Anatomy Final Exam Outline May 2007

Anatomy Final Exam Outline May 2013
Digestive System
Nervous System
Muscular System
Ms. Bestgen
identify and define all organs of the digestive system and the path that foods travels through
identify specific structures in each organ that were discussed in class and on your handout
difference between chemical and mechanical digestion
specific enzymes involved in digestion – amylase, lipase, maltase, sucrase, lactase,
pepsinogen, pepsin,
parietal cells, chief cells, mucus cells and their function
location in digestive system where carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, are FIRST digested
anatomic structure of stomach – rugae, etc. AND structure of small intestine -- villi
pancreas – pancreatic enzymes role in digestion and release of hormones glucagon and
insulin in regulation of blood sugar (1st semester – homeostatic mechanisms)
function of the liver
gall bladder – function and location
structures within the mouth and pharynx – type of tonsils and location of salivary glands
nutrition -- types of carbohydrates and fats
difference between the CNS and PNS
somatic NS vs. autonomic NS and sympathetic vs. parasympathetic nervous systems
o function and differences between the two
functions of the following parts of the Brain
- Lobes of the Cerebrum:
a. Frontal Broca’s Area, Primary Motor Cortex b. parietal: Primary Sensory Cortex
c. Temporal: Wernickes
d. Occipital
- Others structures and parts -- Corpus Callosum, Cerebellum, Thalamus, Basal Ganglia
- Limbic System – Amygdala, Hypothalamus, Hippocampus
- Brain Stem – Pons, Midbrain, Medulla Oblongata
identify the parts of a neuron – dendrites, cell body, axon, synaptic knob, synaptic vesicles,
difference and function of motor neurons, sensory neurons, and interneurons
all 6 neurotransmitters – whether excitatory and inhibitory and what their role is in the body
acethylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, gycline, GABA (handout
“Disembodied Lady” AND “Man that Mistook His Wife for a Hat”– what portion of the
brain was effected?
Phineas Gage – review handout and questions
Steps in neurotransmission
Effects of All Drugs from Mouse Party on the Brain --- know NT and effects on NT
How Do Drugs Get Into the Brain?
general structure of muscles and microscopic anatomy of muscle (models) tendon, fascia,
difference between a tendon and a ligament and their location
muscle fatigue vs. muscle cramp
origin vs. insertion and how this relates to muscle contraction – muscle shortening
lactic acid – what is it and what does it cause
functions of primary muscles in the body –
o triceps brachii and biceps brachii and 3 parts to deltoid
o quadriceps -- rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
o hamstrings -- biceps femoris, semimembranosis, semitendonosis
o gastrocnemius and soleus
cause of rigor mortis
Skeletal System
functions of system
steps in endochondral bone formation
long bone anatomy: periosteum, epiphysis, diaphysis, medullary cavity, articular cartilage
spongy vs. compact bone – trabeculae vs. osteon, lamella, lacunae
components of matrix
risk factors for osteoporosis
difference in function of bone cells – osteocytes, osteoblast, and osteoclast
Steps in Fracture Repair – hematoma, fibrocartilageous callus, bony callus, remodeling
Different type of cartilage and where they are found
Pig Dissection
- organ umbilical cord is attached to
- internal structures of the pig
- external structures that determine sex of a pig
- differences between arteries and veins
- function of the mesentery
- function of thymus gland and spleen
- reproductive organs from virtual dissection
- excretory system – kidney, ureters, bladder
- Anatomy of Heart – 4 chambers – 2 atria and 2 ventricle
- respiratory system -- nose/mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
- right lung – 3 lobes, left lung – 2 lobes