PE 102 Course Material

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1
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
Anatomy
4
Types of Bones
5
Posture
6
Postural Examination
7
Joints
10
Types of Joints
10
Muscular System
12
Types of Muscle
Major Skeletal Muscles and their Location
12
13
Sports Injuries
14
Common Sports Injuries of Skin and their
Treatment
17
References
20
2
Preface
The PE 102 course is offered in the 2nd semester of the undergraduate programme. The
content of this health education course describes the body structure, the names and
location of the important bones and muscles, and their relation to the basic movements
in sports activities. Posture, which is considered essential for maintaining a healthy
body structure, is explained in detail with the emphasis on the use of correct posture in
everyday activities. Injuries are common in the sports arena and a brief outline of the
sports injuries, their symptoms, causes, precautions and treatment are listed for the
benefit of the students.
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ANATOMY

Anatomy- It is the science of
understanding body parts.

Human Anatomy- It is the science of
structure components and positions
which make up the human body.
The human body is made of: cells,
tissues, organs and systems.
SKELETAL OR BONY SYSTEM
IT’S IMPORTANCE



Rigid supporting framework of connective
tissue.
Prevents body from collapsing into heap of soft
tissue.
Provides mechanical levers for muscle.
Protective shell or casing for vital viable organs like;
 Brain, lungs, heart and pelvic organs.
 Factories for formed elements of blood i.e.
manufacture of RBCs (Red Blood Cells) and
WBCs (White Blood Cells). Great reserves of
calcium and phosphorus.
 Vital living tissue continuously undergoing
changes of building up and tearing down.
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TYPES OF BONES:
2. Short bones
1. Long bones
3. Irregular bones
4. Flat bones
STRUCTURE OF BONE:
-
Hard connective tissue
-
As child grows hardening takes place
-
Yellow bone marrow – vital minerals and calcium stored in spongy area of bone.
-
Red marrow in the end of bone - manufactures RBC’s.
-
Ratio of inorganic and organic substances in bone varies during life time: child 1:1, adult
4:1, elderly 7:1.
-
Fragile in elderly
DIVISION OF SKELETON:
Head and Torso
Upper and Lower Limbs
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
Two parts: Axial & Appendicular.

Total Bones 206.

