1st draft Palawan Environmental Profile

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Republic of the Philippines
Republic Act 7611
PALAWAN COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Puerto Princesa City
Environmental Profile, Palawan, 2014
1
Palawan Environmental Profile, 2014
Table of Contents
1.0 BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................. 4
1.1 Physical Ecosystem ....................................................................................................... 4
1.11 Land Area............................................................................................................ 4
1.12 Topography ......................................................................................................... 4
1.13 Land Classification ............................................................................................. 4
Environmentally Critical Areas Network ....................................................................... 7
ECAN Zones: Terrestrial Component, as of 2007 ...................................................... 7
Updated ECAN Zones: Coastal Marine Zone, as of 2007 .......................................... 8
1.2 Terrestrial Ecosystem.................................................................................................... 9
Land Cover...................................................................................................................... 9
Watersheds/Catchment ................................................................................................. 11
Communal Forest .......................................................................................................... 13
Caves ............................................................................................................................. 13
Community-based forest management ......................................................................... 18
Other Tenured areas ...................................................................................................... 18
Solid Waste ................................................................................................................... 18
1.3Coastal-Marine Ecosystem .......................................................................................... 18
Coral Reefs.................................................................................................................... 18
Mangrove Resources ..................................................................................................... 26
Seagrass/seaweeds .................................................................................................... 34
Live Reef Fish ........................................................................................................... 34
Marine Protected Areas (tina) ....................................................................................... 37
Pearl Farms ............................................................................................................... 48
1.5 Protected Areas ........................................................................................................... 49
Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park .................................................. 50
Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park ..................................................................... 51
Calauit Game Preserve and Wildlife Sanctuary........................................................ 52

Ursula Island Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary ...................................................... 53
El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area ................................................. 54
The Malampaya Sound Protected Landscape and Seascape.................................... 55
The Coron Island Protected Area .............................................................................. 56
Tabon Caves Complex .............................................................................................. 58
Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape .................................................................. 58
Palawan Flora, Fauna and Watershed Reserve ......................................................... 58
Wildlife ......................................................................................................................... 58
Flora: Palawan List of Threatened Species ............................................................... 58
Fauna: Palawan List of Threatened Species ............................................................. 59
Invasive Alien Species .............................................................................................. 64
II SOCIO-CULTURAL & POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................ 64
Indigenous Peoples ........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
2
List of Palawan Indigenous Communities & Estimated Population .................. Error!
Bookmark not defined.
Tribal Ancestal Zones / Ancestral Domain Claims ...Error! Bookmark not defined.
III. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ..................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Mining and Mineral Development .....................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Gravel and Sand Quarry.............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
PCSD Approved Projects for the year 2010-2013 .....Error! Bookmark not defined.
Agriculture .....................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Petroleum/Hydrocarbon (Oil & Gas) Development ......Error! Bookmark not defined.
Oil and Gas ...............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Energy and Power ......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Water ..........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Agriculture .................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Tourism ......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
INFRASTRUCTURE ....................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Communication ..........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Transport ....................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Education ...................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
ELECTRICITY and Power ........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Water ..........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Challenges, Research Gaps ............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3
1.0 BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
1.1 Physical Ecosystem
1.11 Land Area


1,489,626 hectares1
1,456,743 hectares2
1.12 Topography

Slope: Flatlands (0-8%) - ___ hectares or __%
Rolling (8-18%) - ____
1.13 Land Classification
Status of Land Classification: 2012 (in hectares)3
Total
Area
Certified
A&D
PALAWAN
1,489,626
453,700
Forest Land Classification
ReservTn Timberland National Civil
Parks
Resrvn
1,035,926
71,394
171,832
767,320 25,380
Total
Total Area
Puerto Princesa
City
2,381.02 sq. km
238,020 hectares
Certified
A&D
15 %
Unclassified
Public Forest
Timberland
74%
11%
Note: Based on the data of National Mapping and Resource Information Authority
(NAMRIA) cite reference here
1
Philippine Forestry Statistics, Bureau of Forestry Development
Land area generated/computed made by PCSDS-GIS upon generation of the ECAN zones map
3
Philippine Forestry Statistics, Bureau of Forestry Development
2
4
Municipality
Aborlan
Agutaya
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Cuyo
Culion
Dumaran
El Nido
Kalayaan Is.
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
Sofronio Española
Puerto Princesa City
TOTAL
Land Area
Hectares
Sq. Km.
807.33
37.31
204.30
581.60
726.20
1,303.40
392.90
26.39
689.10
84.95
499.59
435.00
923.26
290.00
195.44
49.48
831.73
943.19
1,256.47
1,177.56
1,462.94
1,257.68
473.91
2,381.02
17,030.8
Classification Number of
Barangays4
2nd
5th
19
10
13
20
2nd
1st
22
18
14
12
23
17
14
16
18
1
10
11
23
5th
1st
4th
1st
5th
5th
1st
1st
14
11
31
10
31
9
66
Sources: National Statistics Office, National Statistical Coordination Board, Department of Finance and Land
Management Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
Notes:
1. Land area based on the 2007 Revised Masterlist certified by the Land Management Bureau (LMB).
2. Classification and number of barangays based on NSCB Philippine Geographic Classification (PSGC) as provided by
the Bureau of Local Government Finance (BLGF).
Provincial Profile –Palawan. Retrieved May 13,2014, from http://nsor4b.webs.com/provincial%20profile/Palawan/Palawan_c1.html
4
5
Name
Rearrange this table
Code
Income
Class
City
Class
Population
Land
(as of May
Area
2010)
“
Land
Registered Population Area
District
(as of
Voters 1 (as of May
(2013)
(2010)
1, 2010)
2007, in
hectares)
“
“
Income
Class
(delete
the Code)
ABORLAN
AGUTAYA
ARACELI
BALABAC
BATARAZA
BROOKE’S POINT
1. ABORLAN
175301000
1st
3rd
17,995
32,209
80,733
2. AGUTAYA
175302000
5th
1st
5,711
11,906
3,731
3. ARACELI
175303000
4th
1st
7,525
14,113
20,430
4. BALABAC
175304000
2nd
2nd
18,114
35,758
58,160
5. BATARAZA
175305000
1st
2nd
30,361
63,644
72,620
6. BROOKE'S
POINT
175306000
1st
2nd
32,109
61,301
130,340
7.
BUSUANGA
175307000
3rd
1st
11,144
21,358
39,290
5,055
7,116
2,639
8.
CAGAYANCILLO
175308000
6th
1st
9. CORON
175309000
1st
1st
21,811
42,941
68,910
10. CUYO
175310000
4th
1st
11,350
21,847
8,495
11.
DUMARAN
175311000
3rd
1st
11,855
21,397
43,500
12. EL NIDO
(BACUIT)
175312000
1st
1st
17,910
36,191
92,326
13.
175313000
5th
1st
8,275
14,180
19,544
6
LINAPACAN
14.
MAGSAYSAY
175314000
5th
1st
6,527
11,965
4,948
15. NARRA
175315000
1st
2nd
32,455
65,264
83,173
135,417
222,673
238,102
16. PUERTO
PRINCESA
175316000
CITY (Capital)
Highly
Urbanized
1st
3rd
17. QUEZON
175317000
1st
2nd
25,947
55,142
94,319
18. ROXAS
175318000
1st
1st
36,636
61,058
117,756
19. SAN
VICENTE
175319000
1st
1st
18,123
30,919
146,294
20. TAYTAY
175320000
1st
1st
34,030
70,837
125,768
21.
KALAYAAN
175321000
5th
1st
299
222
29,000
22. CULION
175322000
3rd
1st
10,233
19,543
49,959
23. RIZAL
175323000
1st
2nd
18,948
42,759
125,647
24. SOFRONIO
ESPAÑOLA
175324000
2nd
2nd
17,449
29,997
47,391
National Statistical Coordination Board – Active Stats Palawan. Retrieved May 13,2014, from
http://www.nscb.gov.ph/activestats/psgc/province.asp?provcode=175300000
Environmentally Critical Areas Network
ECAN Zones: Terrestrial Component, as of 2007
CITY / MUNICIPALITY
CORE ZONE
Hectares
ABORLAN
AGUTAYA
ARACELI
BALABAC
BATARAZA
BUSUANGA
BROOKE'S POINT
CAGAYANCILLO
CORON*
CULION
CUYO
DUMARAN
EL NIDO
ESPAÑOLA
25,157
13
2,995
11,762
16,553
7,423
25,975
30
15,071
13,498
10
15,879
16,893
9,289
%
34
0
17
21
21
19
38
2
20
35
0
30
37
18
RESTRICTED
CONTROLLED
TRADITIONAL
Hectares
Hectares
Hectares
1,617
2
0
557
2,761
3,098
565
0
343
350
272
0
8,395
1,021
%
2
0
0
1
4
8
1
0
0
1
4
0
19
2
19,695
108
2,714
6,965
13,154
5,932
6,108
55
14,152
103
3
16,093
969
5,207
%
26
1
15
12
17
15
9
4
19
0
0
30
2
10
2,661
1,180
11,871
7,022
3,396
3,767
7,612
940
24,131
8,759
794
9,029
16,905
9,632
MULTIPLE
%
Hectares
4
14
68
13
4
9
11
76
32
23
12
17
37
19
25,211
1,841
0
29,556
34,437
19,544
27,932
204
11,499
16,198
3,248
12,496
1,925
25,273
7
%
34
22
0
53
45
49
41
17
15
42
48
23
4
50
JOSE RIZAL
KALAYAAN
LINAPACAN
MAGSAYSAY
NARRA
PUERTO PRINCESA
CITY
QUEZON
ROXAS
SAN VICENTE
TAYTAY
TOTAL PER ZONE
64,177
0
810
111
20,741
102,666
28,571
36,166
7,849
27,303
448,941
970
5
1,361
18
4,332
50
0
5
2
23
46
30
37
11
20
53,569
3,022
4,130
12,553
23,647
122,589
30.3
1
12
9
0
5
24
3
4
17
17
17,708
1
4,360
3
19,214
14,683
14,940
18,952
29,643
29,625
240,387
8.3
14
3
28
0
21
7
16
19
40
21
9,847
1
5,885
1,432
8,635
3,412
8,635
115
3,759
27,768
177,188
16.2
8
3
38
26
9
2
9
0
5
20
34,856
25
3,182
3,093
38,497
50,176
38,500
38,346
20,202
31,397
467,638
11.9
COASTAL ZONES (Has)
Core
ABORLAN
AGUTAYA
ARACELI
BALABAC
BATARAZA
BUSUANGA
BROOKE'S POINT
CAGAYANCILLO
CORON*
CULION
CUYO
DUMARAN
EL NIDO
ESPAÑOLA
JOSE RIZAL
KALAYAAN
LINAPACAN
MAGSAYSAY
NARRA
PUERTO PRINCESA CITY
QUEZON
ROXAS
SAN VICENTE
TAYTAY
TOTAL PER ZONE
Transition
55
5,240
6,978
34
314
SPECIAL ZONE (Has)
Sustainable
170
938
1,424
653
Protected Area
3,667
7
243
TOTAL
Tribal/Ancestr.
5,732
685
748
7,590
8,301
1,598
3,667
5,732
0.5
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.4
64
20
55
42
22
41
39
27
22
31.5
Updated ECAN Zones: Coastal Marine Zone, as of 2007
CITY / MUNICIPALITY
27
74,341
8,439
17,580
55,862
77,313
39,764
68,192
1,229
75,702
38,908
6,718
53,497
45,087
50,422
127,558
39
15,598
5,585
91,419
224,506
94,416
97,709
74,006
139,740
1,483,632
8
1.2 Terrestrial Ecosystem
Land Cover


