Baroque Instrumental Music Became as important as vocal music New instruments - improved old inst. Great virtuosos Early - not yet focus on individual color Performed on whatever instruments available Late - timbre became important Wrote more idiomatically Baroque instruments Strings (with gut strings) Woodwinds - recorder, flute, oboe, bassoon Brass - trumpets, horns - natural instruments Keyboard - organ, harpsichord, clavichord Baroque Concerto Opposition between two dissimilar bodies of sound Solo Concerto Virtuoso playing, experiments in sonority Allegro-Adagio-Allegro Concerto Grosso Opposition between small group - concertino - and large group - tutti or ripieno Bach’s 6 Brandenburg Concerti Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Biography, works and Influences Report by ---- none this year Like Bach - renowned in his day as a performer Established ritornello Use of pictorial imagery Vivaldi - The Four Seasons Based on poetry - word painting Programmatic concerto for solo violin First movement - “Spring” Birds joyous welcome of spring Murmur of streams, thunder and lightning Ritornello or refrain Baroque Suite Dances - all in the same key Allemande - German Courante - French Sarabande - Spanish Jig - English Minuet, gavotte, bourée, passepied Binary structure (A-B) ---> A-A-B-B Corelli, Bach, Couperin, de la Guerre Jacquet de la Guerre (c. 1666-1729) Biography, Works and Influences Report by ----- none this year Sacred cantatas, chamber music Pieces for Harpsichord - suite Baroque Orchestral Suite Handel - Water Music Lively rhythms and catchy melodies Opens with French overture #2 Alla Hornpipe English country dance in lively triple meter A-B-A form Terraced dynamics Baroque Sonata, etc. Sonata da camera - chamber sonata Sonata da chiesa - church sonata Suite of stylized dances More serious and contrapuntal - s-f-s-f Trio sonata - 2 violins + continuo (2 players) Passacaglia - ground bass, stately triple meter French Overture, Italian Overture Baroque Keyboard Music Prelude Expansion of a melodic or rhythmic figure Homophonic Fugue Subject started alone - in one voice Imitated in another voice while 1st continues with countersubject Opposition between home and contrasting keys J.S.Bach - Prelude and Fugue in C min. From Well-Tempered Clavier Prelude New system of temperament - 48 preludes & fugues Unity of mood, single affection Improvisatory style - perpetual motion Fugue In 3 voices Subject, countersubject, bridge, episodes Baroque Instrumental Forms Can you name 4 important instrumental forms of the Baroque period? Can you explain/describe each? Can you give an example of a piece in each form?