Axial 80 – Appendicular 126.
IMPORTANT BONES AND THEIR LOCATIONS:
Application of the skeleton system
to Physical Activity:
1. Condition of bone is improved
by exercise.
2. More mineral salts are
deposited and more fibers are
produced.
3. Density and size of bone
increased.
4. Due to fracture, the bone
becomes decalcified when in
plaster because of a lack of
mechanical stress which can be
improved with stationary
movement of the part.
Human Bones
5. In old age bones lose calcium, which causes osteoporosis, and due to lack of protein the
bones become brittle. Physical activity will help to overcome the above conditions.
6. Regulation of calcium metabolism is maintained between blood and the bone.
7. The mineral metabolism can be maintained with longitudinal pressure on long bones by
stress of gravity with physical activity.
8. Pressure due to activity stimulates bone growth and there is increased weight-bearing,
Ability, increased thickness of bone and density of shaft.
9. Prolonged bed rest affects Ca (calcium)+ metabolism. Increased urinary Ca+ excretion in
bed rest is not due to inactivity but due to absence of longitudinal pressure on long
bones. There is no change in Urinary Ca+ excretion if heavy bicycle ergometer work is
performed in a supine position for 1 to 4 hours daily or 8 hours of inaction sitting in a
wheelchair. But 3 hours of standing per day with bed rest results in restoring the Ca+
excretion to normal values.
POSTURE
Ability to stand erect: To handle the body easily, gracefully & efficiently under all
circumstances, muscular strength is involved in correct posture and emotional condition is
frequently reflected in carriage.
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CAUSES OF POOR POSTURE:
 Heredity
 Poor circulation
 Over-training
 Poor training methods or exercise regime
 Strain on joints and chronic stress
 Lack of flexibility
 Continued fatigue
 Muscle imbalances
POSTURAL EXAMINATION
Posture is tested by reference to the rating guides for 13 different segments identified
in the posture rating chart.
POSTURAL DEFORMITIES
KYPHOSIS
Exaggeration or increase in the amount of
normal convexity of the thoracic region of
the spine. Causes: Lack of strength or
tonus of extensors of spine weight of body
parts such as forward head or forward
position of the arms may cause stretching
of the posterior muscles. Excessive
relaxations may allow gravitational forces
to flex the spine too much. Ex. tall people
– slumping.
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CORRECTION: Extensors to be strengthened and tonus improved. Excess gravitational
stress must be removed by realignment of head, arms and shoulder girdle by variety of
occupational positions
LORDOSIS
•
It is an exaggeration or increase in
the amount of the norm of concavity
of the lumbar region of the spine.
•
Relaxation and poor tonus of
abdominals may allow the curve to
collapse. Also if the hips are thrust
forward the curve increases in order
to throw the upper trunk back into
balance.
CORRECTION :
•
Normal spine
Develop the abdominal strength
Lordosis
SCOLIOSIS
• This is the lateral curvature of the spine when
the bodies of the vertebrae are usually rotated
to the convex side and the spinal processes
rotated to the concave side and is known as
right or left scoliosis.
• The condition is sometimes congenital but
most often acquired, due to lack of postural
tone, or one - sided occupations.
• Structural scoliosis is caused by rickets,
infantile paralysis, unilateral lung diseases
and one leg shorter being than the other.
Correction:
Exercises aimed at stretching the strong muscles on the concave side thereby contracting
the weak, unstretched muscles on the convex side.
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BOW LEGS
KNOCK KNEE
 This is a deformity in which the legs are
bowed outwards with the thighs in normal
alignment but often the thigh is bowed
outwards as well. This throws weight on the
inner side of the knee.
 Deformity when the internal condyles
of the femur have enlarged so that
the knees knock together when the
patient walks or are in a contact with
the ankles separated when patient
stands.
The weight will be on the outer side
of knee and inner side of foot.
Causes: 1. As children start walking; rickets
is a common cause; muscular weakness;
Napkins tightly applied; bowing of femur.
2. in adults due to horse riding or injury.
Slight degree in women due to greater width
of hips.
Causes: Rickets develops at the end
of 1st year when bones fail to harden
and remain so at the end of 4th year;
bad posture.
• Excessive walking, over weight.
CORRECTION: 1. Stretching movements to
adduct the knee. 2. Standing with cushion
between the angles and drawing the knees
together.
NORMAL
Correction: Passive stretching to over
contracted muscles.
BOW LEGS
KNOCK KNEES
FLAT FOOT
This is a condition in which the inner longitudnal arch of the foot is depressed or fallen down
from its normal position causing various degrees of pain, swelling and tiredness according to
the disability
CAUSES: 1. Acquired condition due to excessive standing/walking – overweight – muscular
weakness – paralysis - fracture – sprains – rheumatism – rickets – badly fitting shoes - bad
postures and illness. 2. Congenital – Usually not noticed until the infant begins to walk.
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Normal foot
•
Flat foot
Correction: 1. Passive movement of inversion, plantar and dorsiflexion. Walking on
outer border, rolling leg and ankle, balancing in half crook position, walking feet turned
in short wave diathermy – faradism.
2. Acute rest-petrissage, tappotment, efflurage with friction to toes.
JOINTS
When two or more bones of the skeleton meet one another. Functions of joint depend upon
the type and allow efficient transfer of muscular force from muscle to bone.
Types of Joints: THREE TYPES
1. Synarthtosis or immovable or fibrous. Eg. Skull
bones.
2. Amphirathrosis or slightly movable or
cartiliaginous e.g. Vertibral column.
3. Diarthrosis or freely movable or synovial e.g.
hip.
FIGURE SHOWING DIFFERENT
JOINTS IN THE HUMAN BODY
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TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS IN THE BODY
Ball and Socket
Ball and Socket: For example, at the femur-hip
interface. This is where the head of the bone fits
into a socket on the other bone, allowing a wide
range of motion, in a number of axes.
Hinge Joints
Hinge joints: As their name indicates,
these joints provide movement in one
plane, like a door hinge. Found at the
joint between humerous, ulna and knee
joints.
Pivot Joints
Pivot joints: These allow rotation of one bone around
another, such as where the radius and the ulna meet.
Condyliod Joints
Condyliod: Also known as ellipsoid joints, this is
where curved facia meet, offering movement in a
number of planes. Found in the fingers.
Gliding and Saddle joints
Gliding joints: Found between two flat parts of
bone, and allow a little lateral movement only.
Found between the carpels in the hands.
Saddle joints: These joints allow a greater range
of movement than condyloid joints, yet are similar in
shape. The most well known example is at the base
of the thumb.
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MUSCULAR SYSTEM
The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and
functions in the movement of the body or of materials through the body, the maintenance of
posture, and heat production. There are 700 muscles in the body which constitute 50% of
body weight.
PROPERTIES OF MUSCLES




Contractility - Ability to shorten.
Excitability – Respond to stimulus.
Extensability – Lengthen beyond its normal resting length.
Elasticity – Return to original length without damage.
TYPES OF MUSCLES



Voluntary – Skeletal – Striated. – form bulk of body’s muscles tissue – gives
general shape to body- striped alternating bands of light and dark bandsconscious of work -phasic – responds quickly to stimulus.
Caridac - Vaguely striated – involuntary control – pacemaker- special muscle
tissue of the heart.
Involuntary – Smooth – non striated - lines most of hollow organs – not under
voluntary control – regulated by autonomic nervous system – lines blood vessels,
hair follicles, digestive tract, urinary tract, etc. – tonic – responds gradually to
stimulus.
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TYPES OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
Type I Fibers
These fibers are also called slow twitch or slow oxidative fibers: they have more myoglobin
and many mitochondria and blood capillaries. They are red, split ATP at a slow rate, have a
slow contraction velocity, are very resistant to fatigue, have a high capacity to generate ATP
by oxidative metabolic processes and are found in the postural muscles of the neck.
Type II A Fibers
These fibers are also called fast twitch or fast oxidative fibers and contain very large amounts
of myoglobin, many mitochondria and blood capillaries. Type II A fibers are red, have a very
high capacity for generating ATP by oxidative metabolic processes, split ATP at a very rapid
rate, have a fast contraction velocity and are resistant to fatigue and are infrequently found
in humans.
Type II B Fibers
These fibers are also called fast twitch or fast glycolytic fibers contain a low content of
myoglobin, few mitochondria, few blood capillaries and large amounts glycogen. Type II B
fibers are white, geared to generate ATP by anaerobic metabolic processes, are not able to
supply skeletal muscle fibers continuously with sufficient ATP, fatigue easily, split ATP at a
fast rate, have a fast contraction velocity and are found in large numbers in the muscles of
the arms.
MAJOR MUSCLES OF THE BODY
Anterior View
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Posterior View
APPLICATION OF MUSCULAR SYSTEM TO PHYSICAL ACITIVITY









More effective and efficient
Tone increased
Good posture
Hypertrophy – Increase in size
Efficient metabolism
Increase in capillary penetration
Increase in myoglobin
Increase in glycogen storage
Atrophy – shrinkage due to disuse
SPORTS INJURIES