As of 2005 of the 1,448,676 hectares total land area of the province, recent data
derived from 2005 satellite images indicates that Palawan forest accounts for
666,338 hectares or about forty-six percent (46%) of the terrestrial area. 5
Forest cover is measured by accounting for the forested area relative to the total
terrestrial area.
Land Cover, Palawan Province, 1992 and 2005
Land Cover Category
Forest
Primary/Old growth forest
Secondary/Residual forest
Mossy forest
Marginal forest
Ultramatic forest
Karst/limestone forest
Mangrove forest
Open Mangrove
Brushland
Grassland
Agricultural areas
Paddy field
Coconut plantation
Other plantation
Cropland
Orchard
Kaingin/Barren
Built-up areas
Roads
Fishpond/Saltpond
Bares/Rocky area
Mining area
River
Wetlands/Water Body/Lake
Clouds/Shadow
Total
5
6
1992 (JAFTA)
Hectares
%
2005 (PCSDS)
Hectares
%
738,886
333,380
335,893
40,864
27,651
0
1,098
50,602
0
245,585
252,025
91,053
42,893
26,697
7,942
13,821
0
0
1,083
0
170
9,507
1,468
0
1,179
35,138
52.1
23.5
23.7
2.9
2.0
0.1
3.5
17.2
17.7
6.4
3.0
1.0
0.6
0.9
0.1
0.0
0.7
0.1
0.1
2.5
666,338
189,772
373,278
21,601
41,935
26,993
12,759
58,400
2,807
444,123
55,727
194,066
64,003
56,031
35,917
22,459
14,164
1,644
10,080
6,166
2,279
1,045
737
4,208
1,801
-
46.0
13.1
25.8
1.5
2.9
1.9
0.9
4.0
0.2
30.7
3.9
13.4
4.4
3.9
2.3
1.6
1.0
0.1
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
-
1,426,796
100.0
1,448,676
100.0
Change6
%
(6.1)
0.5
0.2
13.5
(13.9)
7.0
0.6
0.4
0.2
(0.6)
(0.1)
0.3
0.0
(2.5)
State of the Environment 2004 - 2009
State of the Environment 2004-2009
9
Land Cover7
7
State of Environment 2004-2009
10
Forest Cover, By Municipality 1992 and 20058
City/Municipality
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
Aborlan
Agutaya
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Espanolda
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Puerto Princesa City
San Vicente
Rizal
Roxas
Taytay
Total
1992
(JAFTA)
Hectares %
46,395 63
0
112
1
14,742 27
22,813 34
25,940 41
21,047 49
0
26,212 40
18,333 43
0
18,281 32
23,502 39
15,198 30
4,253 37
0
46,509 56
56,992 62
155,832 73
50,058 68
91,359 72
47,402 47
53,906 44
738,886
2005 (PCSDS)
Hectares
42,274
84
17,964
15,792
24,611
14,823
87
26,011
13,884
27
9,242
23,621
7,419
5,579
0.4
36,118
43,706
159,135
54,672
73,912
47,147
50,232
666,338
%
57.1
4.8
32.4
23.0
36.1
33.1
8.7
37.0
31.1
0.6
19.4
43.3
17.0
39.0
0.01
45.7
46.8
72.1
75.2
58.1
46.5
36.1
Change
1992-2005
(4,121)
84
(112)
3,222
(7,021)
(1,329)
(6,224)
87
(201)
(4,449)
27
(9,039)
119
(7,779)
1,326
0
(10,391)
(13,286)
3,303
4,614
(17,447)
(255)
(3,674)
(72,548)

As manifested in Table 1. a forest gain of 50,410 hectares was achieved from
1992 to 1998 or an equivalent rate of increase of 8,402ha/year.

As indicated on Table 1, brushland increased from 17.21 to 21.03 percent of the
total terrestrial area or an increase of approximately 51,668 hectares.9
Watersheds/Catchment
River Systems and Surface Waters (Discuss here the river water
quality monitoring, including maps.)
8
9
State of Environment
State of Environment 2004-2009
11
The PCSDS conducts regular monitoring of the major river systems of Palawan as
part of its activities under the Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation System. In order
to determine the condition of these river systems in relation to the local communities' use
for household or domestic purposes, the 26 river systems were evaluated as to their
conformity or suitability to freshwater Class A or Public Water Supply Class II. In the
process of evaluation, nine (9) parameters were used in determining the water quality
index of the river systems: pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved
solids, oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand, phosphates, nitrates and total
coliform. The following table presents the results of analysis:
Index Rating vis-à-vis
Remarks**
Freshwater Class A*
As of 2009
As of 2013
Fair => Marginal
Aborlan River
72
58
Aborlan
Marginal => Marginal
Iraan River
64
52
Marginal
Talakaigan Dam
63
Fair => Marginal
Ipilan River
68
51
Fair => Marginal
Maasin River
67
53
Fair => Fair
Tamlang Dam
79
73
Brooke's Point
Marginal => Fair
Tigaplan River
64
70
Marginal
Sabsaban River
60
Marginal
Tagdidili River
61
Fair
Pangobilian River
70
Fair => Marginal
Aramaywan River
75
59
Marginal => Marginal
Balitien River
57
54
Fair => Marginal
Batang-batang River
68
59
Narra
Marginal => Marginal
Bato-bato River
61
57
Fair => Marginal
Cabuluan River
65
49
Marginal => Marginal
Calategas River
59
52
Good => Marginal
Calategas Dam
82
64
Fair
Batang-batang Dam
72
Fair => Marginal
Cabayugan River
70
57
Puerto Princesa City
Fair => Marginal
Bacungan River
73
50
Fair => Marginal
Irawan downstream
67
62
Marginal
Irawan upstream
64
Fair => Marginal
Berong River
65
52
Quezon
Marginal => Marginal
Ibat-ong River
61
60
Fair => Marginal
Panitian River
65
57
Fair => Marginal
Tagbung-saing Lake
69
58
Marginal => Marginal
Guineratan River
63
48
Roxas
Marginal
Magara upstream
59
Marginal
Magara downstream
48
San Vicente
Fair => Marginal
Inandeng River
75
50
Marginal => Marginal
Labog River
53
52
Sofronio Española
Marginal => Marginal
Pulot downstream
57
46
Marginal
Pulot Dam
59
Marginal => Marginal
Abongan River (upstream)
63
57
Taytay
Marginal
Ibangley River
51
Marginal
Abongan River (downstream)
56
* Freshwater Class A per DENR-AO 34,s.1990, pertains to Public Water Supply Class II -for sources of water supply
that require complete treatment in order to meet the National Standard for Drinking Water (NSDW). Index rating of
river systems range from Poor (1-44) to Excellent (95-100).
** The applicable categories of water quality, description of ranks and associated index ranges are the following:
Municipality
River System
Good – water quality is protected but occasionally threatened or impaired. Conditions under certain water classification rarely
depart from natural or desirable quality. (Index Range: 80-94).
Fair – a single water use under certain water classification may be temporarily interrupted; conditions sometimes depart from
desirable quality as required under certain water classification. (Index Range: 65-79).
12
Marginal – water quality under certain water classification is frequently threatened or impaired, conditions often depart from
desirable quality as required under certain water classification. (Index Range: 45-64).
Communal Forest
Caves

Caves are integral part of our ecosystem. It has diverse value to our country even
if they are rarely seen by people and even if many of them have remained
undiscovered. They serve as habitat of unique, rare, endangered and even
unknown plants and animals. They contain important geological formations and
deposits of great beauty generally termed as speleothem and speleogen.

Caves have paleontological values as they contain fossils which are the preserved
remains of prehistoric plants and animals and they tell us nearly all we know
about the history of life on Earth.

Caves are also culturally, archaeologically, historically and spiritually significant
areas. In ages, past humans made use of caves as shelter and they leave behind
artifacts (e.g. tools, pottery, and coffins), ecofacts (e.g. human and animal bones)
and artworks on the walls proving their existence and way of life. Caves, even
now, serve as burial grounds and sites of religious practices and rituals. Caves
such as Tabon Cave Complex (municipality of Quezon) and Ille Karst Tower
(municipality of El Nido) are examples of such significance.

