AP First Semester Final Study guide: Answer each of the following questions on a separate page. 1. What is behaviorism, and who were its key figures 2. What is the major criticism of behaviorism? 3. What was the first area of psychology to be studied as a science? 4. What is the biological perspective? 5. What is the focus of evolutionary psychology? 6. What is the focus of cognitive psychology? 7. What are elements of experiments and what kinds of variables are there? 8. What is the gist of APA guidelines? 9. How are longitudinal and cross sectional studies different? 10. What is a random sample 11. What is the purpose of experimentation? 12. How are double and single blind different? 13. What is correlation? 14. What is the fundamental building block of the nervous system? 15. How do neurons fire? 16. What does the parasympathetic branch of the ANS do? 17. What does the sympathetic branch of the ANS so? 18. What is all or none and what does it relate to? 19. Why isn’t myelin a girls name and what does it do? 20. How do thresholds relate to neurons? 21. What chemicals are involved in the firing of neurons 22. Natural painkillers in our brains are called… 23. What are the names of the more famous neurotransmitters? 24. How does Prozac affect neurotransmitters? 25. What neurotransmitter is most associated with Alzheimer’s? 26. What is the function of the occipital lobe? 27. What happens in your frontal lobes? 28. Where are your sensory and motor cortices located? 29. Why would a surgeon cut your corpus callosum? 30. How does your cortex compare to the cortex of other mammals? 31. What happens in your temporal lobes? 32. What does the hippocampus do? 33. What kinds of techniques are used to study the brain? ©Garber2010(533582867) 3/8/2016 9:31:10 PM 34. What are each of your hemispheres responsible for? 35. What does the RAS do? 36. What does the thalamus do? 37. What is hypo-the-llamas all about? 38. What does the cerebral cortex do? 39. What does a sensory homunculus illustrate? 40. What is an instinct? 41. What is natural selection? 42. What is temperament? 43. Who is Harlow and why are you attached to your mother? 44. What is PKU? 45. What is the debate over whether development occurs gradually, without discernible shifts, or through a series of distinct stages called? 46. What are Piaget’s stages. 47. Give an example of object permanence? 48. Who is Mary Ainsworth and what is the Strange Situation designed to probe? 49. How does maturation affect development? 50. What is recognition of self? 51. What are characteristics of autism? 52. What is a schema? 53. What is the best parenting style? 54. Who is Kohlberg and what does he say about morality? 55. How did Giligan slam Kohlberg? 56. Give an example of a group norm. 57. What are Erikson’s stages of development? 58. What are fluid and crystallized intelligence? 59. What are the main theories of color vision and what is the most common kind of colorblindness? 60. What is accommodation and where in the eye does it occur? 61. Why do you have a blind spot in your eye? 62. How do retinal cells communicate with the optic nerve? 63. What is SAD? 64. What cells are responsible for color and B&W vision? 65. Human balance is primarily sensed in what part of the body? 66. Human vestibular sense is closely associated with what organ? 67. Auditory receptors are located in the… 68. What is the path of sound into the ear? 69. What do the ossicles do? 70. What is difference threshold? 71. What is absolute threshold? 72. What do gustatory receptors do? 73. What is dichotic listening? 74. What is adaptation in terms of perception? 75. Why didn’t Gibson kill any babies with the visual cliff? 76. Why doesn’t a Cyclops have retinal disparity? 77. What is closure? 78. What are the Gestalt principles for? 79. Why isn’t Phi a fraternity or sorority? 80. What is the paradox of paradoxical sleep? 81. Give an example of a circadian rhythm? 82. Sleep spindles might occur in what stage of sleep? 83. Hypnosis is most useful for what condition? 84. What is hypnosis? 85. What is it called when you quit smoking and you feel bad? 86. What are the types of drugs and the common examples of each? 87. What is a hallucination? 88. How does classical conditioning work? 89. How does operant conditioning work? 90. What is it called when we learn by watching? 91. Give an example of stimulus generalization. 92. Why shouldn’t you ring the doorbell to Pavlov’s lab? 93. What kinds of reinforcement are there? 94. What can you teach an organism to do with shaping? 95. When are responses easiest and hardest to extinguish? 96. How does punishment work? 97. A student sleeps in class and their parent takes away their car, is this reinforcement or punishment, explain. 98. What was significant about the work of John Garcia? (4 questions) 99. What happens to memory if we disrupt rehearsal? 100. How might your parents reading you the riot act for sleeping in class be an episodic memory? 101. What are the stages or steps of memory processing? 102. What is selective attention? 103. What is the tip of the tongue phenomenon? 104. How does primacy effect memory? 105. What kinds of amnesia are there? 106. What kinds of interference are there? 107. What kinds of things might you remember with procedural memory? ©Garber2010(533582867) 3/8/2016 9:31:10 PM 108. Give an example of functional fixedness? 109. Give an example of a prototype? 110. Give an example of an algorithm. 111. Give an example of a heuristic. 112. What kind of problem solving did Kohler witness in chimps? 113. What is a phoneme? 114. What is a morpheme? 115. Who is Whorf and what would he say about having a word for space? 116. What did Chomsky say about language acquisition? 117. Why is syntax important? 118. IQ is a relationship between what two ages? 119. What is an achievement test designed to measure? 120. What is an aptitude test designed to measure? 121. What is factor analysis? 122. If your mental age is 17 and your chronological age is 17, and you sleep through AP psychology, what is your IQ? 123. How are tests normed? 124. How do reliability and validity relate to IQ tests? 125. What is an instinct? 126. What is homeostasis? 127. How does drive reduction work? 128. Give an example of intrinsic motivation. 129. How does set point relate to weight? 130. What do organizational psychologists do? 131. How does attribution theory apply to Mr. Garber’s perception of people who sleep in class? 132. How do superordinate goals effect organizations?