Sports injuries are injuries that occur to athletes in sporting events.
Most sports injuries are due to either trauma or overuse of muscles or joints when
participating in a certain activity.
The majority are caused by minor trauma involving muscles, ligaments, or tendons
including: sprains, strains, contusions (bruises), fractures and dislocations.
Sprain: Sprain refers to the damage or tearing of ligaments or a joint capsule
When excessive force is applied to a joint, the ligaments
that hold the bones together may be torn or damaged. This
results in a sprain and its seriousness depends on how
badly the ligaments are torn. Any joint can be sprained, but
the most frequently injured joints are the ankle, knee, and
finger.
Prevention
Signs and symptoms: The typical signs and symptoms
associated with a sprain are the cardinal signs of a sprain.
inflammation, localized pain, swelling, loss of function, loss
of normal limb function, elasticity of ligament decreases.
Treatment: The first modality for a sprain which can be
used is R.I.C.E. i.e. 1. Rest 2. Ice 3. Compression 4.
Elevation.
Sprains can best be prevented by proper use of safety equipment (wrist, ankle guards;
carts vs. lifting), warm-ups and cool-downs (including stretching), being aware of
surroundings and maintaining strength and flexibility. Physical conditioning is the best way
to avoid or lessen the degree of sprains.
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Strain
It is an injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibers
tear as a result of overstretching. Strains are colloquially
known as pulled muscles.
Symptoms: Typical symptoms of a strain include: localized
pain, stiffness, discoloration, and bruising around the strained
muscle.
.
Causes: Strains are a result of muscular-fiber tears due to
overstretching. They can happen while doing everyday tasks
and are not restricted to athletes. Nevertheless, people who
play sports are more at risk of developing a strain due to
increased muscle use.
Treatment: The first line of treatment for a muscular strain in
the acute phase includes four steps commonly known as
R.I.C.E
Fractures
Fractures are breaks in the bone that are often caused by
a blow or a fall. A fracture can range from a simple
hairline fracture to a compound fracture. Most fractures
occur in the arms and legs. Bones form the skeleton of
the body and allow the body to be supported against
gravity and to move and function in the world. When
outside forces are applied to the bone it has the potential
to fail. Fractures occur when bone cannot withstand those
outside forces. Fracture breaks or cracks all mean the
same thing, that the integrity of the bone has been lost
and the bone structure has failed. If the fracture line goes
across the bone it is transverse, if it is at an angle it may
be spiral. The fracture may be simple, commuted and
multiple. Fractures should be treated by a medical expert
but the first aid is to immobilize the joint.
CONTUSION
A contusion is an injury often produced by blunt force,
such as a kick, fall or blow. The immediate result will be
pain, swelling and discoloration. The severity of
contusions ranges from simple skin contusions to
muscle and bone contusions to internal organ
contusions. Treatment: Use of R.I.C.E. as the first step
of treatment.
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Dislocation
A dislocation occurs when extreme force is put on a
ligament, allowing the ends of two connected bones to
separate. Stress on the joint ligaments can lead to
dislocation of the joint. The most commonly dislocated
joint is the shoulder.
Precautions
1. If you play sports, always wear appropriate protective equipment during practices and
competitions, such as kneepads and shin guards.
2. When it comes to your workouts, always warm up and cool down, and do remember to
work up to your training program slowly.
3. Suddenly increasing the intensity or duration of your workouts can lead to overuse
injuries.
4. Try weightlifting to strengthen your muscles and stretching to improve your flexibility
because strong, flexible muscles help support and protect joints.
5. Try conditioning and training year-round to maintain coordination and balance. That way
you'll be less likely to injure yourself during your competitive season.
6. Regular stretching can help. After an injury or surgery has healed, it is also important to
continue a regular stretching or conditioning program to prevent another injury.
7. The way you move can also help you prevent knee injuries. If your sport involves a lot of
jumping, make sure to bend your knees when you land, which takes pressure off the
ACL. Use your joints to crouch and bend at the knees and hips, reducing the possibility
of a ligament injury.
Common Sports Injuries of Skin and their Treatment
Sports injuries result from acute trauma or repetitive stress associated with athletic activities.
Sports injuries can affect bones or soft tissue (ligaments, muscles, tendons).
Abrasions
Abrasions are very common sports injuries that are usually
caused by a fall on a hard surface. When an athlete falls or
slides on the ground, friction causes layers of skin to rub off.
The skin is composed of an outer layer (the epidermis) which
provides protection and a deep inner layer the dermis, which
provides the firmness and flexibility of the skin. Abrasions
typically refer to an injury that removes these layers of skin.
While there is often little or no blood loss from an abrasion,
there can be a great deal of pain because of the many nerve
endings that are exposed.
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Treatment for Abrasions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Clean the wound with mild soap and water or mild antiseptic wash like hydrogen
peroxide.
Cover the area with an antibiotic ointment and a dry dressing which should be changed
every few days.
Take the tetanus booster if it has been 10 years since your tetanus shot.
If there is a deep and large cut on the skin, it may require stitches which should be done
by a physician.
As healing begins, the area of the abrasion may look pink and raw, but in time the
wound will form new skin that is pink and smooth which should not be scarred.
Prevention: Prevention of abrasions is possible by wearing protective pads and covering any
exposed skin with a layer of clothing. It is wise to have the necessary first aid supplies available
in the event of an emergency.
LACERATION
A person with a laceration has a cut, or tear, in the skin,
caused by an injury. Lacerations may also involve structures
that lie beneath the skin. A laceration may be superficial or
deep. Long, shallow lacerations may cause no great problems
and require simple cleaning and closure.
Symptoms: The symptoms of a laceration include pain,