Caves maybe located in public or private land and within ancestral domain/land.
PCSD Administrative Order No. 03-08 and its Implementing Rules and
Regulations govern the management, protection and conservation of caves in the
province of Palawan. Caves and cave resources may be used for scientific,
economic, ecotourism and other purposes based on the assessment and
classification led by the PCSD and its staff.
13






At present, there are 64 caves (2009-2010) identified by the PCSDS in the
province of Palawan.
The local DENR-PAWS have also identified 26 caves (as of December 2008)
since the inception of the Caves Act in 2001. These caves are distributed
throughout the mainland and islands of the province. The locations of these
identified caves are reflected on the PCSD “Cave Distribution Map” developed by
the staff (see Distribution Map of Selected Caves).
Identified caves in the municipalities of Busuanga, Taytay, El Nido, Cuyo and
Cagayancillo are mainly utilized for economic purposes such as edible bird’s
nests gathering/collection and ecotourism.
The most popular among our caves is the Saint Paul Subterranean River National
Park in Sitio Malapien, Bgy. Cabayugan, Puerto Princesa City.
Another is the Tabon Cave Complex in Lipuun Point, municipality of Quezon
wherein human remains (Tabon man) dating to 47,000 years ago was recovered
from a cave known as Tabon.
Among the 64 identified caves in the province of Palawan (2009-2010), 11 caves
were assessed, mapped and recommended for classification to the PCSD by the
PCSDS cave assessment team.
14
15
16
Kuyba Almonica, San Jose, Puerto Princesa City
Moore’s Cave, Bgy. Panalingaan, Rizal
Gangub Caves of Bgy. Sandoval, Bataraza
17
Community-based forest management
Other Tenured areas
Solid Waste
1.3Coastal-Marine Ecosystem
Coral Reefs



hard calcareous skeletons of tiny sea animals living in tropical waters, that
10often form reefs
often appear rock-like, but are actually colonies of living organisms
have symbiotic relationship with small photosynthetic algae
(zooxanthellae) that live in the tissue of polyp
o essential for coral life
o sufficient light for photosynthesis is a requirement for survival of
corals, algae, also absorb waste from the polyps, and via
photosynthesis, incorporate the nutrients into the polyp tissues
Coral reefs are
 built up entirely by biological activity
o each coral polyp builds limestone skeleton by extracting
o ca from seawater
 rich sources of food: animals and plants
 a.k.a oasis of the ocean
o very high productivity and supply nutrients to the vast oceans
 have low nutrients and energy
Ecological Importance
 extremely efficient in capturing nutrients and sunlight
10
PCSD Coastal Resource Monitoring (CRM)
18



a. cycled for use of many different organisms
generate much of beach sand in the Philippines
fringing reef offers an effective protection of the shoreline against the
constant pounding of waves
Most importantly a breeding ground and habitat for a wide variety of
organisms including invertebrates and fish.
Types of Coral Reefs
1. Barrier reefs
2. Fringing reefs
3. Atoll reefs
Enemies of the Corals
1. Man
 use of explosive materials and bottom trawl in fishing
2. Spiny starfish or Crown-of-thorns (Acanthaster planci)
 destroy coral reefs by foraging on coral polyps
 recently observed to multiply in great numbers
3.




Sedimentation
a major factor in the destruction of corals
in lesser amount, may interfere with the feeding processes
inhibit the release of larvae
interfere with photosynthesis
Based on the graph above, the number of sites in poor condition has more than doubled
within a decade. This can be attributed to the number of sites with excellent, good and
fair condition dropping from 1.7% to 14.7% which would mean there was an increase of
sites in poor condition.
19
Old Classification
New Classification
The pie chart above shows the old classification of coral condition against the
new classification. Sites in excellent condition was the same for the two classification.
Sites in good condition in the old classification also did not change in value but changed
in category in the new classification into Very good condition. The most significant
change with these two classification is that the sites in poor condition in the old
classification reduced by more than half in the new classification. The new classification
describes the condition of coral reef to be equally distributed in the chart aside from the
excellent category while the old classification describes the province to have almost half
of sites to be in poor condition.
Live Coral Cover (LCC)
Condition/Category
Municipality
Year
# Sites
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
76-100%
51-75%
26-50%
0-25%
1. Aborlan
2013
19
2. Agutaya
2009
22
15.8
0
31.6
0
26.3
5
26.3
95
3. Araceli
2012
12
0
33.33
33.33
33.33
4. Balabac
2011,
2012
22
0
7.1
49.5
43.4
5. Bataraza
2012
23
0
26.1
65.2
8.7
20
6. Brooke’s
Point
2008
9
0
55.6
22.2
22.2
7. Busuanga
2003,
2011
1,202
2.7
14.8
18.6
63.9
8. Cagayancillo
2007
12
0
75
16.7
8.3
1,965
0.6
1.0
19.1
79.3
3+
4.6
17.6
39.2
38.7
9. Coron
10. Culion
2003,
2011
2004,
2011
11. Cuyo
2010
20
0
0
0
100
12. Dumaran
2010,
2011
28
7.4
32.1
39.2
21.2
13. El Nido
2004
No data
0
3
7
90
14. Linapacan
2004,
2011
40
0
2.9
51.2
45.8
15. Magsaysay
2009
18
0
0
11.1
88.9
16. Narra
2013
24
4.2
25
45.8
25
17 .Puerto
Princesa City
2005
2,793
0
2.5
6
91.5
18. Quezon
2005
4
0
60.9
39.1
0
19. Rizal
2011
21
0
66
24
10
20. Roxas
2004
22
9.1
50
40.9
0
21. San Vicente
2005,
2011
1,286
0.0
3.2
4.8
92.0
22. Sofronio
Española
2011
26
0
7.7
57.7
34.6
23. Taytay
2011,
2012
15
0.7
8.7
64.7
25.9
24. Tubbataha
2004
3
55.79
43.21
24.2
30.4
Overall MEAN
7,565+
2.0
45.4
The table above shows the current condition of the sites per municipality. As for
the majority of the municipalities, the graph shows the dominance of the sites in poor
21
condition (Violet bar). The municipality of Roxas, Cagayancillo and Quezon however
does not share the same condition and has none of its sites in poor condition. It is worth
noting that with the 3 sites in Tubbataha, the over all condition is in good condition.



Live fish and coral reef fishery is not very good
Only 20.3% are in good-excellent condition, with 79.8% in poor-fair condition
The worst and poorest coral reefs conditions can be found in the municipalities of
cuyo (100%), agutaya (95%), el nido (90%), Magsaysay (88%), quezon (75% and
in the city of Puerto princesa (91.5%)11
Reef Condition by Category, Palawan 2011.
Excellent
1.1%
Good
19.2%
Poor
45.7%
Fair
34.1%
11
National and Provincial Policy, Regulation and Enforcement
The Palawan Live Reef Food Fish Trade
22
A number of studies on the condition of the coral reef of Palawan have been and are
being currently done throughout the Island-Province of Palawan by different
organizations and institutions, both government or private. The Palawan Council for
Sustainable Development Staff has done its own baseline assessment and monitoring of
the province’s coral reefs since the advent of the SEP Law or Republic Act 7611 in the
1990s. Coastal resource assessments or CRA were done in almost every municipality to
assess and have baseline data on the status of mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, reef
fishes and the coral reefs. The PCSDS 1st CRA was done in 1997 in the Municipality of
Sofronio Española, signaling the start of CRA in different municipalities. Subsequently,
coastal resource monitoring (CRM) was undertaken after 4 years in the case of the
Municipality of Sofronio Espanola, and 7-9 years in other municipalities depending on
the means of the municipality to complement the activity. Unfortunately, CRM was not
conducted in all of the municipalities where CRA was done due to operational and
logistical limitations of PCSDS.
A compilation of PCSDS and other related studies were shown in Table 1 describing the
status and/or conditions of coral reefs throughout the province. Data gathered are
assessments made by the PCSDS, the SEMP-NP ECAN Zoning Sub-component and
other sources such as the WWF.
The PCSDS has not yet conducted any/surveys or assessments regarding coastal
resources in the Municipality of Kalayaan.
The descriptive result of each survey was used to
describe the general state of coral reef conditions since
each survey differs in methodology, so as to be
objective in the general result.
POOR =
0-25%
FAIR
26-50%
=
GOOD = 51-75%
EXCELLENT =
76-100%
(English et.al, 1997)
23
Table 1.Palawan Coral Reef Baseline Data
Municipality
Aborlan
Araceli
Agutaya
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Roxas
San Vicente
S. Española
Taytay
No. of Survey
% HC % SC
Sites
1998
4
35.15
11.24
2000
11
21.83
29.83
2002
22
31.25
0.22
2006
35.8
3.9
2003
24
47.52
9.10
2001
7
19.32
30.33
1999
22
28.23
2.62
2007
12
42.53
12.24
1999
6
1999
17
30.81
2.99
2003
22
40.54
5.66
2001
28
36.42
1.22
11
2002
(eastern part
20.64
1.94
only)
2004
34
26.6
3.0
2001
18
38.66
4.03
1997
9
42.17
8.31
2005
2001
17
52.07
3.31
2003
21
47.11
2.04
2000
26
34.40
11.55
2000
22
33.27
2.95
1997
9
42.57
9.53
13
2001
48.4
2.94
( only)
Year
Description/
Condition
46.39 FAIR*
51.66 GOOD*
31.46 FAIR*
39.7 FAIR*****
56.62 GOOD*
49.65 FAIR*
30.85 FAIR*
54.77 GOOD*
***
33.80 FAIR*
46.23 FAIR*
37.64 FAIR*
Total
22.58 POOR*
29.6 POOR**
42.69 FAIR*
50.48 GOOD*
POOR**
55.38 GOOD*
49.15 FAIR*
45.95 FAIR*
36.22 FAIR*
52.10 GOOD*
51.34 GOOD**
* PCSDS Coastal Resource Assessments and Monitoring
** SEMP-NP ECAN Zoning Component Surveys
*** Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment – CI & PCSDS
**** World Wildlife Fund (WWF)-WPU
***** Sulu-Sulawesi Seascape Project
24
Table 2. Coral Reef Status, in Selected Municipalities of Palawan, through time
Municipality
Aborlan
Araceli
Agutaya
Brooke’s
Point
Busuanga
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Roxas
San Vicente
S. Española
Taytay
1st
Description/
2nd
Description/
% HC % SC Total
% HC % SC Total
Monitoring
Condition Monitoring
Condition
2003 44.39 8.35 52.74 GOOD*
2005 22.97 5.77 28.74 FAIR*
2010 18.95 9.87 28.82 FAIR****
2009 9.90 1.35 11.16 POOR*
2008 17.93 22.66
40.59 FAIR*
2003
2003
2000
2010
2010
2004
2009
2003
2005
2004
2005
2001
2004
POOR**
POOR**
41.87 FAIR*****
6.03 POOR*
39.06 FAIR
POOR**
15.98 POOR*
53.20 GOOD*
51.54 GOOD*
56.17 GOOD*
- POOR**
47.41 FAIR*
49.91 FAIR**
3.56
38.33
2.47
0.73
11.51
43.89
48.82
51.47
38.76
46.97
4.63
9.22
2.72
4.70
8.65
2.94
2004
POOR**
2010 20.35
0.88 21.23 POOR****
2010 31.55
1.74 33.28 FAIR****
* PCSDS Coastal Resource Assessments and Monitoring
** SEMP-NP ECAN Zoning Component Surveys
***Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment – CI & PCSDS
**** WWF-WPU
***** HAYUMA Foundation
25
Mangrove Resources12
Number of True Mangrove Species Found per Municipality
While there were a total of 28 true mangrove species recorded in the Philippines (Field
Guide to the Identification of Some Mangrove Plant Species in the Philippines-Ecosystem
Research and Development Service, Region 7, Fishery Sector Program-DENR) under 19 families,
monitoring and baseline assessments conducted in the mangrove forests of twenty (20)
municipalities out of twenty-four (24) municipalities of the province of Palawan revealed a total of
twenty-three (23) mangrove species belonging to eleven (11) families.
The table below shows the number of mangrove species recorded per municipality as of
2004 during the baseline assessments and as of 2014 during the monitoring assessments. There
are some municipalities which increase the number of recorded mangrove species while there are
some which decrease. These changes may be attributed to species recruitment wherein
propagules of certain mangrove species were transported to particular area by sea current and
wave action, deposited and grow. Other factors such as geomorphological characteristics of the
soil, sunlight intensity, exposure, etc. contributed much to the survival of propagules and presence
of mangrove species. On the other hand, the decrease in the number of species may be due to its
very limited distribution.
Some of the municipalities were not yet monitored as of 2014.
Municipalities
Aborlan
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Española
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Roxas
San Vicente
12
Number of Species (as of 2004)
15
13
14
10
24
18
18
10
17
19
16
18
8
15
9
13
17
18
Number of Species (as of 2014)
19
12
27
17
11
21
9
17
18
11
19
16
17
18
-
PCSDS Coastal Monitoring Resource (CMR)
26
Taytay
AVERAGE
20
15
20
17
30
25
20
Number of Species (as of 2004)
15
Number of Species (as of 2014)
10
5
Ab
or
l
Ar a n
ac
Ba eli
la
ba
B
Br
oo ata c
ke raz
’s
a
P
Bu oi
n
Ca su t
ga ang
ya a
nc
illo
Co
ro
Cu n
lio
n
C
Du u yo
m
ar
El an
N
Es id
p o
Li a ño
na la
M pa
ag ca
sa n
ys
ay
Na
Q rra
ue
zo
n
Ri
za
Sa Ro l
x
n
Vi as
ce
nt
T e
AV ay
ER ta y
AG
E
0
Species Diversity Index
The species diversity of mangrove forests is being measured through Shannon Weiner
Biodiversity Index. As shown in table below, there is only slight difference between the mangrove
species diversity index of the municipalities monitored. Using the Biodiversity Scale developed by
Dr. Edwino Fernando in 1998 as indicated below:
Shannon (H’) Index
3.5 and above
3.0 - 3.49
2.5 - 2.99
2.0 - 2.49
1.99 and below
Very high biodiversity
High
Moderate
Low
Very low
27
All the mangrove forests of the municipalities in the province manifested very low species diversity.
Municipalities
Aborlan
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Española
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
AVERAGE
Shannon Weiner Index
(ave. as of 2004)
1.17
0
1.15
1.16
1.50
1.37
1.00
0.99
1.04
1.01
1.27
1.02
1.12
1.21
0.72
1.14
1.00
0.94
1.01
1.10
Shannon Weiner Index
(ave. as of 2014)
1.78
1.20
1.31
1.30
1.74
1.00
0.94
1.41
1.43
1.17
1.30
1.25
1.11
1.51
0.82
1.28
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
Shannon Weiner Index (ave. as of 2004)
Shannon Weiner Index (ave. as of 2014)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Ab
or
Ar la n
a
Ba cel
la i
ba
B
Br
oo ata c
ke raz
’s
a
B Po
Ca usu int
ga an
ya ga
nc
ill
Co o
ro
Cu n
lio
n
C
Du u y
m o
a
El ran
Es N id
p o
Li a ño
na la
M pa
ag c
sa an
ys
ay
Na
Q rra
ue
zo
n
Ri
z
Sa Ro al
n
x
Vi as
ce
nt
e
AV Tay
ER ta y
AG
E
0
28
Tree Density (Number of Trees per Hectare) Of Mangroves by Municipality
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR 1998) categorizes
mangrove stocking into the following:



adequate stock
inadequate stock
logged-over
–
–
–
1,500 and above timber size trees per hectare
625 – 1,499 timber size trees per hectare
less than 625 trees per hectare
Thus, there are municipalities with adequate stock, inadequate stock and logged-over
mangrove forests. This is due to continuous human pressure on the mangrove forests which
include fishpond development, cuttings for domestic and economic reasons, conversion to
settlement areas and other uses.
Municipalities
Aborlan
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Española
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
AVERAGE
Average Tree Density as of
2004
1,236
1,372
2,362
591
253
358
2,989
4,910
408
1,323
291
1,415
1,431
2,360
1,171
2,818
131
277
1,428
Average Tree Density as of
2014
1,364
14,164
737
1,546
2,550
72
2,393
4,879
1,458
3,808
1,565
3,331
927
2,730
158
2,779
29
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
Average Tree Density as of 2004
8,000
Average Tree Density as of 2014
6,000
4,000
2,000
Ab
or
la
Ar n
ac
Ba eli
la
ba
B
Br
oo ata c
ke raz
’s
a
P
Bu oi
n
Ca su t
ga ang
ya a
nc
illo
Co
ro
Cu n
lio
n
C
Du u yo
m
ar
El an
N
Es id
pa o
Li ño
na la
M pa
ag ca
sa n
ys
ay
Na
Q rra
ue
zo
n
Ri
za
Sa Ro l
x
n
Vi as
ce
nt
T e
AV ay
ER ta y
AG
E
0
Average Diameter-at-Breast Height (DBH) Of Mangroves by Municipality
The average diameter-at-breast height (dbh) of the mangrove trees in the different
municipalities indicate its relative size and can be used to determine the growth rate through time.
The table below shows that some of the municipalities manifested an increase in the average
diameter-at-breast height while some decrease. The increase is due to the length of time between
the baseline assessment and the monitoring which ranges from about 4 to 10 years, thus, the
increase in dbh. On the other hand, the decrease may be correlated to the loss of some of the big
trees which were recorded in the baseline assessment and not during the monitoring assessment.
The loss can be attributed to tree cuttings and clearings for domestic and economic reasons.
Municipalities
Aborlan
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Española
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Roxas
Average DBH as of 2004
14.95
11.89
22.80
15.80
13.58
11.30
12.03
16.24
10.33
16.26
11.64
12.09
16.23
15.86
13.44
Average DBH as of 2014
18.25
26.22
17.03
14.17
10.62
19.98
15.47
11.94
12.11
12.39
15.43
33.87
19.05
17.98
30
San Vicente
Taytay
AVERAGE
11.29
17.03
14.28
18.08
17.51
40
35
30
25
Average DBH as of 2004
20
Average DBH as of 2014
15
10
5
n
el
i
ac
Ba
or
la
Ar
Ab
la
ba
Br Bat c
ar
oo
ke aza
’s
P
Bu oin
su t
C
ag ang
ay
a
an
ci
llo
C
or
on
C
ul
io
n
C
uy
D
um o
ar
a
El n
N
Es ido
pa
Li ñol
na
a
p
M aca
ag
n
sa
ys
ay
N
ar
r
Q a
ue
zo
n
R
iza
l
Sa Rox
as
n
Vi
ce
nt
e
Ta
y
AV ta
ER y
AG
E
0
Seedling Density (Seedlings per Hectare) Of Mangroves by Municipality
Seedling and sapling density are good indicators of the capability of the mangrove forests
under human induce stresses for natural regeneration. The tables below show the seedling and
sapling densities of the mangrove forests of the different municipalities in the province. Some
manifested very high seedling and sapling densities while others are very minimal.
High seedling and sapling densities indicate high capacity for natural regeneration.
However, this may also mean that these areas are disturbed or have undergone disturbances in
the past wherein sunlight penetrate the forest floor favoring the growth and survival of seedlings
and saplings. On the other hand, low seedling and sapling densities may indicate that the
mangrove forests are relatively intact and the canopies are close.
Municipalities
Aborlan
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
Seedling Density as of 2004
57,500
12,994
2,372
5,500
256
4,867
4,005
2,278
Seedling Density as of 2014
1,676
2,104
1,090
852
16,962
91
994
1,879
31
El Nido
Española
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
AVERAGE
3,958
38,468
170
7,084
23,644
4,620
21,967
3,783
2,169
310
10,886
480
778
378
12,228
15,298
936
976
3781
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
Seedling Density as of 2004
Seedling Density as of 2014
30,000
20,000
10,000
Ar
Ab
or
la
n
a
Ba celi
la
ba
Br Ba c
oo tar
ke az
a
’s
P
Bu oin
t
s
u
C
ag an
ay ga
an
ci
llo
C
or
on
C
ul
io
n
C
uy
D
um o
ar
a
El n
N
Es ido
pa
Li ño
na la
p
M aca
ag
sa n
ys
ay
N
ar
Q ra
ue
zo
n
R
iza
l
Sa Ro
n xas
Vi
ce
nt
e
Ta
y
AV ta
ER y
AG
E
0
Sapling Density (Saplings per Hectare) Of Mangroves by Municipality
Municipalities
Aborlan
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke’s Point
Busuanga
Cagayancillo
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Dumaran
El Nido
Española
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Narra
Quezon
Sapling Density as of 2004
2,733
1,231
1,043
5,000
147
1,351
894
1,682
4,384
6,580
129
1,734
6,312
2,775
Sapling Density as of 2011
506
327
293
487
3,976
82
528
893
250
1,077
408
3,344
32
Rizal
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
AVERAGE
1,410
2,542
1,845
160
2,331
750
223
198
889
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
Sapling Density as of 2004
Sapling Density as of 2011
3,000
2,000
1,000
Ab
or
l
Ar a n
a
Ba cel
la i
Br Ba ba c
oo ta
ke raz
’s
a
Bu Poi
n
Ca su t
ga an
ya ga
nc
ill
Co o
ro
Cu n
lio
n
C
Du u yo
m
a
El ran
Es N id
p o
Li a ño
na la
M pa
ag ca
sa n
ys
ay
Na
Q rra
ue
zo
n
Ri
za
Sa Ro l
x
n
Vi as
ce
n
T te
AV ay
ER ta y
AG
E
0

