Psychology Chapters 1-7

Which of the following s do behaviorists attempt to answer?
How does the environment influence behavior?
The psychological approach that emphasizes the role of the environment in influencing behavior is
Which of the following statements best describes psychology?
Psychological principles are highly applicable to everyday life
The psychologist most closely associated with the school of functionalism is
: William James
The philosopher who promoted dualism as an explanation of the mind/body problem was
: René Descartes
The person who established the first psychology laboratory, which marked the beginning of experimental
psychology, was
Wilhelm Wundt
Gestalt theory is based on the idea that
: the whole is different from the sum of its parts
A model of interconnected ideas that explains what is observed and makes predictions about the future is
provided by (a)n
: theory
The variable that a researcher manipulates in an experiment is called the
: independent variable
The Hawthorne effect refers to changes in behavior associated with
The psychologist who would be mostly likely to focus on mental functions, such as problem solving and decision
making, would be a
: cognitive psychologist
With respect to the nature/nurture debate, psychologists now believe that ________ is/are important in
understanding the mind, brain, and behavior
: both nature and nurture
In order to maximize the likelihood that experimental and control groups are similar before any treatment has
begun, researchers typically use
random assignment
Functionalism is the school of thought concerned with
the adaptive purposes of the mind and behavior
In an experiment, the independent variable is the variable that
: is deliberately manipulated by the researcher
The variable that a researcher measures in an experiment is called the
: dependent variable
Gestalt psychology was developed based on the idea that a person’s experiences are more than just the collection
of various parts or elements of consciousness This idea is in direct contrast with the ________ approach
: structuralist
The type of psychologist who studies how people are affected by the presence of others is called a ________
: social
Psychoanalysis is a type of psychological treatment to resolve unconscious conflicts that cause mental disorders
This treatment was developed by
: Sigmund Freud
Structuralists used a procedure to investigate the conscious parts of the mind In this procedure an observer
described the simple elements of a mental experience in as much detail as possible This procedure was called
: introspection
The person who is most closely associated with the study of the unconscious is
: Sigmund Freud
“Friendly skepticism” means
: being open to new ideas, while also being careful before accepting them
Which of the following is the best definition of psychology?
the study of mental activity and behavior based on brain processes
The unconscious mind influences human behavior, according to
: psychoanalytic theory
Structuralism is a school of psychology introduced by
: Edward Titchener
An early school of psychology used introspection to study the basic elements of mental experiences This school of
psychology was called
: structuralism
Four early psychologists suddenly appear in your psychology department Who would be most discouraged to hear
that modern psychology places a lot of emphasis on the study of mental processes?
: John Watson
According to structuralism, the goal of psychology is to
: explore the basic elements of the conscious experience
The belief that the mind and body are separate but intertwined describes
: dualism
Dualism is the classic idea in psychology that
: the mind and the brain are separate entities
The action of neurotransmitters is ________ by agonists and is ________ by antagonists
: increased; decreased
A child gets a severe blow to the head from an accident Although her eyes are still fully functional, she can no
longer see Based on this information, her doctor determines that the brain area most likely damaged in the
accident is the ________ lobes
: occipital
The brain structure that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex is called the
: corpus callosum
Endocrine glands release
: hormones
In the nervous system, the job of the axons is to ________ other neurons
: transmit action potentials to
Auditory information is processed in the ________ lobes of the cerebral cortex
: temporal
Why do monozygotic twins have different phenotypes?
They have nonshared environments
Which of the following brain structures plays an important role in how we respond to fearful things?
: amygdala
One part of the neuron covers and protects it much like bark that covers the trunk of a tree In a neuron this
protective covering is called
: the myelin sheath
One’s motivations and emotions are controlled by the
: forebrain
A neurotransmitter that is important in muscle contraction is
: acetylcholine
In the nervous system, the cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information are the
: neurons
nervous system, each neuron communicates with
: many other neurons in an organized network
When a neuron is stimulated enough, it
: fires an action potential
The advantage of studying monozygotic twins is that
: they are genetically identical
Which of the following is NOT a modern method for accurately measuring brain activity?