bleeding, swelling, and bruising to the skin. Worsening
redness, swelling, and tenderness around a laceration are
signs of a skin infection, called cellulitis.
Treatment : Treatment for a laceration may include wound irrigation, wound cleansing, and
laceration repair. Additional treatment for lacerations may include a tetanus vaccine,
antibiotics, and pain medications. Lacerations caused by animal bites may also cause rabies.
Always consult a doctor for wounds caused by animal bites.
HEMATOMA
An abnormal localized collection of blood in which the blood
is usually clotted or partially clotted and is usually situated
within an organ or a soft tissue space, such as within a
muscle. A hematoma is caused by a break in the wall of a
blood vessel. The break may be spontaneous, as in the
case of an aneurysm, or caused by trauma. Treatment:
It depends on its location and size. Treatment can involve
draining the accumulated blood. A hematoma in or near the
brain is particularly dangerous.
17
BURSITIS
Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs)
of synovial fluid in the body. The bursae rest at the points where
internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide
across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost
frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement
painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying
upon the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful.
Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed
bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem.
Causes: Bursitis usually results from a repetitive movement or due to prolonged and
excessive pressure. Symptoms: Swelling or warm to the touch . Occasional skin redness in
the area of the inflamed bursa. Pain and tenderness are common symptoms.
Treatment : 1.Medications known as “Steroids“ to reduce inflammation. 2. Physical Therapy
or exercise to strengthen the muscles in the area.
BLISTER: A blister is a fluid- filled bump on the skin.
Causes:
Friction or constant pressure, such as from wearing a tight
fitting shoe or gripping a tool, second degree burns , including
sunburn, viral infections, such as chickenpox or shingles
fungal infections such as athlete’s foot, contact dermatitis,
such as poison, ivy or oak allergic reactions, drug reactions,
certain cancers and inflammatory conditions, severe skin
swellings especially of the legs.
Treatment: A blister will often heal without treatment. Some general tips for treatment
include: Protect Area: Be gentle with the injured area. To prevent further injury, put a
bandage over the affected area. The blister should begin to shrink in about seven days. Do
not pop or lance the blister. Opening the blister increases the chance of infection and delays
healing. In the case of poison ivy or a viral infection, do not scratch the blister. If necessary
call your doctor for medicine to relieve any itching or discomfort.
Wash the Area: If the blister is closed, wash the area with soap and water and apply a
bandage to help protect it. If the blister is open, wash the area, apply an antibiotic ointment,
and then cover with a sterile dressing or bandage.
See doctor if::The blister is unusually large; if the blister is in a critical area, such as on the
face or the groin; if the blister is associated with a burn; or if there are signs of infection, such
as increasing redness around the blister, red streaks, severe swelling, pus drainage, fever, or
an increase in pain.
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Prevention: To help prevent blisters: 1. Wear shoes that fit properly. 2. Always wear socks
with your shoes. 3. Use gloves or protective padding when working with tools. 4. Wear a hat,
protective clothing, and sunscreen when out in the sun.
References
Anatomy
Bambi, Saulo. Anatomica Encyclopaedia. Koln: B. Taschen, 1999.
Porter, Roy. Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997.
Reiser, Stanley Joel. Medicine and the Reign of Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Muscles
Mooar, Pekka (2007). "Muscles". The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library.
http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec05/ch058/ch058c. 2008.
Bárány, Michael (2002). "SMOOTH MUSCLE". http://www.uic.edu/classes/phyb/phyb516/index. 2008.
"The Mechanism of Muscle Contraction". Principles of Meat Science (4th Edition).
http://meat.tamu.edu/muscontract.. 2008.
Costill, David L and Wilmore, Jack H. (2004). Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Champaign, Illinois: Human
Kinetics. ISBN 0-7360-4489-2.
Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica 2006 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD 2008
Huxley HE. The fine structure of striated muscle and its functional significance. Harvey Lectures, 1966.
Skeletal System
Kahn, Cynthia; Scott Line (2008).Musculoskeletal System Introduction: Introduction. NJ, USA: Merck & Co.,
Inc.. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/90100.
Applegate, Edith; Kent Van De Graaff. "The Skeletal
System".http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/skeletalsystem.. 2009.
Engelbert, Phillis; Carol DeKane Nagel (2009). The Human Body / How Many Bones Are In The Human
Body?". U·X·L Science Fact Finder. eNotes.com, Inc.. http://www.enotes.com/science-fact-finder/humanbody/how-many-bones-human-body. 2009.
Gary, Farr (2002-06-25). "The Musculoskeletal System".
http://www.becomehealthynow.com/category/bodymusculo/. 2008.
joint at eMedicine Dictionary
Ellis, Harold; Susan Standring; Gray, Henry David (2005). Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical
practice. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
"Introductory Anatomy: Joints". http://www.leeds.ac.uk/chb/lectures/anatomy 2008
Sports Injuries
Fridén, J., Kjorell, U., and L-E. Thornell. (1984). Delayed muscle soreness and cytoskeletal alterations. An
immunocytological study in man. Int. J. Sports Med. 5.
Fridén, J. and R.L. Lieber (1992). The structural and mechanical basis of exercise-induced muscle injury Med.
Sci. Sport Exerc. 24.
Russell B; Dix DJ; Haller DL; Jacobs-El J. Repair of injured skeletal muscle: a molecular approach. Medicine
and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1992 Feb.
Spinal Cord Medicine: Principles and Practice (2002) Lin VWH, Cardenas DD, Cutter NC, Frost FS, Hammond
MC. Demos Medical Publishing
Tursz A, Crost M. Sports-related injuries. A study of their characteristics, frequency, and severity, with
comparison to other types of accidental injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1986 Jul–Aug;14(4)
Chambers RB. Orthopaedic injuries in athletes (ages 6 to 17). Comparison of injuries occurring in six sports.
Am J Sports Med. 1979 May–Jun;7(3)
By: PE Department 2009
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