The local government, with the help of the PCSDS, must conduct regular information
and education campaign on the importance and other valuable contributions of
mangroves, both economically and ecologically, to increase the level of awareness of
coastal communities on the importance of coastal resources.

The local government must come up with a Municipal Comprehensive Coastal
Resource Management Plan that will serve as guide to achieve sustainable
development of the coastal areas. Consequently, a detailed water-use plan should be
prepared in consonance with the Municipal Comprehensive Land-use Plan (CLUP).

Strengthen the protection efforts and law enforcement program of each municipality in
the province.

The LGU must develop alternative livelihoods for coastal communities to deviate the
pressure from the mangrove resources to ecologically-friendly enterprise and other
income sources.
33
Seagrass/seaweeds
Live Reef Fish

Trader shippers and carriers showed declining production from a highest production
of 725,647.5kg (725.6475 MT) in 2005 to 384,930 kg (384.930 MT) in 201013
Trader
Shippers
Carriers
2010
69
Highest # of issued Accreditation in
Coron (17), Taytay (10) and San
Vicente (6)
No issued Accreditation in Linapacan,
Magsaysay, Narra and Quezon
13
Highest # of issued Accreditation in
San Vicente (4), Taytay (3) and
Magsaysay (3)
2011
58
Highest # of issued Accreditation in Taytay
(11), Coron (10) and Cuyo (7)
No issued Accreditation in
Agutaya,
Araceli,
Busuanga,
Cagayancillo,
Linapacan, Magsaysay, Narra
17
Highest # of issued Accreditation in
Quezon (4),
Roxas (3 )
and Magsaysay (3)
13
National and Provincial Policy, Regulation and Enforcement
The Palawan Live Reef Food Fish Trade
34

The data is instructive in showing which municipalities has incidence of cyanide
use following the DA-BFAR policy of CDT as a monitoring tool for cyanide use
Municipality
Aborlan
Araceli
Balabac
Bataraza
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
No. of Cases in
violation of PCSD
AO 5, as amended
2
1
2
7
58
1
44
Municipality
Narra
PPC
Quezon
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
TOTAL
No. of Cases in violation
of PCSD AO 5,
as amended
1
9
4
3
3
6
141
35
•
Dominant species
• Plectropomus leopardus (Leopard coral trout)
•
Lesser species
– Family Serranidae
• P. areolatus (Squaretail coral trout)
• P. maculatus (Spotted coral trout)
• P. laevis (Blacksaddled coral trout)
• P. oligacanthus (Highfin coral trout)
• Epinephelus coioides (Orange spotted grouper)
• E. malabaricus (Malabar grouper)
• E. fuscoguttatus (Brown-marbled grouper)
• Cromileptes altivelis (Humpback grouper) (Illegally traded)
– Family Panuliridae
• Panulirus sp. (Lobster)
– Family Labridae (Illegally traded by poachers from other provinces)
• Cheilinus undulatus (Napoleon humphead wrasse)14
Live Reef Fish Shipment, Palawan, 2003-2008
800
700
679.3
700.4
640.0
Volume (tons)
600
517.9
500
531.8
400
300
305.2
200
100
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Year
14
National and Provincial Policy, Regulation and Enforcement
The Palawan Live Reef Food Fish Trade
36
Marine Protected Areas (tina)
37
Threats to Coastal and Marine Biodiversity






Conversion of habitats (development)
Illegal and destructive fishing
Overfishing
Pollution
Climate change
The establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is promoted as a key tool that can
mitigate these threats through the conservation of marine biodiversity, especially for
coral reefs
Quite a number of these MPAs are scattered throughout Palawan.

“These improvements could be largely negated if the predicted threat posed by
Global Climate Change of increasing sea surface temperatures and concentrations of
CO2 in seawater cause catastrophic bleaching and result in major reductions in the
capacity of corals to calcify and grow.”(Wilkinson, 2002)
The fundamental principle of building resilience of ecosystems in response to the adverse
effects of climatic change is very similar to that used in designing conservation strategies to
protect biodiversity from any threat.
According to WWF’s Buying time: user’s manual for building resistance and resilience to
climate change in natural systems (2003), the strategies are divided into three categories:
1. creation of sufficient space for change
2. reduction of all non-climate stresses
3. identification of resistant and resilient populations for special protection.
MPA Network
To form a wider space for change, the best solution is often a grouping of smaller MPAs
protecting different habitats at various locations within the larger ecosystem to balance
the needs of people and the marine environment and to maximize protection benefits
that is an ecologically representative network of MPAs.
38
Existing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Palawan
Existing Marine Protected Area (MPAs) in Palaw an
120
100
80
60
Total
40
20
0
Existing
Proposed
39
Northern Mainland and Island Municipalities
Municipality
Araceli
Dumaran
El Nido
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
Existing
0
0
17
12
4
5
Proposed
0
0
3
0
1
10
Total
0
0
20
12
5
15
Northern Mainland and Island Municipalities
25
20
15
Existing
Proposed
10
Total
5
0
Araceli
Dumaran
El Nido
Roxas
San Vicente
Taytay
40
Calamaianes Group and Notheastern Island Municipalities
Municipality
Agutaya
Busuanga
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Linapacan
Magsaysay
Existing
2
3
5
4
0
1
0
Proposed
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
2
3
5
4
0
1
0
Calamianes Group and Northeastern Island Municipalities
6
5
4
Existing
3
Proposed
Total
2
1
0
Agutaya
Busuanga
Coron
Culion
Cuyo
Linapacan
Magsaysay
41
Southern Mainland and Balabac Municipalities
Municipality
Aborlan
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke's Point
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Sofronio Espanola
Existing
3
1
1
1
20
2
4
1
Proposed
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
5
1
1
1
20
2
4
1
Southern Mainland and Balabac Municipalities
25
20
15
Existing
Proposed
Total
10
5
0
Aborlan
Balabac
Bataraza
Brooke's
Point
Narra
Quezon
Rizal
Sofronio
Espanola
42
Central Mainland and Caganyancillo
Municipality
Caganyancillo
Puerto Princesa
Existing
4
14
Proposed
0
7
Total
4
21
Central Mainland and Caganyancillo
25
20
15
Caganyancillo
Puerto Princesa
10
5
0
Existing
Proposed
Total
43
Protected Coastal and Marine Areas in Palawan
Pearl Farm Areas
Community-Managed MPAs
Large MPAs (NIPAS)
Total Area
(Has.)
61,369.56**15
44,452.65*16
262,714.00
% to Municipal Waters
(4,577,724 has.)
1.34
0.97
5.74
Protected Coastal and Marine Areas in Palaw an
300,000.00
250,000.00
200,000.00
Total Area (Has.)
150,000.00
% to Municipal Waters
(4,577,724 has.)
100,000.00
50,000.00
0.00
Pearl Farm Areas
CommunityManaged MPAs
Large MPAs
(NIPAS)
Status of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Palawan
Municipality
Name of Legal Basis of
Date
Sanctuary Establishment established
Total
Area
(has)
Operational
(yes/no)
Mgt.
Plan
(y/n)
Mgt.
Board
(y/n)
Data gathered shows that there are MPAs that were declared and established but still
lack management plans and management boards while some still do not operate.
These MPAs have been legally designated on paper, but insufficient resources have not
been allocated to implement the strategies for most of them.
15
16
From PCSDS-GIS
Partial data
44
Existing Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Palawan
CCaallaammiiaanneess
M
Maarriinnee PPrrootteecctteedd AArreeaa
N
Neettw
woorrkk
Minugbay-Malbato-Tagpi MPA
Bugor-Sand Island MPA
Established with the assistance from the Fisheries Improved for Sustainable Harvest
(FISH) Project
SEC registered for recognition
45
Proposed Network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Palawan
46
El Nido CommunityManaged Marine
Areas Network
11.45
Cagbuli Is
Calitan (Bird) Is
Nalbot Is
11.40
El Nido, Palawan
Diapila (Vilma) Is
Brother Is
Tiniguiban
Daracotan Is
Lalutaya Is
11.35
Existing MPA Sites
Palakatan Is
Bucana
Buri Is
North latitude (degrees)
11.30
Barotuan
San Fernando
Sibaltan
Caverna Is
Bubog Is
Caoayan Is
11.25
Pasadena
Maapdet Is
Miti Is
Villa Paz
Proposed MPA Sites
Inambuyod Is
Cadlao Is
11.20
MPA…Subject for enactment
of Mun. ordinance but with
mgt.plan & brgy.resolution
Labnog Is
Tapiutan Is
Villa Libertad
Dilumacad Is
New Ibajay
EL NIDO
Talawtawan Is
Matinloc Is
11.15
Corong-corong
Tres Marias
Miniloc Is
North Guntao Is
Paglungaban Is
Imorigue Is
Depeldet Is
Entalula Is
Cabugao Is
Pinagbuyotan Is
Pangulasian Is
South Guntao Is
Mabini
Malapacao Is
Turtle Is
11.10
Manlag
Popolcan Is
Mangrove Areas…Subject
for enactment of Mun.
ordinance but with mgt.plan
& brgy.resolution
Proposed Mangrove
Management Sites
Lagen Is
Pinasil Is
Diboluan Is
Aberawan
11.05
Bebeladan
Bagong Bayan
11.00
119.25
119.30
On-going Mangrove
Management Sites
119.35
119.40
119.45
119.50
119.55
East longitude (degrees)
The 102 representative networks of MPAs covering the whole of Palawan, if made into
one large network of MPAs, could be the largest in the country.
This larger picture as a whole could build resilience to the effects of climate change.
If well-designed, the location of MPAs in such a network would allow them to support
each other by taking advantage of ocean currents, migration routes, and other natural
ecological connections (Davis, 2010). This would help provide much-needed resilience
against a range of threats.
Management of these MPAs should be sound as to achieve the objectives of each
MPA in the network.
47
Pearl Farms