The brain structure that is associated with the formation of memories is the
The somatic nervous system allows
movement of the muscles and joints
Your body is prepared for defensive action by the ________ system
: sympathetic nervous
A myelin sheath is a fatty layer that protects the axon, so it is most like the
: insulation around a pipe
Neurons are able to communicate when
: neurotransmitters cross the synapse and bind with receptors on the postsynaptic dendrite
The thalamus receives nearly all sensory information before relaying it to the cortex What is the one sensation that
is the exception to this rule?
: smell
A genotype is ________, whereas a phenotype is ________
underlying; observed
Which specialized area of the brain is crucial to the production of speech?
Broca’s area
The parts of the neuron that act like mailboxes because they receive information from other places are called the
: dendrites
The site where communication occurs between neurons is called the
: synapse
The part of the neuron that collects information from other neurons and integrates it is the
: cell body
isual information is primarily processed in the ________ lobes of the cerebral cortex
: occipital
The idea that the brain is extremely malleable and is continuously changing as a result of injury, experiences, or
substances is known as
: plasticity
Chemical substances that carry messages from one neuron to the next are called
: neurotransmitters
Which of the following statements does NOT describe an adaptive and beneficial function of sleep?
: Sleep allows us to imagine and dream
Which of the following is NOT an example of consciousness?
: being in a persistent vegetative state
Consciousness is best defined as
: one’s subjective experiences of the external world and one’s mental activity
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because the
: person has no awareness of being asleep
The idea that the activity of neurons in the brain produces consciousness is called
: materialism
After split-brain surgery, a picture of a blue chair is processed by the patient’s right hemisphere When asked what
she sees, the patient will most likely
: not be able to verbally describe what she saw
Which of the following drugs is a stimulant?
: cocaine
Kate’s brain has suffered damage to its right hemisphere Which of the following tasks is LEAST likely to be
: balancing her checkbook
You are lying by the pool, relaxing with your eyes closed, and feeling drowsy In this situation, the type of brain
waves that would most likely show up on your EEGs are
: alpha
Heroin increases pleasure by ________ receptors
: binding with opiate
After taking a drug at a party, Fawn became energetic, talkative, and lively Which drug did Fawn most likely use?
: cocaine
One way to achieve an altered state of consciousness is by focusing your attention on one thing, like your pattern
of breathing A deep sense of tranquility can be achieved through this process of ________ meditation
: concentrative
When a person experiences changes in memory, perception, or voluntary action as a result of suggestions made by
another person, he or she is most likely experiencing
: hypnosis
According to research, the most important factor in allowing a person to be successfully hypnotized is the
: suggestibility of the individual being hypnotized
After Mork has gone through one full sleep cycle, his heart beats faster, his breathing grows fast and irregular,
and his closed eyes begin to move back and forth A researcher who is monitoring Mork’s EEG activity will most
likely see ________ waves
: beta
If you want to increase the production of melatonin, you should
: it in a completely dark room
To be considered a stimulant, a drug must ________ mental activity and ________ physical activity
: increase; increase
Which of the following best describes subliminal perception?
: processing of sensory information without conscious awareness
Which of the following people is most likely experiencing flow?
: Peter, who feels a runner’s high while running seven miles
Dreams that happen during REM sleep are ________; dreams that happen during non-REM sleep are ________
: highly emotional; dull
One major cause of insomnia is
: worrying about sleep
Byron drinks five cups of coffee each day during the work week Whenever he sleeps late on Saturdays, he wakes
up with a headache that only goes away when he has a cup of coffee Based on this you know that Byron is most
likely experiencing
: withdrawal
To be considered a depressant, a drug must ________ mental activity and ________ physical activity
: decrease; decrease
Which of the following drugs is a hallucinogenic?
The brain area that influences the secretion of melatonin is the
: pineal gland
he fact that the brain acts as an interpreter refers to the ability of the
: left hemisphere to construct a world that makes sense
Some types of depressant drugs are specifically used for
: relieving worry
Which of the following is NOT a psychoactive drug that alters consciousness?
: an antibiotic
To be considered a hallucinogenic, a drug must
: alter sensation and perception
Circadian rhythms can best be described as
the regulation of biological cycles into regular, daily patterns
Days after breaking his nose in a football game, Ben still perceives a dull pain in his nose The throbbing
ache travels along ________ pain fibers, which are ________
: slow; unmyelinated
Hearing is also called
: audition
If you have a knee injury, you are likely to experience the most pain
: right before you fall asleep
Regarding visual illusions, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Illusions help reveal normal perceptual processes
Compared with dogs, a human’s sense of smell is much less developed Our less developed sense of smell
results from our ancestors’
: reliance on vision as the main way of perceiving the world
How do the light waves reflected by a blue object differ from those reflected by a red object?
: The blue object reflects shorter wavelength light
The________ is a thin inner surface behind the eyeball and it contains sensory receptors
: retina
The sense of taste is also called
: gustation
After transduction, the neural signals of vision, hearing, taste, and touch all pass through the
: thalamus
Regarding smell, which of the following statements is generally the most accurate?
: People are better at discriminating among odors than they are at identifying them; women generally
outperform men
Binocular disparity is about
: different views from each eye
Sound waves cause the ________ to vibrate
: eardrum
According to trichromatic color theory, there is no cone specialized to respond to yellow light When we
see yellow, it is because the light is stimulating the
: S cones very little and the L and M cones equally
Reversible figures occur because
: the correct assignment of figure and ground is ambiguous
The area where the optic nerve leaves the retina is referred to as the
: blind spot
During transduction, most sensory information is transmitted first to the ________ before it is sent to
the________, where it is interpreted as sight, sound, smell, touch, or taste
: thalamus; cortex
If you close one eye, you will still be able to use ________ as a depth cue, but you will NOT be able to use
________ as a depth cue
: texture gradients; binocular disparity
What are the two cues that allow you to determine where a sound is coming from?
: the time when the sound arrives in each ear and the intensity of the sound wave
Being able to detect the origin of a sound is called
: localization
According to the ________ model of conceptual processing, the recognition of patterns occurs because
data are relayed from a lower level to a higher level of processing in the brain
: bottom-up processing
Each eye sees more of the world on its own side of the visual field A combination of the views from the
two eyes creates the depth cue of
: binocular disparity
Prolonged exposure to movement in one direction ________ the motion detectors responsive to that
direction When the movement stops, the baseline firing rate of detectors for the opposite direction of
motion will be ________ than the firing rate for the detectors that responded to the prolonged movement,
leading to motion aftereffects
: fatigues; higher
If you look at a square made up of alternating red and blue stripes for several minutes and then look
immediately at a blank white sheet of paper, you will see a square with alternating green and yellow stripes
This effect results from pairs of ________ that work ________
: ganglion cells; in opposition
The minimum amount of change required for a person to detect a difference between two stimuli is
referred to as
: the difference threshold
________ has the most direct route to the brain because it is the only sense that bypasses the ________
: Olfaction; thalamus
Structures on the tongue that contain groupings of taste buds are called
: papillae
A higher-pitched sound is one that is higher in ________, which is measured in ________
: frequency; hertz
Which of the following statements best describes the path of visual information in the brain?
: Visual information from the left half of each eye travels to the brain’s right side
The auditory neurons extending from the ________ reach out with their axons to the primary auditory
cortex in the ________
: thalamus; temporal lobe
The primary auditory cortex is located in which brain lobe?
: temporal
Because of which of the following can you see different colors?
: cones
The sense of smell is also called
: olfactin
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