; and secretion is the specialty of glands.
19. On the basis of cell shape (squamous, cuboidal, of columnar) and
the relative number of cell layers; that is, one cell layer is a simple
epithelium, and more than one layer is a stratified epithelium.
Stratified epithelia are named according to the cell type found in the
top layer.
21. Endocrine glands are ductless; their product is always a hormone.
Exocrine glands have ducts, which conduct the glandular product to
an epithelial surface; the products are varied, for example, sweat,
pancreatic enzymes, liver bile.
22. Connective tissues are usually characterized by a large amount of
extracellular matrix, which is secreted by the living cells and
variations in vascularization. Connective tissues serve to connect,
support, protect, and repair other body tissues. The functions of
connective tissue are best explained by its matrix; that is, when
connective tissue is a cushioning tissue, the matrix is soft and pliable;
when the connective tissue is meant to support or give strength to the
body, the matrix is hard/strong.
24. To contract or shorten.
27. Neoplasm: Growth or cell mass that results from the loss of the
normal controls of cell division.
Hyperplasia: An increase in the size of a body organ that results from
a local stimulant; usually temporary.
Atrophy: A decrease in the size of a body organ or body part as a
result of the loss of normal stimulation (exercise or nerve stimulation).
At the Clinic:
3. Cartilage heals slowly because it lacks the blood supply necessary
for the healing process.
4. Only the liver will fully recover because it is composed of epithelial
tissue, which completely regenerates. The injured areas of the heart
and the brain grow back as scar tissue and thus do not completely