To determine through photo documentation the present status of the
benthic environment of marine areas in terms of coral reef evaluation
under the long lines and within the lease areas of the pearl farms;

And, secondly, to determine fish population under the leased areas of the
pearl farms.

Actual area of sampling areas within the pearl farms. Two or three divers
of each pearl farms assist our diver in the establishment of the transect
line for the assessment of corals and identification/listing of fishes.
Municipality
Total Area
of Mun.
Waters*
(ha)
Balabac
396,259
Busuanga
194,755
Coron
Culion
330,386
100,485
Dumaran
108,222
Linapacan
407,507
San Vicente
149,050
Taytay
292,672
Pearl
Farm/Proponent
Jewelmer
International
Corporation
Surigao Marine
Products, Inc
(SUMAPI)
Eco-Farm Systems
and Resources Inc.
Eco-Farm Systems
and Resources Inc.
Hikari SSP
Corporation
Hikari SSP
Corporation
Southern Mineral and
Marine Corporation
(SOMMACO)
Marily Development
Corporation
Naglayan Pearl Farm
Hikari SSP
Corporation
Port Barton
Corporation
Sakura Pearl Farm
Terramar Pearl Farm
Salvamar Pearl Farm
Area Occupied
by Pearl Farm
(leased area in
ha)**
% Area
Occupied by
Pearl Farm in
municipal
waters
8,857.99
2.24
7,791.83
4.00
Total Area (%)
Occupied by
Pearl Farm in
municipal
waters
2.24
5.07
2,083.92
1.07
1.51
5,000
575.29
0.17
1.69
2,257
2.25
4,875
4.85
1,408
12,444
1.40
11.50
2,400
0.59
0.00
5,000
5,000
3,676.52
3.35
1.71
1.26
8.5
11.5
0.59
3.35
2.97
*Generated by PCSDS-GIS
** Per PCSDS file
48
Note: R.A.8550, Sec 51… that not over ten percent (10%) of the suitable water surface area of all
lakes and rivers shall be allotted for aquaculture purposes.
1.5 Protected Areas
The Province of Palawan has the following protected areas:
Name of PA
Palawan Province
Puerto Princesa
Underground River
Tubbataha Reefs
Natural Park
Calauit Game
Preserve and
Wildlife Sanctuary
Type and Date of
Protection/Inscription
Area
Proclamation No. 219, s. 1967 (Declaring the Entire Province of
Palawan as Game Refuge and Bird
Sanctuary, and the Small Islands of
Palawan as National Reserves).
Entire province
Proclamation No. 2152 December 29, 1981
(Declaring the Entire Province of
Palawan and Certain Parcels of the
Public Domain and/or Parts of the
Country as Mangrove Swamp
Forest Preserves)
Entire province
Biosphere Reserve – 1991?
Entire province
National Park - ___
World Heritage Site- __
Ramsar Site - ____
New Seven Wonders of Nature _____
National Park - ___
World Heritage Site- ___
Ramsar Site - ____
__
Remarks
Formerly St.
Paul
Subterranean
River Natl
Park
Now Calauit
Wildlife Park
under the
Provincial
Government
Ursula Island Bird
Sanctuary
El Nido-Taytay
Managed Resource
Protected Area
Malampaya Sound
Protected Landscape
& Seascape
Coron Island
49
Protected Landscape
& Seascape
Mt. Mantalingahan
Protected Landscape
Rasa Island Wildlife
Sanctuary
Others:
Palawan Flora,
Fauna & Watershed
Reserve
Palawan Tau’t Bato
Reserve?
Tabon Caves
Complex Reserves?
Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park
Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park






It is believe to be one of the longest navigable underground rivers in the world
which features cathedral-like caverns and domes.
The stalactites and stalagmites formation resembles like religious images, fruits
and birds.
Truly, an admirable underworld that project the omnipotence of the Creator over
human hands.
The Underground River is home to other cove dwelling fauna.
Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park was declared by Proclamation
No. 835 on March 26, 1971.
It is located in the West Coast of Palawan, 81 km north of Puerto Princesa City.
50



The land form in the park are associated with rocky mountains (of marble and
limestone) running from north to south.
Two-thirds of the area is covered by lush tropical rainforest from the shoreline to
the highest peak, and one-third is thinly vegetated karsts limestone.
The vegetation types include lowland forest (often with 35 m. canopy), coastal
forest and karst forest.
Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park17
Designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Site
It is home to nearly 400 species of fish and bird species, enough reason to declare
Tubbataha as a National Marine Park through Proclamation No. 306 on August 11,
1998 this makes commercial fishing or the collecting of corals illegal within 33,2000
hectares of its reefs and surrounding areas.
Tubbataha Reef is located in the middle of the Central Sulu Sea, 98 nautical miles
southeast of Puerto Princesa City.
It is composed of two large shallow reef platforms enclosing a sandy lagoon.
On the seaward portions of the reef platform are steep, often perpendicular reef walls
extending to 50 feet. Most of the park area is submereged, with only a few permanent
emergent sandy islands.
The two atolls are named the North and South Reefs or Islets. The former is a large,
oblong-shaped continous reef platform about 4-5 km wide and compeletely encloses a
sandy lagoon.
The reef is shallow and emergent in some places at extreme low tide.
The South Reef likewise is a small triangular-shaped reef about 1-2 km wide . Like the
North Reef it consists of a shallow platform enclosing a sandy lagoon. On the souther tip
of this reef is a 2-3 ha.
Coral line-sand island, the South Islet where the lighthouse stands. This islet is a rookery
site for birds and turtles.
Tubbataha's trademark among the world divers is its coral walls with extensive colonies
of fish.
Unfortunately, Tubbataha's pristine and unspoiled nature also attracted not just well
wishers but problems as well. As the huge reefs fame has spread worldwide, the number
of sports divers visiting it is increasing yearly, adding pressure to the fragile nature of the
reefs.
17
http://www.pcsd.ph/protected_areas/tubbataha.htm
51
Calauit Game Preserve and Wildlife Sanctuary
The Calauit Game Preserve and Wildlife Sanctuary18
"Home to important Philippine endemic and exotic wildlife from Africa "







18
Calauit Game Preserve and Wildlife Sanctuary (CGPWS) is the Philippines major
conservation showcase for wildlife habitat holding the single distinction as the
first successful wildlife translocation experiment in Asia.
It has evolved to becoming a home of important Philippine endemic and exotic
wildlife from Africa
The CGPWS was declared by Presidential Proclamation No. 1578 on August
31, 1976.
It has total land area of 3,400 hectares with low-lying island in the Calamian
group, north of Palawan, It is a short distance from the much larger island of
Busuanga.
The natural vegetation is lowland forest and mangroves along the coast.
Much of the forest has now been replaced by plantations, secondary growth and
open grassland.
Marine habitat is said to have been haven to the dugong, sea turtles, giant clams,
coral reefs and a sanctuary for commercial fish species as well.
http://www.pcsd.ph/protected_areas/calauit.htm
52


Calauit achieved its popularity as a unique tourist destination.
It has continuously attracted students as well as local and foreign researches who
undertake various scientific studies on ecology and wildlife related topics.
1.1.1
Ursula Island Bird Sanctuary
Ursula Island Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary19


19
Ursula Island Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary was declared through
Administrative Order No. 14 on April 30, 1960.
The islet of Ursula is approximately 20 kms. Off Brooke's Point in southern
Palawan, about one hour by boat from Rio Tuba, Bataraza.
http://www.pcsd.ph/protected_areas/ursula.htm
53






The vegetation is made up of old growth lowland forest with moderate
undergrowth, consisting mostly of tree saplings and seedlings.
Ursula has been promoted in the past as an ecotourism destination, but it is
apparently not visited by many tourists at present.
Ursula Island is notable for the large concentrations of imperial pigeons that roast
there, including numbers of the threatened grey Imperial-pigeons. However, it has
been reported that the numbers of pigeons roosting have declined substantially in
recent years.
Mantanani Scops-owl, a restricted-range small-island specialist, has also been
recorded on the island.
The shoreline is a migratory and wintering ground for shorebirds and the
surrounding waters are valuable feeding grounds for seabirds, particularly terns.
The Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) which takes charge of the whole
management of the island has ordered a temporary closure of the sanctuary from
visitors so as to give time for the birds to recuperate and for the PAMB to adopt
necessary measures in order to fully protect the whole island while various
exposure activities is on going.
El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area20

Located in two adjacent municipalities in northern Palawan Mainland, this
Protected Area is governed by the precautionary principle, "Sustainable
Resource Use and Development that benefits Local Communities." This is to
address the threats and pressing problems being faced by the Protected Area
like illegal fishing, land conversion, and illegal logging.

El Nido -Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area (ENTRMRPA) was
proclaimed by virtue of a Presidential Proclamation signed by His Excellency
President Joseph Estrada last October 8, 1998 and other proclamations,
Department Orders, Republic Acts and Executive Orders, all for the purpose of
protecting El Nido.
It is one of the eight priority areas of the National Integrated Protected Areas
Programme
The PA is approximately 90,321 hectares where 36,018 hectares is terrestrial,
while 54,303 hectares compose the marine component.
The highest peak is at Cadlao Island, with an elevation of 640 meters.
The islands and the mainland are dotted with karst limestone formations.
There are twenty-one barnagays inside the PA, eighteen barangays from the
municipality of El Nido and three from Taytay. The PA is on the western side of
the mainland, expanding the boundaries of the former marine reserve.





20
http://www.pcsd.ph/protected_areas/elnido.htm
54



It is governed by the precautionarly principle, "Sustainable Resource Use and
Development that benefits Local Communities". This is to address the
threats/pressing problems being faced by the PA like illegal fishing, land
conversion, illegal logging, etc.
The natural resource of El Nido brings benefits to the people of El Nido, the
Philippines and the world, but these benefits depend on a healthy environment.
To ensure that PA is manage, self-supporting activities were formulated through
the setting and collecting of fees from visitors and resource users.
The Malampaya Sound Protected Landscape and Seascape21

In the past, the Malampaya Sound is dubbed the ‘Fishbowl of the Philippines.’ Its
shoreline is flanked with mangroves and swamps. The waters of the Sound is
rich with zooplankton biomass which is suitable for the propagation of the
shellfish production for commercial and tourism activities. The protected area is
located in the municipality of Taytay.

It was proclaimed in July 12, 2000 per Presidential Proclamation # 342 signed by
President Joseph E. Estrada. This proclamation was warranted due to it unique,
distinct and scientifically significant ecological features.
Located at the northwestern part of the Province covering an area of about
200,155 hectares 56% (111,379 has.), the Malampaya Sound and Seascape
Protected Area is made up of terrestrial and coastal /marine areas.
Thus, it is ecologically and economically important both as a watershed and a rich
fishing ground.
In the past, it is dubbed as the "Fishbowl of the Philippines" a cliché' that
Palawan as a whole is rich in marine resources.
It is made up of a number of habitats and eco-systems such as tropical lowland
forest, old growth mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass beds and coastal beaches.
The area abounds with flora and fauna including species endemic to Palawan.
Interestingly, it is also known habitat of the bottle-nosed and Irrawady Dolphins,
attesting to its rich biodiversity and uniqueness.






21
http://www.pcsd.ph/protected_areas/malampaya.htm
55









The Sound is divided into two sections namely the Inner and Outer Sounds.
Approximately, 13 islands separate the two sections. Its shoreline is flanked with
mangroves and swamps.
The brackish waters of the Sound is rich with zooplankton biomass and is suitable
for the propagation of the shellfish production for commercial purposes and for
establishment of tourism industries, national marine parks and reserves.
Apparently, the Sound does not only offers significant ecological features but also
livelihood opportunities for its surrounding communities
More than 156 species of fish are found in the Sound wherein 60 species are
considered first class that command high commercial value.
Unfortunately however, latest coastal survey results indicated that the coral cover
has deteriorated to only 17% live coral cover. This is one reason why the need to
protect this fishing ground.
Malampaya Sound Protected Land and Seascape covers 22 barnagays, 18 of
which are within the political boundary of Taytay and the rest within San Vicente.
Seventy percent(70%) of the population are primarily engaged in fishing and
secondarily in farming. Others are engaged into agriculture and seaweed culture
and fish caging.
"Towards a cooperative effort in managing and sustainably developing
Malampaya Sound Protected Land and Seascape, respecting the rights of the
people, making them aware and enabling them to live progressive lives as a result
of well-maintained and life-giving natural resources", is the ultimate vision of the
PAMB.
The Coron Island Protected Area22
"Towards preserving the cultural heritage vis-à-vis the valuable ecological resource"

22
The main attraction of Coron Island is the series of seven lakes, the most famous
of which is the nationally acclaimed cleanest lake in the Philippines, the
Kayangan Lake. It also has number of islands with white beaches. The island is
inhabited by the Tagbanua indigenous group.
http://www.pcsd.ph/protected_areas/coron.htm
56
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The island including its surrounding islets was first declared a National Reserve
by virtue of Proclamation # 219 on July 2, 1967.
In 1978, another proclamation # 1801 declared the island a Tourist Zone and
Marine Reserve.
This facilitated the transfer of the management to the Philippine Tourism
Authority. This proclamation was followed by Proclamation 2152, declaring the
entire province a Mangrove Swamp Forest Reserve.
Likewise, in 1990, a Community Forest Stewardship Agreement (CFSA) was
issued by DENR to the Tagbanua Foundation of Coron Island which covered
about 7,748 has. Finally, with the passage of NIPAS Act in 1992, it was listed
part of the priority protected areas.
Consequently, on June 5, 1998 Coron Island was recognized as an ancestral
domain with the issuance of CADC No. 134 to the Tagbanuas.
The claim which includes the Tagbanua ancestral fishing grounds, covered 22,248
has., operated via a framework management plan prepared by the aforementioned
IP's.
Coron Island is wedge-shaped limestone island, dominated by Permian Limestone
of Jurassic origin, with few of its coastal areas being covered by mangrove
forests.
It is situated in the Calamianes group of Islands and belongs to the Municipality
of Coron.
Aside from being an endemic bird habitat, it is holding distinct assemblages of
mammals, reptiles and amphibians.
In fact, Coron Island is included in the Palawan Faunal Region. Studies indicated
its high rate of floral and faunal endemism.
Due to this bio-diverse feature, Coron Island has very high potential for ecotourism.
It is one of the priority areas under the sustainable tourism development of
Palawan.
The main attraction of Coron is the enchantingly situated seven lakes, famous of
which is the nationally acclaimed cleanest lake in the Philippines, the Kayangan
Lake.
It also has number of islands with white beaches, potential for resort
developments.
However, the once upon a time rich coastal areas of Coron island is constantly
facing threats from illegal fishing activities. Today, its coastal resources had
dramatically dwindled.
Notably , the major stakeholders of the area are the indigenous people named
"Tagbanua’s" who represent majority of the settlers.
57
Tabon Caves Complex
Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape

Mantalingahan is a long mountain range in southern Palawan. The peak of the
mountain is the highest point in the province. The protected area status of MMPL
was proclaimed last June 23, 2009, by virtue of Presidential Proclamation No.
1815. The protected area covers an area of 120,457 hectares. Continuing
discoveries of new species of plant and animal from the mountain highlight its
tremendous ecological value and the importance of maintaining this protective
area in the face of constant logging and mining pressures.
Palawan Flora, Fauna and Watershed Reserve

Also known as the Irawan Watershed Reserve, the watershed is the main source
of water in the city center and barangays of Puerto Princesa. It is being managed
the City Government.
Wildlife
Flora: Palawan List of Threatened Species
FAMILY
SCIENTIFIC NAME
I. CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES23
(including those listed under Appendix I of CITES)
FLOWERING PLANTS
Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpus gracilis
Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus
Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpus hasseltii
Sapindaceae
Guioa palawanica
COMMON NAME
Panau
“Apitong
Hasselt Panau
II. ENDANGERED SPECIES
(including those listed under APPENDIX II & III of CITES)
1. Lauraceae “”
Cryptocarya palawanensis
Parena
2. Araliaceae
Schefflera curranii
3. Araliaceae
Schefflera palawanensis
4. Diptocarpaceae
Vatica mangachapoi obtusifolia
5. Dipterocarpaceae
Vatica maritime
23
Palawan Biosphere Reserve
58
III. VULNERABLE
1. Leguminosae
2. Alangiaceae
3. Euphorbiaceae
4. Euphorbiaceae
5. Meliaceae
6. Myrsinaceae
7. Araliaceae
8. Burseraceae
9. Annonaceae
10. Dilleniaceae
10. Dilleniaceae
Meliaceae
13. Celastraceae
14. Leguminosae
15. Myristicaceae
16. Euphorbiaceae
17. Annonaceae
18. Annonaceae
19. Sapotaceae
20. Annonaceae
21. Burseraceae
22. Leguminosae
23. Meliaceae
24. Anacardiaceae
25. Verbenaceae
26. Myrtaceae
27. Flacourtiaceae
28. Rhamnaceae
Adenanthera intermedia
Alangium longiflorum
Antidesma obliquinervium
Antidesma subolivaceum
Aphanamixis cumingiana
Ardisia squamulosa
Arthrophyllum pulgarense
Canarium luzonicum
Dasymaschalon scandens
Dillenia luzoniensis
Dillenia luzoniensis
Dysoxylum palawanensis
Glyptopetalum palawanense
Intsia bijuga
Knema latericia latericia
Macaranga cogostiflora
Mitrephora fragrans
Mitrephora lanota
Palaquium bataanense
Polyalthia elmeri
Protium connarifolium
Pterocarpus indicus
Sandoricum vidalii
Semecarpus paucinervius
Vitex parviflora
Xanthostemon verdugonianus
Xylosma palawanense
Ziziphus talanai
“Malatanglin”
“Malatapai
“Tagpo”
“Malakatmon”
“Ipil”
“Lanutan”
“Molave”
“Mankono”
“Porsanbagyo”
Balakat
Fauna: Palawan List of Threatened Species
FAMILY
SCIENTIFIC NAME
COMMON NAME
I. CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES24
(including those listed under APPENDIX I of CITES)
A. BIRDS:
Psittacidae
Cacatua haematuropygia
Philippine Cockatoo
1
Falconidae
Falco peregrinus
Peregrine Falcon
Phasianidae
Polyplectron emphanum1
Palawan Peacock Pheasant
Columbidae
Caloenas nicobarica1
Nicobar Pigeon
B. REPTILES
24
Palawan Biosphere Reserve
59
Cheloniidae
2. Bataguridae
3. Crocodylidae
4. Crocodylidae
5. Cheloniidae
6. Cheloniidae
7. Cheloniidae
8. Dermocheliidae
C. MAMMALS
Dungongidae
Cervidae
Phocoenidae
Balaenopteridae
Balaenopteridae
Balaenopteridae
Balaenopteridae
Eretmochelys imbricata
Seibenrockeilla leytensis
Crocodylus mindorensis
Crocodylus porosus1
Chelonia mydas1
Lepidochelys olivacea1
Caretta caretta1
Dermochelys coriacea1
Hawksbill Turtle
Philippine Pond Turtle
Philippine Crocodile
Saltwater Crocodile
Green Turtle
Olive Ridley Turtle
Loggerhead Turtle
Leatherback Turtle
Dugong dugon1
Axis calamianensis1
Neophocaena phocaenoides1
Balaenoptere edeni1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata1
Megaptere novaeangliae1
Physeter macrocephalus1
Seacow
Calamian Hog Deer
Finless Porpoise
Bryde’s Whale
Minke Whale
Humpback Whale
Sperm Whale
II. ENDANGERED SPECIES
(including those listed under APPENDIX II & III of CITES)
A. BIRDS
Ardeidae
Gorsachius goisagi1
Japanese Night Heron
Ardeidae
Tringa guttifer
Nordmann’s Greenshank
Megapodiidae
Megapodius cumingii2
Tabon Scrubfowl
Accipitridae
Aviceda jerdoni3
Jerdon’s Baza,/ Crested LizardHawk
3
Accipitridae
Pernis ptilorhyncus
Asiatic Honeybuzzard
Accipitridae
Milvus migrans3
Black Kite
Accipitridae
Haliastur indus3
Brahminy Kite
Accipitridae
Haliaeetus leucogaster3
White-bellied Sea Eagle
3
Accipitridae
Spilornis cheela
Crested Serpent Eagle
Accipitridae
Circus spilonotus3
Eastern Marsh-Harrier
11. Accipitridae
Accipiter gularis3
Japanese Sparrow Hawk
3
12. Accipitridae
Accipiter trivirgatus
Crested Goshawk
13. Accipitridae
Accipiter soloensis3
Chinese Goshawk
14. Accipitridae
Butastur indicus3
Grey-faced Buzzard
15. Accipitridae
Spizaetus cirrhatus3
Changeable Hawk-Eagle
3
16. Accipitridae
Spizaetus philippensis
Philippine Hawk Eagle
17. Pandionidae
Pandion haliaetus3
Osprey
18. Falconidae
Falco tinnunculus3
Eurasian Kestrel
3
19. Falconidae
Falco severus
Oriental Hobby
20. Psittacidae
Prioniturus platenae3
Blue-headed Racquet Tail
. Psittacidae
Tanygnathus lucionensis3
Blue-naped Parrot
22. Strigidae
Otus mantananensis3
Mantanani Scops Owl
3
23. Strigidae
Otus fuliginosus
Palawan Scops Owl
24. Strigidae
Ninox scutulata3
Brown Hawk-Owl
25. Strigidae
Strix seloputo3
Spotted Wood Owl
3
26. Strigidae
Asio flammeus
Short-Eared Owl
27. Bucerotidae
Anthracoceros marchei3
Palawan Hornbill
28. Sturnidae
Gracula religiosa palawanensis3 Palawan Mynah
60
B. REPTILES
1. Trionychidae
2. Varanidae
3. Boidae
4. Elapidae
5. Elapidae
C. MAMMALS
1. Sciuridae
2. Muridae
Pelochelys cantorii
Varanus salvator3
Python reticulates3
Ophiophagus hannah3
Naja naja3
Cantor’s Giant Softshell
Variable Monitor Lizard
Reticulated Python
King Cobra
Asiatic Cobra
Sundasciurus juvencus
Palawanomys furvus
3. Tragulidae
Tragulus napu nigricans
4. Balaenopteridae
5. Manidae
6. Felidae
7. Mustelidae
8. Cercopithecidae
9. Tupaiidae
10. Pteropodidae
11. Pteropodidae
12. Delphinidae
13. Delphinidae
14. Delphinidae
15. Delphinidae
16. Delphinidae
Balaenoptera physalus
Manis culionensis3
Prionailurus bengalensis3
Amblonyx cinereus3
Macaca fascicularis3
Tupaia palawanensis3
Pteropus vampyrus3
Acerodon leucotis3
Tursiops truncatus3
Lagenodelphis hosei3
Stenella attenuata3
Grampus griseus3
Stenella longirostris3
17. Delphinidae
D. CLAMS
1. Tridacnidae
2. Tridacnidae
FISH
1. Labridae
Globicephala macrorhyncus3
Northern Palawan Tree Squirrel
Palawan Soft-furred Mountain
Rat
Balabac Chevrotain,
Mousedeer
Fin Whale
Palawan Pangolin
Leopard Cat
Oriental Small-clawed Otter
Long-tailed Macaque
Palawan Tree Shrew
Large Flying Fox
Palawan Flying Fox
Bottlenosed Dolphin
Fraser’s Dolphin
Pantropical Spotted Dolphin
Risso’s Dolphin
Long-snouted Spinner
Dolphin
Short-finned Pilot Whale
Hippopus hippopus3
Hippopus porcelanus3
Bear’s Paw Clam
China Clam
Cheilinus undulatus
Napoleon Fish/Humphead
Wrasse
III. VULNERABLE
A. BIRDS
B. MAMMALS
C. AMPHIBIANS
61
D. MARINE FISH
E. FRESHWATER
FISH
F. CLAMS
IV. OTHER THREATENED SPECIES (NEAR THREATENED SPECIES)
A.BIRDS
B.MAMMALS
C.REPTILES
PUT THE BELOW LIST IN THE TABLE
III. VULNERABLE
FAMILY
A. BIRDS
1. Ardeidae
2. Columbidae
3. Muscicapidae
4. Muscicapidae
5. Scolopacidae
SCIENTIFIC NAME
Egretta eulophotes
Ducula pickeringii
Ptilocichla falcate
Ficedula platenae
Numenius tahitiensis
COMMON NAME
Chinese Egret
Grey Imperial Pigeon
Falcated Ground-babbler
Palawan Flycatcher
Bristle-thighed Curlew
62
B. MAMMALS
1. Soricidae
Crocidura palawanensis
2. Sciuridae
Sundasciurus rabori
3. Mustelidae Mydaus marchei
4. Viverridae
Arctictis binturong whitei
5. Suidae
Sus barbatus ahoenobarbus
Palawan Shrew
Palawan Montane Squirrel
Palawan Stink Badger
Palawan Bearcat
Palawan Bearded Pig
C. AMPHIBIANS
1. Discoglossidae
2. Bufonidae
3. Ranidae
Philippine Discoglossid Frog
Palawan Toadlet
Mary Inger’s Frog
Barbourula busuangensis
Pelophryne albotaeniata
Ingerana mariae
D. MARINE FISH
1. Serranidae
Epinephelus lanceolatus
2. Rhincodinidae
Rhincodon typus
3. Ginglymostomatidae Nebrius ferrugineus
4. Rhynchobatidae Rhyncobatus djiddensis
5. Stegostomatidae Stegostoma fasciatum
Giant Grouper
Whaleshark
Tawny Nurse Shark
White-spot Giant Guitarfish
Leopard Shark
E. FRESHWATER FISH
1. Cyprinidae
Puntius manguaoensis
Lake Manguao Barb
F. CLAMS
1. Tridacnidae
2. Tridacnidae
Smooth Giant Clam
Giant Clam
Tridacna derasa
Tridacna gigas
IV. OTHER THREATENED SPECIES (NEAR THREATENED SPECIES)
FAMILY
SCIENTIFIC NAME
COMMON NAME
A. BIRDS
1. Charadriidae
2. Timaliidae
3. Timaliidae
4. Muscicapidae
5. Muscicapidae
6. Muscicapidae
7. Paridae
Charadrius peronii
Malacopteron palawanens?
Stachyris hypogrammica
Cyornis lemprieri?
Tersiphone atrocaudata
Tersiphone cyanescens
Parus amabilis
Malaysian Plover
Melodius Babbler
Palawan Striped-Babbler
Palawan Blue Flycatcher
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher
Blue Paradise-Flycatcher
Palawan Tit
B. MAMMALS
1. Muridae
2. Sciuridae
3. Muridae
Maxomys panglima
Sundasciurus moellendorffi
Hylopetes nigripes
Palawan Spiny Rat
Culion Tree Squirrel
Palawan Flying Squirrel
C. REPTILES
1. Emydidae
Cuora amboinensis
South Asian Box Turtle
Notes:
1 CITES-Listed, Appendix I
2 Species declared as Endangered in Palawan by virtue of PCSD Resolution No. 93-22
3 CITES-Listed, Appendix II
63
Invasive Alien Species
64
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