Baroque Era

Baroque Era
A. Definitions
B. Geographical Centers: France, Germany, England
C. The Times
1. Science
Discoveries in science and mathematics overturned long-held
Sir Isaac Newton: laws of gravity, calculus
Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei: movement of the
planets, foundation of astronomy
William Gilbert: properties of electricity
Robert Boyle: chemistry
Sir William Harvey: circulation of the blood
René Descartes: analytical geometry, applied scientific
principles to philosophy, applied methods of mathematics
to study of what humans think and feel, believed human
emotions could be classified in the same way scientific
phenomena are classified (idea adopted by Baroque
artists who thought that specific emotions could be
awakened by a work of art – Doctrine of Affections).
2. Inventions
3. Politics
Absolute Monarchies – Rising Bourgeoisie
Frederick II - Prussia
Charles II – England
Philip IV – Spain
Louis XIV – France
4. Religion
5. Life in the Baroque
6. Visual Art
D. Age of Paradox/Age of Contrasts
E. Music’s Response to Contrast and Paradox
F. The Composer’s Life
Baroque Music
A. Doctrine of Affections
B. Elements of Music
C. Genres
1. Vocal
a. Opera - Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
Orfeo, 1607 “Tu se’ morta”
b. Cantata - Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme
“Awake, a Voice is Calling Us”, 1731
c. Oratorio - George Frideric Handel (1685-1789)
Messiah, 1741
Recitative – Comfort Ye, My People
Aria – Every Valley Shall Be Exalted
Chorus – Hallelujah Chorus
2. Instrumental
a. Dance Suite - Bach – Suite No. 3 in D Major (1729-1731)
b. Sonata - Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713)
Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10 (1689)
First movement
c. Concerto Grosso - Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
The Four Seasons (1725)
Spring Concerto, First Movement: Allegro
Spring has come, and joyfully,
The birds greet it with happy song.
And the streams, fanned by gentle breezes,
Flow along with a sweet murmur.
Covering the sky with a black cloak,
Thunder and lightning come to announce the season.
When these have quieted down, the little birds
Return to their enchanting song.
d. Keyboard Music – Harpsichord and Organ
J.S. Bach
Prelude and Fugue in c minor, Well-Tempered Clavier,
Book 1 (1722)
D. Composers
1. Johann Sebastian Bach
2. George Frideric Handel
3. Antonio Vivaldi
4. Henry Purcell
5. Barbara Strozzi
6. Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre