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Same Language Subtitling
RUNNING HEAD: SAME LANGUAGE SUBTITLING
Same Language Subtitling:
The Use of Subtitled Music as a Reading Activity
In a High School Special Education Classroom
W.Greg McCall
Action Research Project
University of Phoenix
MAEDCT-EDD 576
Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the degree of Master of Arts in Education
University of Phoenix
2005
1
Same Language Subtitling
2
Abstract
Same Language Subtitling: The Use of Subtitled Music as Reading Activity in a High School
Special Education Classroom. Wayne McCall, 2005: Action Research Project Report,
University of Phoenix, MA in Education focus on Curriculum and Technology. Technology
Incorporation/Technology in English Education/Captioning as Reading Activity/Subtitling as
Reading Activity/Lyrics and Music as Reading Activity/Technology Incorporating Video
Subtitling and Music in English Classroom/Special Education English Classroom and
Technology Incorporation..
This action research project was designed to examine the potential of incorporating SameLanguage-Subtitling or Subtitled Music (SLS) as a repeated reading activity within Special
Education English classrooms. The intervention was designed to use the presentation strength of
SLS and technology to increase the amount of class time that students are actively engaged with
reading text.
The goal of this action research project was to improve reading engagement and growth. The
basic SLS activity involved students repeatedly viewing a short SLS video (typically Broadway
Musicals), while completing response worksheets (typically cloze script). SLS was used as an
entrance activity during transition and first 15 minutes of each class. Students quickly mastered
the technology and programs to both create and run the reading activity semi-independently.
Overall, student attitude, engagement and reading comprehension levels improved during the
course of this study.
Permission Statement
As a student in the MAED Program I do (x) do not ( ) give permission to the University of
Phoenix to distribute copies of this action research report on request from interested individuals.
Wayne Greg McCall
October 17, 2005
Same Language Subtitling
Table of Contents
Chapter I: Introduction
Problem Statement
5
Purpose
5
Description of Community
6
Description of Work setting
6-8
Writer’s Role
8
Chapter II: Study of the Problem
Problem Description
8
Problem Documentation
9
Literature Review
8-12
Causative Analysis
12-14
Literature Review: Same-Language-Subtitling
14-19
Chapter III: Outcomes and Evaluations
Goals and Expectations
19-20
Expected Outcomes
20-21
Measurement of Outcomes
Analysis of results
21
21-22
Chapter IV: Solution Strategy
Statement of Problem
22
Discussion
23-24
Description of Selected Solutions
24-27
3
Same Language Subtitling
Project Calendar Plan
27-37
Chapter V: Results
Results
Discussion
Recommendations
Plans for Dissemination
References
37-46
46
47-49
49
50
Appendices
A: Reading Surveys
B: Reading Rubric
C: Reading Observation Sheet
D: Application for Conducting Research
55
59
61
62-66
Charts
Figure 1: School Ethnic Makeup
6
Figure 2: Special Education Students by Certification 2005
7
Figure 4: Weekly Class Activities – Pre-intervention
38
Figure 5: Weekly Class Activities –Week 8-12
38
Figure 7: Engaged Reading Rubric
40
Figure 8: Responses to Reading Survey
40
Figure 9: Reading Growth by Grade Equivalency
41
Figure 10: CHS SPED by Certification 2005
42
Figure 11: Intervention Group by Certification
42
Figure 12: Mean Growth in Scaled Score
43
Figure 14: Mean Reading Growth
46
Tables
Figure 3: Summary-Minutes Per Week on Tasks
Figure 6: Classroom Activities
Figure 13: Classroom Observations
38
39
44-45
4
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Problem Statement
In a review of assessment records it was found that many of the Special Education
students at CHS during the 2002-2003 school year were experiencing less than a quarter of a
year growth per year in their reading skills as assessed by both the Stanford Diagnostic Reading
Test (SDRT) and by Accelerated Reading’s STAR Reading Assessment. CHS’s Learning
Disabled (LD) population averaged reading levels that are more than three years lower than their
regular education counterparts. In comparison to their regular education counterparts, these
students spent minimal time and focus on reading activities and tended to be resistant to many
supplementary reading activities.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to determine whether including Same-Language-Subtitling
(SLS) activities in a reading class would increase the amount of time that special education
students were actively engaged in repetitive reading activities and thereby impact their reading
growth. At this state in the research, the SLS activities will be defined generally as the use of
video subtitling and editing technology applied to music video and other multi-media
presentations.
Recent computer technology developments have made both subtitling presentation
formats and video editing programs available and economic for classroom applications. SameLanguage Subtitling, which incorporates both music and dynamic audio with subtitling and
video, can be used as an interactive reading activity. This type of activity should impact learning
disabled student’s language and reading levels by increasing the time in which they are actively
Same Language Subtitling
6
engaged with language and reading. An experimental study is needed in order to determine the
impact of SLS on reading engagement, and to develop extended literacy applications.
Description of the Community
CHS serves the Kaneohe area of the island of Oahu in the State of Hawaii. Kaneohe is a
community of about 50,000 people. The community is a largely middle class suburban
population that is comprised of a mix of single-family homes, condominiums, and public
housing units. There are mostly small businesses, light industries, and truck farms in the area.
Most of the student’s parents work in Honolulu, which is fifteen miles away.
Description of the Work Setting
CHS sits on a 32-acre campus. In the 2004-2005 school year CHS had 110 classrooms,
134 teachers, and a student population of 2,112 in grades nine through twelve. The school’s
ethnic makeup had remained stable over
the previous three years. The school’s
ethnic breakdown was: 37% Hawaiian or
part Hawaiian, 25% Asian, 13%
Caucasians, 9% Pacific-Islander, 8 %
Filipino-American and 4% AfricanAmerican and 4% other groups ethnic
groups. The student population was
fairly divided between males at 51% and females at 49%.
There were 334 students in the special education program (SPED), which represented
sixteen percent of CHS’s student population. The number of SPED students had been in the 1619 percent range for the previous three years. Fifty-three percent (177) of the students in the
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SPED program were classified as Learning Disabled (LD). Sixteen percent (53) were classified
as Emotionally Impaired (EI), and six
S pecial Education S tudents
by Certification 2005
percent (20) were AttentionLD
25%
EI
53%
6%
Deficit/Hyper-Active Disorder
(ADHD) followed by smaller
groupings of other certifications.
ADHD
Sixty-eight percent (227) of the SPED
16%
other
Figure 2
students attended SPED English
classes. Twelve percent (41) of the
SPED students were mainstreamed into general-education English classes. The remaining 20%
were in self-contained classrooms or alternative settings.
Participants in this study included of students in CHS’s special education program: 149
students, four teachers, two Educational Assistants, and two Administrators. The intervention
study group included 51 students from the special education program, two teachers, and one
educational assistant. The remaining students and staff participated in surveys and assessments,
and data collection.
The writer’s classroom was one of the four SPED English class, and was used as
classroom setting for the study intervention group. The room was an air-conditioned portable
type building. The lighting was florescent, and could be controlled to the extent of turning off
either the front half of the room or turning all lights out for a mostly complete blackout. The
room was intended to seat 30 students. There was seating for 16 in standard school chair-desk
combinations, and one large worktable with four chairs. The room was equipped for broadband
Internet access with six computer stations. The room was also equipped with two 600 lumens
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projectors, a sound system with digital video, and an Elmo overhead presenter. All equipment
was secondhand acquired for nominal costs from the local state surplus office. The classroom
had no additional budget for technology.
Writer’s Role
The writer was the instructor of described classroom and had been employed as a teacher
in the SPED program at CHS for fourteen years. The writer was one of four teachers responsible
for instruction in CHS Special Education English classes. The writer’s classroom was the
primary setting for inclusion of SLS activities in the reading program. The writer’s students
formed the intervention study group. The writer located and created SLS materials. The writer
incorporated SLS music activities into an ongoing directed reading program and devised
additional activities to engage students with subtitled video programs. The writer assessed
students’ work to determine effectiveness of the activities and to adapt activities to individual
class needs. The writer trained students in use of computer subtitling programs and associated
Internet programs and technology. The writer reviewed and reported on pre- and post reading
assessments and surveys.
Chapter II: Study of the Problem
Problem Description
In a review of assessment records it was found that many of the Special Education
students at CHS during the 2002-2003 school year were experiencing less than a quarter of a
year growth per year in their reading skills as assessed by both the Stanford Diagnostic Reading
Test (SDRT) and by Accelerated Reading’s STAR Reading Assessment. CHS’s Learning
Disabled (LD) population averaged reading levels that are more than three years lower than their
regular education counterparts. In comparison to their regular education counterparts, these
Same Language Subtitling
9
students spent minimal time and focus on reading activities and tended to be resistant to many
supplementary reading activities.
Problem Documentation
At CHS there were several types of assessment records that could be accessed to verify
academic growth by student population: state-wide there is a biannual administration of the
California Achievement Test (CAT), school-wide there is the Nelson-Denny Reading
Assessment, and within the Special Education Department (SPED) there are Individualized
Education Program (IEP) records, which include annual reading assessments using the Stanford
Diagnostic Reading Test (SDRT) and Renaissance Learning’s computer-administered
Standardized Test for Achievement in Reading (STAR). These four assessments are recorded
each year in special education I.E.P. records, along with addition work samples to track yearly
growth.
For the purpose of this study 149 IEP records, including SDRT and STAR records, were
reviewed for SPED students in either SPED English classes or General Education English
classes. A review of SDRT scores for the previous two years indicated an average reading level
of 5.37-Grade Equivalency (GE) during the 2002-2003 school year with an average gain by
following year of .24 GE.
Literature Review
According to National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000),
approximately ten million children in the United States have difficulties learning to read. Of that
population, from ten to fifteen percent will eventually drop out of high school and only two
percent will complete a four-year college program. Further, surveys of teens with criminal
records and/ or substance abuse indicate that about half of these students are struggling readers
Same Language Subtitling 10
(Lyon, 1998). Nationally, an estimated 80% of Learning Disabled (LD) students have difficulty
reading (Foorman, Fletcher, & Frances, 1997). Studies have shown that students with even a
mild reading impairment do not read for fun (Sousa, 2004). For these students, “reading requires
so much effort that they have little energy left for understanding what they have just read”
(NICHD, 2000, Introduction) This pattern of resistance to reading activities can be observed in
most special education students.
In April 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released "Teaching Children to Read."
The panel determined that effective reading instruction includes teaching children to: break apart
and manipulate the sounds in words (phonemic awareness), recognize that sounds are
represented by letters of the alphabet which can then be blended together to form words
(phonics), practice what they've learned by reading aloud with guidance and feedback (guided
oral reading), apply reading comprehension strategies to guide and improve reading
comprehension. While their study was not conclusive, they indicated several practices and needs
that will impact future studies of technology and literacy. The report repeatedly emphasizes the
importance of Phonics in early-stage reading development, but stresses that instruction need not
be in isolation from other reading activities. Further, that the practice of Repeated Readings, and
Rehearsed Oral Readings were found to have strong impact on developing fluency and
comprehension in both emergent and struggling readers. This study noted that there were
multiple possibilities to explore the impact of various reading formats, including technology
(Schacter, 2003). Directly related to technology in the classroom, the NRP found that many
students benefited from the addition of multi-media instruction to conventional instruction, and
that the rapidly developing capabilities of computer technology may hold promise and needed
further exploration. (NICHD, 2000). This report supports incorporation of both technology and
Same Language Subtitling 11
activities that support and reinforce Repeated Readings, Rehearsed Readings, Phoneme and
Vocabulary practice.
According to Dr. Barbara Foorman (2004), of the National Research Center on
Learning Disabilities, directly teaching decoding and phonological analysis skills is necessary for
emergent level readers; however these are not sufficient for successful reading. Students that
have basically mastered phonic decoding students need to rapidly increase decoding fluency.
Further the practice of Repeated Readings, and Rehearsed Oral Readings were found to have
strong impact on developing fluency and comprehension in both emergent and struggling
readers. “Students who undertake oral reading guided by teachers, peers or parents showed
significant, positive gains in word recognition, fluency and comprehension across a range of
grade levels” (NICHD, 2000). Comprehension processes may also need to be directly modeled.
Immersion in literacy, and increased engagement also were demonstrated to have a strong impact
on a wide variety of readers. Many of these studies made use of alternate reading sources, such
as newspaper articles and Internet chat (Foorman, 2004).
One major factor that has been demonstrated to impact reading growth is the amount of
time a student spends in reading related activities. Sheer reading volume, how much a child will
read in and out of school has a major impact on reading rate, fluency, and academic growth.
Studies have shown that people with even just a mild reading impairment do not read for fun
(Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998a; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998b). Special education
students can differ dramatically in time spent in reading activity when compared to their regular
education counterparts. For this population, time spent in reading activities typically decreases in
the middle and high school grades (Cunningham and Stanovich, 1998a). When examining
voluntary reading it has been found that there can be a range of from “less than 8000 words read”
Same Language Subtitling 12
per year by struggling readers to “over two million words” per year by normally progressing
readers (Anderson, Wilson, & Fielding,1988). According to G. Linehardt (1998), teachers need
to actively target activities that increase “engaged” or “time on task” activities.
Causative Analysis
There are a number of factors that may contribute to poor reading growth. There may be
neurological, familial genetic, social and or cultural disadvantage, or instructional causes to poor
reading growth. There can also be a cyclic relationship between poor decoding skills, poor
fluency, low comprehension and avoidance behaviors that further damages reading growth. In
addition self-esteem factors can impair reading growth; struggling readers are often very aware
that their classmates have mastered basic reading skills while they have struggled to keep pace.
While their peers have transitioned from learning to read to reading to learn, struggling readers
fall behind in the acquisition of general knowledge; they lack much of the learning experience
their peers are gaining. (Sousa, 2004; National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development, 2000). These factors may interact with each other, and may all contribute to poor
reading growth.
When a student is labeled “Specific Learning Disabled” the presumption is often that
reading difficulties are primarily caused by a physical impairment in the function of the brain
(Sousa, 2004). Neurological studies explore the question of how improved reading alters brain
function, and how neurological metabolism promotes or impairs growth. There are studies that
indicate that there is a difference between poor readers and good readers on a metabolic level
when involved in language activities. Difficulties with reading also often run in families, and
may have a genetic level component. Genetic component studies attempt to identify the different
genes that may influence the reading process. However, many of these same studies also indicate
Same Language Subtitling 13
that familial environmental factors also have major impact. For example, parents who struggle to
read are less likely to read to their young children, and are less likely to model reading in their
home lives (Sousa, 2004; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000).
Many of the SPED population are categorized as socially or culturally disadvantaged.
This grouping is marked by low childhood exposure to print material, family illiteracy, or peer
grouping that devalue reading activities. Logically, if a student spends limited time in an activity,
they are more likely to experience limited skill growth in that activity. There are also lifestyle
factors that may impair learning overall. Many students struggle with social issues that may
impair reading growth. Dysfunctional families, unstable home lives, economic difficulties,
substance abuse all affect a student’s ability to function in daily life. (National Institute of Child
Health and Human Development, 2000)
Finally, there are instructional factors that impact reading growth. Many studies that
demonstrate that LD populations will experience normal reading growth if basic skills can be
taught at the elementary school level (Sousa, 2004). These studies tend to indicate that early
instruction approach and interventions may be the most crucial factor in predicting reading
success.
Many of these studies cite failure cycles that reinforce reading failure in middle and
secondary struggling reader populations. The inability to rapidly or fluently decode individual
words permanently handicaps many readers. If the LD student is struggling to merely decode
text, comprehension and construction of meaning are also likely to suffer (Price, Wise, Watson,
Patterson, & Frackowiak, 1994; Samuels, Schermer, & Reinking, 1992). Furthermore, without
fluency and comprehension, there is no joy in reading and little motivation to read (Sousa, 1998).
This contributes to avoidance behaviors.
Same Language Subtitling 14
Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding found that the amount of time spent in reading activities
was the best predictor of growth in reading comprehension (1988). Evidence was provided by
Leinhardt (1985) who found that the amount of time actually spent in direct reading behaviors
predicted the subsequent reading performance of learning disabled students, and that the
experimental addition of an extra five minutes of reading per day was associated with an
additional gain in grade level equivalent. The problem is that many high school LD students are
resistant to many reading activities, hence the “failure cycle” (Sousa, 2004).
Literature Review on Same Language Subtitling (SLS)
Same Language Subtitling (SLS) is an amalgamation of developing captioning
manipulation technologies, multi-media and Oral and Repeated Reading Activities (Ongoing
Projects, 2002). Simply stated, “SLS is the use of existing subtitling technology applied to songbased" media content (Kothari, 2000, pg. 135). This is similar to Karaoke, where the subtitled
text changes color in exact rhythm to the lyrics (or to the dialogue) in a manner that allows even
a non-literate viewer to visually track the captioned lyrics as they are performed.
Historical Application.
When speaking of captioning, most teachers are familiar with the technology as applied
to Closed Captioned Television (CCT). CCT is the captioning service that is typically provided
on most television and video programs. This service can be optionally accessed by the viewer
and is primarily intended for the hearing impaired. Captions are written, timed and placed using
specially designed software. The technology and presentation varies widely in quality and in
synchronization. The text may markedly trail the audio model, or there may be omissions and
simplifications of text as compared to audio model. (Williams & Thorne, 2000)
Same Language Subtitling 15
Closed captioning technology was originally designed for the deaf; however there are
many studies on the impact of CCT on reading and literacy for hearing audiences (Bean, R.M., &
Wilson, R.M., 1989). As a reading source CCT and has been used with some success with
second-language readers and as a motivation tool for struggling readers (Goldman &Goldman,
1988). A study by d'Ydewalle (1991) indicated that all readers (including illiterate, emergent,
and struggling readers) will both, consciously and unconsciously, track available text. In other
words, the student’s eyes will register the text, even if the student is not intentionally trying to
read the captioning. A study by the Research Centre for English and Applied Linguistics,
University of Cambridge concluded that simultaneous text and audio model presentation can aid
novel word acquisition several subsequent studies suggested that captioned television is a
motivating medium for below-average readers and bilingual students (Williams & Thorne, 2000;
Bird & Williams, 2002). Koskinen et al (1993) strongly demonstrated that simultaneous
processing (audio/video/text) enhances learning.
These studies on the use of CCT as a reading supplementary source showed better results
with highly motivated groups, such as second-language acquisition, and moderate results with
struggling readers. Many of these same studies were unable to indicate that CCT benefited
language acquisition for SPED populations. However, most CCT studies were able to
demonstrate that the addition of CCT as a reading source does no harm to language acquisition.
(Koskinen et al, 1993)
Probably the most widely used and studied educational application of CCTV is with
students learning English as a second language (Closed captioning helps ESOL students, 1991).
For those learning English as a second language, captions can reinforce vocabulary and help
them learn expressions and speech patterns in spoken English, which are not always reflected in
written English (Borras& Lafayette, 1994). Further, “the use of closed captioned primetime
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television programs with high school ESL students and students in remedial reading programs
increased the students' motivation, and resulted in an improvement in their English vocabulary,
reading comprehension, and word analysis skills” (Goldman &Goldman, 1988)
There were some obvious difficulties with CCT studies. Many of the CCT studies made
use of poor or low interest media models. For example, a study by Berkay & Boyce (1995)
looked at adding captioning to medical profession training videos for intern training in a
community college program. This study failed to show any benefit from use of the technology in
conjunction with training videos. However, the instructors in this study cited “low student
engagement” and “technical inconveniences of equipment and media” as contributing factors to
study failure.
Karaoke.
Another technology format for presenting captioning along with music is Karaoke.
Karaoke is basically a collection of multi-media devices intended to support sing-along
performances. This adapted use of captioning is quite popular in Karaoke nightclubs in the
Orient, especially in Japan, where singing into a microphone has become extremely fashionable.
Karaoke uses prerecorded, professional musical accompaniments and video appropriate to the
song while sing-along words are scrolled at the bottom of the picture. The text changes color
with the rhythm and speed of the melody, allowing even a novice reader to track text-sound and
phoneme relationship (Kothari & Takeda, 2000). There is a previously recorded vocal, which is
kept on a separate audio track from the accompaniment so it can either be sang along with or
faded out. Karaoke videos are visually appealing, and the songs are usually contemporary
popular vocals. One of the motivating factors of this device is that students are often surprised by
Same Language Subtitling 17
how good their singing voices sound when backed up by electronic accompaniment. They are
often amazed at how good they sound with backup.
M.J. Wagner and J.S. Brick (1993) demonstrated that karaoke can be a powerful
reinforcer to what is basically a repetitive reading activity. In that study, students also indicated
that it was easier to learn the words to the songs via the karaoke because the songs were visually
related to the video. Further, the students felt that the use of a microphone dramatically increased
their focus and engagement. Wagner and Brick felt that the absence of sheet music enabled the
students to focus all of their attention on the screen and the lyrics.
Karaoke does have some problems when used as a reading activity. With Karaoke, most
available lyrics are suitable for instruction at the fourth grade level, and it may be difficult to find
music to more challenging material. Second, typically with Karaoke, the music audio model is
less dynamic and less clear than original sources; the vocal model is often faded to the
background and the tempo and melody are altered or reduced.
Same Language Subtitling of Music Video.
SLS is the practice of subtitling the lyrics of song programs on video in the 'same'
language as the audio. Similar to Karaoke, the subtitles change color to match the audio track
exactly (Kothari & Takeda 2000). There are, however, several important improvements on
Karaoke. First, with Karaoke, the audio is slightly diluted and the vocal model is slowed or
dropped completely reducing the impact of audio model, and the choice of lyrics available tends
to fall in lower reading-level ranges. With SLS, the audio is typically very dynamic with strong
language modeling, and the instructor can choose lyrics or scripts at any reading level, and
teachers and students have the option of creating their own custom SLS presentations. The
available technology allows students to interact with subtitling media as a process. This allows
Same Language Subtitling 18
for a wide range of repetitive and rehearsed reading opportunities. Almost any dynamic audiomedia can provide the base model. This can be anything from a Broadway musical to a famous
speech or poem, as long as the language model is clear and in some manner entertaining.
(Kothari, Takeda, Joshi& Pandey, 2002).
Brij Kothari is currently studying the impact of SLS on illiterate and emergent level
readers in India. His application is an experimental presentation format for mass consumption on
public television. Basically, he takes popular movie music and adds strong subtitling and
presents the product as a nightly music programme. His activity includes interactive newspaper
contests and mail-in contests to encourage interaction with music scripts. His study has also
previously demonstrated positive impact in phoneme acquisition in a school setting when used
with elementary school children at emergent level reading. (Kothari et al, 2002).
Kothari’s study (2002) demonstrates solid evidence that simply exposing struggling
readers to Same-Language-Subtitled music at their instructional reading levels has a positive
impact on reading growth. The continued study, however, examined illiterate and emergent level
readers across a broadcast population, not a high school special education classroom. Further, his
study and most related studies did not consider the rapidly developing field of media editing
software and multi-media presentations, which now allows teachers and students to have greater
control over SLS presentations for classroom activities.
Media Presentation and Editing Programs.
There are a number of computer programs that can be used to develop various forms of
SLS presentations. The easiest approach is to present lyrics via Microsoft’s PowerPoint
presentation program while running sound on a separate system. There are programs, such as
Dart Karaoke Builder and Karafun that readily produce customized DVD presentations.
Same Language Subtitling 19
According to T. Rhyne (2004) of the Learning Technology Service of North Carolina
State University there are six basic steps associated with creating subtitled content for classroom
presentation:
(1) Obtain the video and audio source;
(2) Build a text transcript in electronic format of the audio content;
(3) Synchronize the text with audio and video;
(4) Combine continuous text, audio and video into one multimedia file;
(5) Copy the completed composition to storage format;
(6) Make Subtitled Content accessible for presentation.
In the process, step two and three are the most time and labor intensive since this requires the
student (or teacher) to listen to audio multiple times and to create and match and synchronize a
text to the audio content. (Rhyne, 2004)
Chapter III: Outcomes and Evaluation
Goals and Expectations
The goal of this study was to determine whether the addition of SLS activities to high
school SPED reading classes could demonstrate benefit in reading growth. Students should
experience increased engagement and enjoyment in reading and language activities. In addition
the study will explore what SLS tools, activities and resources work well in the classroom and
possible additional avenues for research exploration.
In 2000, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in their Report
of the National Reading Panel after studying many different reading programs developed basic
guideline to determine program efficacy. Based on that recommendation this study will use the
following goals to determine benefit:
Same Language Subtitling 20

Students in the target population who receive 12 weeks of exposure to SLS activities
at minimal of 15 minutes per day (in addition to their regular academic classes) will
demonstrate an 18 week improvement as reflected by standardized testing.

Students in the target population who receive 12 weeks of exposure to SLS activities
at minimal of 15 minutes per day (in addition to their regular academic classes) will
demonstrate increased on-task reading behaviors as reflected by teacher observation
and documentation.

Students in the target population who receive 12 weeks of exposure to SLS activities
at minimal of 15 minutes per day (in addition to their regular academic classes) will
demonstrate increased engaged reading behaviors as reflected by teacher and student
survey and interviews.
Expected Outcomes
For the students participating in the intervention portion of this study there were several
expected outcomes. First, with the addition of SLS activities during what is primarily class
transition times it was predicted that students would spend increased class time on a readingrelated activity. Second, it was predicted that as the intervention progressed students would
increase engagement on what is basically a repetition reading activity and decrease resistance to
other classroom reading activities. While not actually a goal of this study, the third predicted
outcome was that students would increase their use of technology both in and out of classroom.
Fourth, and most important, it was predicted that students would demonstrate a positive reading
growth as measured by comparison of pre- and post testing.
Same Language Subtitling 21
For the researcher, there are also additional outcomes to this study. This Action Research
Project should expand the researcher’s exploration of technology and multi-media tools and help
to develop tools, activities and materials that support classroom reading activities.
Measurement of Outcomes
This study followed quantitative and qualitative research methodology. This
consisted of reviewing of academic records and conducting pre- and post treatment assessments
and surveys covering the previous instructional year and the three-month intervention period.
Pre- and post implementation scores on Accelerated Reader’s STAR computerized reading
assessment were tracked and compared to annual Stanford Diagnostic Reading Exams. Surveys
and interviews of both teachers and students were conducted. In addition, the research team
documented on-task behaviors during various reading activities for comparative purposes. The
results will be presented on comparative charts, graphs and tables depicting the results of
observations and surveys.
Analysis of Results
Starting in November, 2004 the writer began a review of SPED IEP files. Before the
intervention period began SPED English students and Mainstreamed English students were
retested using Accelerated Reader’s STAR reading assessment. Students were selected for study
based a number of criteria. First, the students had to be in an actual CHS English class, either
SPED or General Education classes. Second the students had to have taken the STAR test within
Same Language Subtitling 22
the two week time period before study implementation and their STAR scores had to be reliable
when compared to previous two years of SDRT and STAR. Scores that reflected a reading level
greater than previous high scores were automatically included in possible reliable data group.
Scores that reflected a loss greater than time period since recent highest-test scores were
automatically eliminated from reliable data group. The remaining student test data was then
examined to determine if the variance of scores predicted the Pearson product-moment
correlation was greater than actual variance.
This resulted in a base study group of 149 students whose pre-test data could be
considered reliable for reading growth comparative purposes. Data was also collected on the
remaining 78 students whose pre-test data could not be considered reliable. The quantitative test
results will be used to determine project success.
Finally, there was ongoing teacher observation as the research progressed. The researcher
evaluated student reaction to activities, and developed rubrics to assess on-task behaviors and
reading engagement, and the writer produced comparative charts, graphs and tables depicting the
results of observations and surveys.
Chapter IV: Solution Strategy
Statement of Problem
At CHS during the 2003-2004 school year many SPED students experienced less than a
quarter of a year growth per year in their reading skills. CHS’s Learning Disabled population
averaged reading levels that are more than three years lower than their regular education
counterparts. In comparison to their regular education counterparts, LD students spend minimal
time and focus on reading activities and tend to be resistant to many reading activities.
Same Language Subtitling 23
Discussion
A major factor effecting Reading Growth is: time spent on task and engagement in
reading activities. This study examined the impact of incorporating Same-Language-Subtitling
(SLS) music/reading activities into special education English classes. The writer predicted that
SLS and multi-media technology would increase student engagement and time-on-task
behaviors, and further that there would be a corresponding impact on reading growth.
Simply stated, “SLS is the use of existing subtitling technology applied to song-based"
media content (Kothari, 2000, pg. 135). This is similar to Karaoke, where the subtitled text
changes color in exact rhythm to the lyrics (or to the dialogue) in a manner that allows even a
non-literate viewer to visually track the words as they are performed. With SLS, the audio model
can be very dynamic, the instructor can choose lyric or script at any reading level, and teacher
and students have the option of creating their own SLS presentations. The available technology
allows students to interact with subtitling media as a process and they can create their own SLS
multi-media presentations. This allows for a wide range of repetitive and rehearsed reading
opportunities. This technology allows music and audio-visual presentations to reinforce what is
basically a repetitive reading activity. While music strongly reinforces this activity, any audio
model can be used as a starting base.
For example, a class would follow a cloze reading script while viewing a projected SLS
video. The music video then reinforces what is basically a repetitive reading activity, while the
SLS text on screen supplies an accurate visual cuing to the audio model. This activity can easily
include elements of rehearsed reading performance. Just as easily, the activity can be done with
a selection of poetry or famous speech. On a more advanced level, the student would locate an
audio source, create and edit a script, and create his/her own personalized SLS for presentation to
Same Language Subtitling 24
the class. For example, students could even record themselves reading a poem, or giving a
speech to serve as the audio-model for building a presentation. Students can use the Internet to
acquire a script or dialogue and a word processing program, plus video editing software to create
their own SLS reading presentations. The hard work comes in as the student matches his visual
script in time to the audio model.
Description of Selected Solutions
This action study attempted to determine if the addition of Multi-media Same-Language
Subtitling (SLS) Music Activities, similar to Karaoke had a positive impact on reading programs.
The action part of this research project documented the addition of several Same-LanguageSubtitling music activities to daily reading activities.
In this study, the primary activity was added to what is typically class transition time. The
SLS activity was intended to increase engagement during times that students typically are not
directly engaged in reading activities. The basic SLS activity was used during the first 15
minutes and last five minutes of each class and included passing times. Students viewed a three
to five minute selection of musical video with subtitling repeated a minimal of three times. The
activity always began before students arrived in class, and students were trained to quietly enter
and begin activity upon arrival. The activity included simple worksheets and echo reading singalongs. The idea was to promote the active tracking of the subtitling.
Source materials came from popular story musicals containing lyrics within students’
zone of proximal development (ZPD). Renaissance Learning’s STAR reading assessment
program was used to determine target ZPD Levels. Microsoft Word Readability tool was used to
determine lyric material reading difficulty or Grade Equivalency. Materials were paired with
class reading activities, for example, Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats with the Musical Cats,
Same Language Subtitling 25
The Musical Les Miserables with Hugo’s novel. Materials were selected to support instruction of
reading strategies, story elements and vocabulary from regular reading assignments. The
materials for this portion of activity were primarily teacher directed or generated, and provided a
model for student produced SLS presentations.
In this activity students did:
(1) Enter class and obtain text worksheet;
(2) Watch in-progress 3 to 5 minute SLS presentation; (presentation played between classes and
completed three repetitions after beginning bell).
(3) Complete worksheet text related to video.
(4) Complete regularly scheduled classroom reading activities.
(5) Repeat observation of SLS during last 5 minutes of class (as schedule allowed).
In addition, students also participated in existing class reading activities: read-a-longs using
audio books with matching text, directed readings and Sustained Silent Reading (SSR).
In the secondary SLS activity students produced subtitled presentations. These activities
focused on using the computer programs to create and manipulate subtitling with audio and
visual files. Students produced karaoke or subtitled video presentations for classroom use. This
required that one day a week be scheduled on a regular schedule to conduct additional student
technology workshops until students were comfortable with independent use of editing
technologies. This activity started with students producing presentation of lyric/music
presentations featuring their favorite song and progressed to work products for class use.
This activity followed T. Rhyne’s six steps associated with creating subtitled content for
classroom presentation.
As part of producing SLS media students did:
Same Language Subtitling 26
(1) Obtain the video and audio source;
(2) Build a text transcript in electronic format of the audio content;
(3) Synchronize the text with audio and video;
(4) Combine continuous text, audio and video into one multimedia file;
(5) Copy the completed composition to storage format;
(6) Make Subtitled Content accessible for presentation.
As previously noted, in this process, step two and three were the most time and labor intensive
since this required the student to listen to audio multiple times and to create, match and
synchronize a text to the audio content. (Rhyne, 2004) This product was then be used for class
presentation of SLS, while fellow students then proof check text and synchronization. These
activities created a highly interactive language experience.
For each class the writer did:
(1)
Use data on group average grade equivalent reading levels to choose source
materials within each groups Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), or at a level
to be sufficiently challenging for each group.
(2)
Create various SLS presentations for 30 entry class activities, and directed student
created presentations for an additional 30 class presentations.
(3)
Document group time on-task on daily activities.
(4)
Create various types of script worksheets to accompany each SLS targeting
various aspects of poetry, parts of speech or vocabulary, and guide students in
creating worksheets for student generated SLS.
(5)
Keep a running record of all materials used and of addition reading activities for
each class.
Same Language Subtitling 27
(6)
Continue to implement and modify activities as needed.
Calendar
September, 2004
The writer began process of reviewing IEP files and comparing STAR and
SDRT scores.
January 31, 2005
The writer asked permission from school and special education
administration to conduct action research project. The writer asked permission
from administration to hand out student and teacher surveys, and to send project
introduction/ student participation letters home to parents.
January 31, 2005 – February 18, 2005
Surveys were distributed to all teaching members at the high school
dealing with SPED English participating students, and to all SPED English
students. The writer reviewed assessment records for target population.
February 16, 2005
The writer will met with the school principal, SPED English teachers,
parent resource coordinator, and interested to discuss findings of preliminary
survey and aspects of ARP intervention. The group discussed proposed solution
strategies and brainstormed materials and activities. The writer received
permission to move forward with project implementation.
February 18, 2005– February 25, 2005
SPED English teachers administer Accelerated Reader’s STAR
assessment to all SPED English students. Data was being recorded by individual
student and by class placement. Data was then be evaluated by role groups and
reading growth was compared to previous three-month period and SDRT to
identify tests that could be considered reliable. If student scored lower than
previous SDRT, his or her data was not included in trial group. If base testing data
was not available during pre-test period student was not included in data
comparison groups. From 227 Sped students in an English class setting, this
resulted in 149 students. Of the writer’s class, 51 of 65 students made the basic
qualifications. Second of 43 students who failed because STAR testing was below
previous SDRT, students were screened to examine whether the difference was
within the range of a time period loss since previous test (i.e. it has been 3 months
since SDRT and student has scored 3 months below previous testing) The original
plan was to screen the second group to determine if the score fell within the
published STAR/SDRT reliability range, however all cases were clearly beyond
test range and could be classified as false low scores. The testing group felt that
Same Language Subtitling 28
including these scores in final data would unfairly demonstrate students making
better growth than actual ability levels. Data was kept on all students.
February 28, 2005
Twelve-week implementation began. For the next 60 school days students
began and ended each class with a SLS viewing activity for a minimum of 15
minutes per day.
Students typically:
o
(1) Entered class and obtained text worksheets;
o
(2) Watched in-progress 3 to 5 minute SLS presentation; (presentation played
between classes and completely three times after the beginning of class bell
ringing).
o
(3) Completed daily worksheet text related to video.
o
(4) Completed regularly scheduled classroom reading activities.
o
(5) Casually repeated observation of SLS during last 5 minutes of class (as
schedule allowed and during transitions).
It should be noted that scheduling activity in this manner was a very efficient use of time. The
projector and amplifier took students focus as they entered the room, and this quickly eliminated
the normal classroom entry conversations and bickering. The writer typically sang along with
presentation while taking care of basic housekeeping/classroom management chores. Classroom
announcements were handled with PowerPoint immediately after SLS followed by short
story/vocabulary activity/and or discussions. Most days also included an additional reading
activity –either audio book readings or Sustained Silent Readings followed by review of
homework assignments.
February 28, 2005 to March 4, 2005
Implementation Week #1.
The writer prepped SLS and reading activities using familiar popular lyrics at each
groups average Independent Reading Level (IRL). This included Buffalo Soldier, By the
Rivers of Babylon, All Star, This Kiss, Paint it Black Class Readings were pulled from
various websites related to each artist.
Introduced SLS activities, and continued basic activity for next 60 school days.
During first week the writer:
1) Trained students as to procedure to enter classroom while a film is going.
2) Emphasized that SLS will play on a loop from before class begins and repeat a
minimum of three times after the bell rings. As needed, point out that those students
Same Language Subtitling 29
who arrived early, on time and are quickly on task will have a better chance of
completing work scripts.
3) Encouraged students to gather information from the SLS rather than copying directly
from fellow classmates work.
4) Encouraged students to read along (or sing-along) with subtitling.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #1:
i.
Locate your favorite song and hand copy the lyrics. Be prepared to
hand in one copy and discuss on Friday. Cite Sources.
a) Note: Friday class covered the relationship between lyrics and
poetry, the different language richness of different authors and
genres, the social context and appropriateness of various
selections.
March 7, 2005 to March 11, 2005
Implementation Week #2. Continued basic activity for next 55 school days. Teacher
prepped activities using popular musical movie lyrics at each class group’s average ZPD
level. Materials included ‘Beauty and the Beast”, ‘Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor
Dream Coat” Continued previous Audio-Book Readings from Harry Potter 3.
1) Encourage students to gather information from the SLS rather than copying directly
from fellow classmates work. Encourage students to read along (or sing-along) with
subtitling.
2) Technical Training on Computer. As these classes had already gone through basic
training in computer usage and have all been issued Internet Usage Licenses, some of
the processes for finding and editing lyrics only needed a brief review. Explored use
of Internet to find lyric resources, review applicable copyright and fair-use rules.
Reviewed applications of Microsoft Word, especially spelling and grammar and
readability tools.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #2:
1) Locate a favorite song and edit the lyrics using Word to create a script worksheet
similar to class activity. Be sure to create a document that is visually appealing, and
fairly easy to follow if this was to become a full SLS activity. Be sure to use grammar
and spelling check, and take note of where these tools would like to make changes in
your script. Do not change your script unless the change will also match the
performance of the song. Cite Sources.
Be prepared to hand in one copy and discuss on Friday.
Same Language Subtitling 30
Note:
Friday class discussion covered the relationship between lyrics and poetry,
the different language richness of different authors and genres, the social
context and appropriateness of various selections.
How to edit song lyrics so that Word can recognize complete sentences, or
exclamations. Cover readability statistics and how that tool can be used to
impact both reading and writing.
March 14, 2005 to March 18, 2005
Implementation Week #3. Continue basic activity for next 50 school days.
Teacher previously prepped activities using Broadway musical lyrics at each group’s
average ZPD level.
1) Encouraged students to gather information from the SLS rather than copying
directly from fellow classmates work. Encouraged students to read along (or
sing-along) with subtitling.
2) Technical Training on Computer.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #3:
Locate a favorite song and edit the lyrics using Word to create a script worksheet similar
to class activity. Use basic text document to create a PPT presentation. This is first
student application of part of 6 steps to create Subtitled Media (Modified for use with
simple PPT).

(1) Obtain the text and audio source;

(2) Build a text transcript in electronic format to match the audio content;

(3) Make sure that it is possible to manually synchronize the text slides with audio
file.

(4) Copy the completed PPT and separate audio file to a storage format;

(5) Create a script worksheet to accompany PPT.

(6) Make Subtitled Content accessible for presentation. Cite Sources.
Be sure to create a PPT presentation and document that is visually appealing, as this may
be used as a class SLS activity. Cite Sources.
Same Language Subtitling 31
Be prepared to hand in one copy after SPRING BREAK and discuss process this Friday
and products on April 1, 2005.
Note:
Friday class covered:
The relationship between lyrics and poetry, the different language richness
of different authors and genres, the social context and appropriateness of
various selections.
How to edit song lyrics so that Word can recognize complete sentences, or
exclamations. Cover readability statistics and how that tool can be used to
impact both reading and writing.
How various functions of PPT can be used when presenting SLS activities.
March 21, 2005 to March 25, 2005
Spring Break
March 28, 2005 to April 1, 2005
Implementation Week #4. Continue basic activity for next 45 school days.
Teacher will prep activities using Broadway musical lyrics above each group’s average
ZPD level.
1) Technical Training on Computer.
2) Review applicable ownership, copyright and fair-use rules.
3) Introduced/Explored Microsoft Producer for PowerPoint and use of
application to create simple SLS presentations.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #4:
Locate a song that has lyrics within your ZPD range. Edit the lyrics using Word to create
a script worksheet similar to class activity. Use basic text document to create a
PPT/Producer presentation. This is second student application of 6 steps to create
Subtitled Media (Modified for use with simple PPT/Producer).

(1) Obtain the text, photo/video file and audio source;

(2) Build a text transcript in electronic format of the audio content;

(3) Synchronize the text with audio and photo/video file;
Same Language Subtitling 32

(4) Combine continuous text, audio and video into one multimedia file;

(5) Copy the completed composition to storage format;

(6) Make Subtitled Content accessible for presentation. Cite Sources.
Be sure to create a PPT/Producer presentation and text script document that is visually
appealing, as this may be used as a class SLS activity. Cite Sources.
Be prepared to hand in one copy and discuss process this Friday April 1, 2005.
Note:
Friday class discussion covered:
The relationship between lyrics and poetry, the different language richness
of different authors and genres, the social context and appropriateness of
various selections.
Readability statistics and how that tool can be used to impact both reading
and writing.
How various functions of PPT/Producer can be used when presenting SLS
activities.
April 4, 2005 to April 8, 2005
Implementation Week #5. Continued basic activity for next 40 school days. In
addition, student produced SLS viewed on Friday. Student scripts at this stage are
targeting literacy skills.
1) Encourage students to read along (or sing-along) with subtitling.
2) Technical Training on Computer.
3) Explored photo and video media sources, file types, and storage methods.
Review applicable ownership, copyright and fair-use rules.
Introduce/Explore Karafun and Dart Karaoke Builder, and use of
application to create simple Karaoke presentations.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #5:
Choose a song from class’ collection that has lyrics within your ZPD range. Edit the
lyrics using Word to create a script worksheet similar to class activity. Use the text file to
build a basic Karaoke presentation using Karafun or Dart Karaoke Builder. (This is the
Same Language Subtitling 33
third student application of 6 steps to create Subtitled Media and first usage of a program
that can produce stand alone SLS presentations).

(1) Obtain the text, photo/video file and audio source;

(2) Build a text transcript in electronic format of the audio content;

(3) Synchronize the text with audio and photo/video file;

(4) Combine continuous text, audio and video into one multimedia file;

(5) Copy the completed composition to storage format;

(6) Make Subtitled Content accessible for presentation.
Be sure to create a SLS presentation and text script document that is visually appealing,
as this may be used as a class SLS activity. Cite Sources.
Be prepared to hand in one copy next Friday, April 15 2005, but be ready to discuss
process this Friday April 8, 2005.
Note:
Friday, viewed student produced SLS and class discussion covered:
How various functions of PPT/Producer can be used when presenting SLS
activities.
April 11, 2005 to April 15, 2005
Implementation Week #6. Continue basic activity for next 35 school days.
Teacher will prep activities using Broadway musical lyrics above each group’s average
ZPD level. In addition, student produced SLS could be viewed on Friday. Encourage
students to read along (or sing-along) with subtitling.
1) Technical Training on Computer.
Explored Dart Karaoke Builder media sources, file types, and storage
methods.
Reviewed applicable ownership, copyright and fair-use rules.
Introduce/Explore Dart Karaoke Builder, and use of application to
create Karaoke DVD presentations.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #6:
Same Language Subtitling 34
Continue previous week assignment: Choose a song from class’ collection that has lyrics
within your ZPD range. Edit the lyrics using Word to create a script worksheet similar to
class activity. Use the text file to build a Karaoke presentation using Dart Karaoke
Builder. This is still the third student creation Subtitled Media (First program that can
produce stand alone SLS presentations).

(1) Obtain the text, photo/video file and audio source;

(2) Build a text transcript in electronic format of the audio content;

(3) Synchronize the text with audio and photo/video file;

(4) Combine continuous text, audio and video into one multimedia file;

(5) Copy the completed composition to storage format;

(6) Make Subtitled Content accessible for presentation.
Be sure to create a SLS presentation and text script document that is visually appealing,
as this may be used as a class SLS activity. Cite Sources.
Be prepared to hand in one copy Friday, April 15 2005.
Note:
Class discussion covered: Rubric for SLS productions.
How various functions of Dart Karaoke can be used when presenting SLS
activities.
April 18, 2005 to April 22, 2005
Implementation Week #7. Continue basic activity for next 30 school days.
Teacher prepped activities using Broadway musical lyrics above each group’s average
ZPD level (Created mega-mix sampler). In addition, student produced SLS viewed on
Friday--Scripts targeted literacy skills. SLS sources paired to class novel readings and
assignments.
1) Encouraged students to read along (or sing-along) with subtitling.
2) Technical Training on Computer.
Explore zip files, compression files, and storage methods.
Review applicable ownership, copyright and fair-use rules.
Same Language Subtitling 35
Introduce/Explore Vegas 5 and Boris Graffiti, and use of application to
create Multi-media presentations.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #7:
Choose an audio recording from class’ phonographic record/audio tape collection. For
this assignment you will select from our collection of Radio Plays, Speeches and Poetry.
Edit the text using Word to create a script worksheet similar to class activity. Transfer the
audio from analog to digital format and save a media file. By listening to text, create a
script. Use media program of your choice to clean up/clarify the audio file and then create
a SLS presentation. Cite Sources.

(1) Obtain the text, and audio source, use editing program to improve quality of audio
file;

(2) Build a text transcript in electronic format of the audio content;

(3) Synchronize the text with audio and create a photo/video file;

(4) Combine continuous text, audio and video into one multimedia file;

(5) Copy the completed composition to storage format;

(6) Make Subtitled Content accessible for presentation. Cite Sources.
Be sure to create a SLS presentation and text script document that is visually appealing,
as this may be used as a class SLS activity. Cite Sources.
Be prepared to hand in one copy Friday, April 22 2005.
Note:
Friday, April 22, viewed student produced SLS.
Class discussion covered: Rubric for SLS productions.
How various functions of Vegas 5 and additional audio editing programs
can be used when creating new sound files.
April 25, 2005 to April 29, 2005
Implementation Week #8. Continued basic activity for next 25 school days.
Teacher created activities using Broadway musical lyrics above each group’s average
ZPD level. In addition, student produced SLS viewed on Friday. Worksheet/scripts
required targeting literacy skills. SLS sources were also paired to class novel readings
and assignments. Began Cats and Les Miserables, classes began readings from Old
Possum’s Book of Practical Cats and Hugo’s novel –Les Miserables.
Same Language Subtitling 36
1) Encouraged students to read along (or sing-along) with subtitling.
2) Technical Training on Computer.
Explored cut and paste programs, file conversions, and transitions.
Reviewed applicable ownership, copyright and fair-use rules.
Explore Photo and video editing components of Vegas 5 and Boris
Graffiti, and use of application to create Mixed Multi-media
presentations. Introduce Pinnacle 10 video edit.
Additional Homework Assignment from week #8:
Locate photo and/or media files. For this assignment you will find visual media to
illustrate support last weeks assignment. Practice using Edit feature to create movement
in still photos and/or pulling still out of video. Use media program of your choice to add
visual media to the audio file and then create a SLS presentation. Cite Sources.
Friday, April 29, view student produced SLS.
Class discussion covered: Rubric for SLS productions.
How various functions of Vegas 5 and additional photo editing programs
can be used to create mixed file media presentations.
May 2, 2005 to May 6, 2005
Implementation Week #9. Continued basic activity for next 20 school days.
Teacher will prep samples of multi-media presentations. In addition, student produced
SLS could be viewed on Friday. Presentation will be paired to class novel readings and
assignments.
Friday, May 6, 2005 possibly view student produced SLS.
Class discussion can cover:
How various functions of Vegas 5 and Karaoke producing programs plus
additional photo and audio editing programs can be used to create mixed file media
presentations.
May 9, 2005 to May 13, 2005
Implementation Week #10. Continued basic activity for next 15 school days.
Teacher used student prepped multi-media of Broadway presentations.
Same Language Subtitling 37
May 16, 2005 to May 20, 2005
Implementation Week #11. Continued basic activity for next 10 school days.
Class will viewed student-generated samples of SLS multi-media presentations.
May 23, 2005 to May 27, 2005
Implementation Week #12. Continued basic activity for next 5 school days. Class
will view student-generated samples of SLS multi-media presentations.
May 23 – June 7
Follow-up Surveys distributed.
May 27, 2005
Twelve-week implementation period ended, SLS activities continued to
end of school year. Students continue to use activity as schedule allows for
remaining seven days of school year.
May 31 – June 7
SPED English teachers administered Accelerated Reader’s STAR
assessment to all SPED English students. Data was recorded by individual student
and by class placement. Data was evaluated by role groups and charted by reading
growth in comparison to previous assessments. Returned surveys recorded and
evaluated by role groups.
June 8, 2005
The writer held a follow-up meeting with the school administration, and
special education department personnel to discuss initial results on the
implemented activities.
Chapter V: Results
Results
This study examined whether the addition of video based Same-Language-Subtitled
(SLS) music lyrics as a supplementary reading activity could positively impact the problem of
low reading growth in a high school special education English classroom. The goals of the study
included: increasing overall time per class that students participated in a reading activity,
increasing student engagement in reading activities, and improving reading growth rate.
Same Language Subtitling 38
The following table and two charts (Figure 3, Figure 4, and Figure 5) provides a
summary of classroom time spent weekly on various activities.
First, the writer anticipated that the inclusion of SLS activities in his Special Education English
classroom would result in
Table 1
Summary
Minutes per week on task
Intervention group
Pre-Intervention Intervention Mean
Weekly Mean
Week 8-12
increased class time on
reading tasks. This first goal
Total Reading
95
105
SLS
0
90
Video
25
0
was met, reading time
increased and time on
reading related activities
205
Other Activities
Figure 3
130
more than doubled.
Classroom activities were monitored by the Special Education Staff
before the intervention period and during the
We e kly Class Activitie s
Study Group Pre -inte rve ntion
29%
last four weeks of the intervention. For the
Reading
Intervention Group, average weekly reading
SLS
0%
63%
8%
Video
activity times increased from 95 minutes to 105
other
minutes per week, further this increase does not
include the SLS activity. When the SLS activity
Figure 4
(90 minutes or 28%) is combined with class
Weekly Class Activities
Intervention Group Week 8-12
32%
reading activities (105 minutes or 32%), total
Reading
SLS
40%
Video
reading related activities increased from 29% to
60% of class time available, or from 95 minutes
other
0%
Figure 5
28%
per week to 195 minutes per week. The
Same Language Subtitling 39
following table (Figure 6) provides a more detailed analysis of averaged number of minutes per
week for various classroom activities.
TABLE 2
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES – INTERVENTION GROUP
Pre-Intervention
Minutes per week on task
Week 8 - 12
Classroom management/ announcements
Use of Video/SLS
Use of video w/out captioning
Use of Video with Captioning/ no immediate response
activity
Use of Video with Captioning w/active response activity
Sustained Silent Reading
Group Reading-Audio-Books
Group Reading-Teacher Read
Group Reading -Student led
Lecture
Class Discussions
Written Responses
Group Work/Cooperative Learning Activities
Student Free-time
59
0
0
25
12
90
0
0
0
18
47
19
11
31
41
43
20
11
0
25
60
10
20
20
30
28
30
0
Figure 6
Table 3 illustrates that much of the reading-related time gain during the intervention period
comes from what was previously non-academic instructional time. Second, the writer anticipated
that the inclusion of SLS activities in his Special Education English classroom would result not
only in increased time but also in increased engagement in reading tasks. This second goal was
met as evaluated by observation rubrics conducted by SPED staff. The following chart (Figure 7)
illustrates the change in observed focus during group reading activities such as Sustained Silent
Reading and with reading along with Audio Books.
Same Language Subtitling 40
Engaged Reading Rubric
Poor - Great
4
Week #12
Week #6
Week #9
Week #12
2.85
3.15
3.2
Week #6
Pre-
Week #3
1.77
2.69
3
2
Week #9
Week #3
Pre-
1
0
Rubric scale 0 - 4
Observations during reading activities
Figure 7
Further, student feedback gathered through student surveys and summarized by the following
chart (Figure 8) indicates positive attitude improvements on reading related activities. During the
pre-intervention
Resonses to Reading Survey
survey 35 % of the
5
intervention group
4
pre -
3
least favorable
2
1
responded with the
post
Fun/Enjoyment
Actively Read
Daily Use
Independence
pre -
1.35
1.15
1.85
2.5
post
3.95
3.25
4.05
3.66
Figure 8
reaction to reading
activities in
general, while post survey the entire group rated themselves at average or
better in all categories. Theses two qualitative data sources indicate that both student attitude and
engagement with reading activities improved over the span of the study intervention.
Same Language Subtitling 41
Third, the writer anticipated that the inclusion of SLS activities in his Special Education
English classroom would result in improved reading growth as reflected by the STAR and SDRT
reading assessments and would demonstrate at least an 18 week improvement over the 12 week
intervention. This third goal was met as mean reading scores improved from GE 6.7 to 7.4, or 25
weeks growth over the 12 week school period. The following chart (Figure 9) illustrates the
Reading Growth by Grade Equivalency
8
7
Pre-
6
Post
5
Previous 12
weeks
.
Intervention
.
Following 12
weeks
Summer
Pre-
6.4
6.7
7.7
Post
6.6
7.4
7.5
Figure 9
mean growth in reading levels for the Intervention Group over a 36 week period as assessed both
by STAR and the SDRT. During the previous assessment period intervention group
demonstrated a Scaled Score (SS) mean growth of 24 points or GE 0.2 which is equivalent to a
7.6 weeks mean growth over a 12 week period. In comparison, during the intervention time
period this group made a gain of SS 66 points, or GE 0.7 which is equivalent to 25 weeks
growth. The following 12 weeks reflects the group’s end-of-year performance on the SDRT and
the reading loss over the summer intercession. While there was a SS 17 point loss over the
Same Language Subtitling 42
summer break, these students began the new school year with the gains they had made during the
intervention period.
Assessment data was gathered and analyzed for all CHS SPED students taking English
classes over a twelve month period from September 2004 to September 2005. The original
intention of this study was that the other three SPED English classrooms or that the five
mainstreamed English classrooms could provide a control group for evaluating comparative data.
The study team and the contributing teachers reviewed the accumulated testing data and class
placements and the team agreed that the data comparisons could not be matched to create a
proper control group. The data is however interesting for discussion purposes and setting the
study within the school community.
The following two charts illustrate the difference in SPED certification between the CHS
SPED population and the group placed within the
intervention classroom. The major difference is that
CHS SPED by Certification 2005
12%
13%
6%
53%
16%
LD
ED
ADHD
MI
OHI
Figure 10
the intervention group statistically had higher
percentages of Learning Disabled (LD) students,
Emotionally Impaired (ED), and
Hyperactive/Attention Disorder (ADHD). These
three groups together are 94% of intervention
Intervention Group by Certification
4%
2%
22%
18%
Figure 11
54%
LD
ED
ADHD
MI
OHI
group. The resulting remaining student pool had
limited opportunities to create a matched group.
For example, 55% of all CHS ADHD students
were in the control group classroom, four of these
students were part of the ‘additional’ student
Same Language Subtitling 43
group. Similarly, SPED group four had a much higher percentage of MI students and low counts
on EI and ADHD. Overall result is that while similar mean reading levels are present in three
groups (Intervention Group, Combined other SPED English Students, and Mainstreamed SPED
Students) a matched group does not exist.
The study group consisted of 65 students, of which 51 were designated as the study data
intervention group. The remaining fourteen students were not part of the original 149 students
whose STAR pre-testing data corresponded to the yearly SDRT assessments. The research group
predicted that including these students would artificially inflate growth scores, as there was a
high probability that their pretest scores were lower than their actual abilities. These students
participated in the intervention classroom and in other class groups but their data were not
included in group mean. Figure 12 compares the mean Scaled Score (SS) between the four data
groups: the intervention group (Study Group -51), additional students participating in the
intervention activities, the combined remaining students in SPED English classrooms, and
mainstreamed SPED English students. The graphic illustrates that including the additional testing
Mean Growth in Scaled Score
Intervention 12 Weeks
Scaled Score
80
60
40
20
0
Change in Scaled Score
Figure 12
Study Group (51)
Additional (14) in
Study Class
2nd, 3rd, 4th
SPED (123)
Mainstreamed
SPED (16)
66
70
28
14
Same Language Subtitling 44
data would only have resulted in greater mean growth than the intervention group actually
attained. Data for this additional set of students is included only to visually demonstrate that
separating their data from main study group did not benefit the performance scores of the study
group.
The process of collaboration on the assessment and data collection may also have
positively affected student engagement in reading activities. The increased testing of students on
the STAR program, the resulting availability of reading data and the increased presence of
classroom observations also impacted video and reading activities in both additional SPED
classrooms and in the five mainstream English classrooms. The following table (Figure 13)
illustrates the similarities and differences between the various SPED settings and the mainstream
classroom settings and the change in activities that occurred during the intervention period.
TABLE 3
CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS PRE-INTERVENTION PLUS MEAN OF WEEKS 8-12
TOTAL MINUTES PER WEEK -DETAILED
4 SPED Classrooms plus
Interventi
SPED-2
SPED-3
SPED-4
SPED
Mean of 5 General Ed.
on Group
Mean
Classrooms
Mean
Pre- 8-12 Pre- 8-12 Pre- 8-12 Pre- 8-12 Pre- 8-12
Activities:
Classroom management/
59
12
82
62
69
75
43
63
65
67
announcements
0
90
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Use of Video/SLS
Use of video w/out
0
0
0
0
60
0
111 125 57
42
captioning
Use of Video with
25
0
32
0
0
80
0
0
11
27
Captioning/ no immediate
response activity
Use of Video with
0
0
0
40
0
0
0
0
0
13
Captioning w/active
response activity
18
25
12
20
0
0
0
0
4
7
Sustained Silent Reading
47
60
0
60
0
0
0
0
0
20
Group Reading-AudioBooks
19
10
41
0
0
0
16
0
19
0
Group Reading-Teacher
Read
11
20
21
0
42
20
17
20
27
13
Group Reading -Student
led
Lecture
31
20
55
60
61
66
58
41
58
56
Class Discussions
41
30
32
40
37
30
50
40
40
37
General
Ed. Mean
Pre- 8-12
64
50
0
43
0
0
22
70
8
20
6
0
9
0
12
10
10
4
75
28
64
30
Same Language Subtitling 45
Written Responses
Group Work/Cooperative
Learning Activities
Student Free-time
43
20
28
30
27
0
30
0
20
16
33
0
9
0
15
0
56
5
26
0
35
18
40
26
11
0
23
13
20
21
31
21
25
18
4
2
Classroom Observations Pre-Intervention/ Mean of weeks 8-12
Total minutes per week - Summary
Reading
Video
SLS
Other
Intervention Group
95
105
25
0
0
90
205 205
SPED 2
74
80
32
40
0
0
219 205
SPED 3
42
20
60
80
0
0
223 225
SPED4
SPED mean
33
20
50
30
111 125 68
82
0
0
0
0
181 180 207 213
Gen Ed (5)
28
23
73
90
0
0
224 212
Figure 13
During the course of this study, several teachers modified how they use video in their classroom
and several also increased directed reading activities. Notice that all five of the regular education
classrooms and two of the SPED classrooms began using video more actively, these classrooms
added captioning and response activities. In light of this study, it is also interesting to note that
that during the final weeks of the intervention the time spent on SLS activities was equal to the
time the regular education classes used video and only eight minutes more than the average
usage of video by the other SPED classes.
The following chart (Figure 14) illustrates mean reading growth over a 36 week period
for the three data groups: the intervention group, other SPED English classrooms and
mainstreamed SPED students as evaluated by both STAR and the SDRT. In comparison to both
themselves and to other SPED students the SLS intervention group did demonstrate marked
improvement in reading growth.
Same Language Subtitling 46
Figure 14
The intervention period ended two weeks before the end of the school year. Significantly, the
intervention group tested GE 0.3 higher just before the summer break began, and only lost GE
0.2 over the summer intercession.
Discussion
This action research project was designed to examine the potential of incorporating
Same-Language-Subtitling or Subtitled Music (SLS) as a repeated reading activity within
Special Education English classrooms. The goal was to improve reading engagement and
growth. The intervention was designed to use the presentation strength of SLS and technology to
increase the amount of class time that students would be actively engaged with reading text. The
basic SLS activity involved students repeatedly viewing a short SLS video (typically Broadway
Same Language Subtitling 47
Musicals), while completing response worksheets (typically cloze script). SLS was used as an
entrance activity during transition and first 15 minutes of each class. Students quickly mastered
the technology and programs to both create materials and run the reading activity semiindependently. Overall, student attitude, engagement and reading comprehension levels
improved during the course of this study.
This action research project addressed two major goals: raising reading levels and
determining Same-Language-Subtitling’s impact on reading activities and reading growth. The
basic goal of raising reading levels and increasing engaged reading was met. In addition there is
strong evidence that as part of classroom activities SLS can support reading growth.
Significantly, most research on struggling readers indicates that the amount of time a student
spends in reading related activities is the major factor in predicting subsequent reading growth.
Sheer reading volume, how much a child will read in and out of school has a major impact on
reading rate, fluency, and academic growth. In addition, studies have shown that people with
even just a mild reading impairment do not read for fun, and that attitude to reading activities can
also have a major impact (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998a; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998b).
Same-Language-Subtitling has the potential to address these concerns. SLS as a reading and
presentation format can have significant impact on student focus and attitude.
Recommendations
Same-Language-Subtitled activities can be a very effective learning tool for classroom
use. If a teacher is interested in incorporating this approach or if another researcher is interesting
in either replicating or expanding upon the research study discussed above, here are a few
recommendations:
Same Language Subtitling 48
1. SLS is a technology intensive approach. First, if possible use the best technology
available. This study used a 2000 lumens projector, this allowed for the equivalent of
a 72 inch screen viewable in classroom light. This allowed even traditional subtitling
to be easily viewed from the entire room. In addition the study used a good quality
sound amplifier and speakers with wireless microphone and remote control
capabilities, this gave the classroom teacher control of volume levels and the ability
to interject instructions over the volume of the music. SLS materials were created on
a Dell Precision 670.
Second, this approach requires that researcher become adept with both presentation
technology and multi-media programs and resources. Additional resources can be
found at: Same Language Subtitling Home .
2. Choose dynamic source materials. This study used some popular music; however, the
majority of activities were done using Broadway Musicals. Choose music with lyrics
at a reading level well above class mean, in this study the students responded
particularly well to Les Miserables, which has lyrics ranging from G.E. 6.0 to G.E.
12+. While music seems to work best, the students also responded well to famous
speeches; try Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream”. Do not worry about materials
being out student’s comfort zone; prior to this project the participating students had
rarely been exposed to the musical genre and were unfamiliar with Les Miserables.
3. Keep the students actively engaged in SLS activity. Always use a response
worksheet. This can range from filling in simple phonics-level cloze worksheets, to
rewriting or translating musical scenes into contemporary stage dialogue, to karaoke
renditions, to performing multi-character scenes.
Same Language Subtitling 49
Use the students, they will quickly master the both the presentation technology and
they can help prepare SLS media. Do not use video in classroom as a passive
receptive activity. At the very least, for all classroom video viewing use the
captioning and a response worksheet. Lyrics and transcripts are available for most
music and videos. Devise worksheets and activities that force students to repeatedly
track text while listening to audio model. The key element is active and repetitive.
These recommendations should make the process as a whole, go much smoother. The intention
of this study was to demonstrate that SLS could be used as a classroom reading activity; please
remember that this approach is only a presentation format and is dependent upon a teacher’s
creative use and student engagement.
Plans for Dissemination
The presentation portion of this project was presented at a HSTA reading and technology
workshop on October 10, 2005 and will be presented again on October 27, 2005 for a district
level workshop for reading teachers at University of Hawaii.
This report and related PowerPoint presentation and additional resources for using music
and multi-media as a reading activity are available online at: Same Language Subtitling Home .
In addition final copies of this report will be distributed to the research team, school
administration.
Finally, the researcher is preparing to submit a related methodology article for
publication to the Journal of Current Issues in Technology and Education (CITE).
References
Same Language Subtitling 50
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Same Language Subtitling 52
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Same Language Subtitling 53
Instruction [Online]. Available:
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Same Language Subtitling 54
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Same Language Subtitling 55
APPENDIX A
Reading Surveys
Same Language Subtitling 56
For each statement circle your response.
Period # _______
1. I read for fun.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
2. I avoid reading.
Strongly agree Agree
3. I read in most classes.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
4. I need a lot of help in reading.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
5. I complete my class readings on time.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
6. I get upset when I have to read.
Strongly agree Agree
7. Reading is boring.
Strongly agree Agree
8. I read on my own for more than an hour each day.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
9. I only read when I am forced to read.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
10. I do not need to read.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
Same Language Subtitling 57
Teachers, for each statement circle your response.
1. My students read for fun.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
2. My students avoid reading.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
3. My students read in most classes.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
4. My students need help in reading.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
5. My students complete class readings on time.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
6. My students get upset when they have to read.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
7. For many of my students reading is boring.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
8. My students read independently for more than an hour each day.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
9. My students only read when they are forced to read.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
10. My students feel they do not need to read.
Strongly agree Agree
Neither agree/disagree
Same Language Subtitling 58
APPENDIX B
Reading Rubric
Same Language Subtitling 59
Weekly Classroom Observation Sheet: Reading Rubric.
Classroom: _________ Teacher: _____________
Period: ______ Date: From _______ to ________
Reading Activity Rubric
4
3
2
1
0
Student was
on task
entire time
3 of 3
checks
student
was with
the activity
2 of 3
checks
student
was with
the activity
1 of 3
checks
student was
with the
activity
Student
avoided
task
Student
supported
class focus
on activity
Student
controlled
his/her
own focus
Student
mostly
controlled
his own
focus
Student had
trouble
controlling
focus
Student
distracted
class focus
Student
appeared
actively
engaged in
story
Student
appeared
engaged in
story
Student
appeared
Passively
engaged in
reading
Student
appeared
bored by
reading
Student
appeared
extremely
bored by
reading
Total = 0 to 12. Please rate each student
Student
0 – 12 points
Student
0 – 12 points
Student
0 – 12 points
Same Language Subtitling 60
APPENDIX C
Reading Observation Sheet
Same Language Subtitling 61
Weekly Classroom Observation Sheet: Daily minutes per activity.
Classroom: _________ Teacher: _____________
Period: ______ Date: From _______ to ________
M
T
W
TH
Classroom management/ announcements
Use of Video/SLS
Use of video w/out captioning
Use of Video with Captioning/
no immediate response activity
Use of Video with Captioning w/active response activity
Sustained Silent Reading
Group Reading-Audio-Books
Group Reading-Teacher Reading
Group Reading –Students Reading
Lecture
Class Discussions
Written Responses
Group Work/Cooperative Learning Activities
Student Free-time
Other?
Summary:
Total Reading
SLS
Video
Other
Please sign and date! Return form to box # 60 Questions? Call me at 478-9444
Observations taken by: ____________________
__________________
____________________
____________________
Thank you for your assistance,
W. Greg McCall P-10
__________________
F
Same Language Subtitling 62
APPENDIX C
Application for the Conduct of Research Using Human Subjects
Same Language Subtitling 63
University of Phoenix Material
University of Phoenix
Institutional Review Board
Application for the Conduct of Research Using Human Subjects
The University of Phoenix Institutional Review Board (IRB) must review all requests to conduct research
involving human subjects. Present the request in TYPEWRITTEN form and in non-technical terms
understandable to the IRB. The application for initial processing may be faxed to 480-968-1159, Attn:
Craig Swenson. The original document with signatures must also be mailed to: Office of the Provost,
University of Phoenix, 4615 East Elwood St, Phoenix, AZ 85040.
Please note that it is the researcher’s responsibility to give complete information about the benefits and
risks entailed by the proposal. Please submit a copy of your complete proposal and the informed consent
form along with all materials and background information to assist the IRB in its review. If you are faculty
and/or staff, a copy of your curriculum vitae or biographical sketch is also required.
Name of Researcher(s)
1. W.Greg McCall
Location / Department
*Affiliation
**Type of Research
UNIVERSITY OF
PHOENIX ONLINE
STUDENT
RESEARCH PROJECT
2.
3.
* Student, Faculty or Staff
** Research Project, Dissertation, ***Funded Research or Other (Explain Briefly)
*** If research is funded, please complete the following:
AGENCY SUBMITTED TO
SUBMISSION DATE
LOCATION OF PROJECT
Same Language Subtitling 64
Project Title:
Subtitling Music and Multi-media Technologies Impact on Reading in a Special
Education Classroom
1. General Purpose of the Research: The Purpose of this study is to determine if addition
of Same Language Subtitling Music Activities, similar to Karaoke and use of presentation
technologies can have a positive impact on a reading program.
2. Project Description: The IRB must have completed and detailed information about what will
happen with or to subjects in order to evaluate or estimate the potential risks.
Explain whether subjects will encounter the possibility of stress or psychological, social, physical,
or legal risks that are greater than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the
performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests. Assurance from the
investigator, no matter how strong, will not substitute for a detailed description of the transactions
between investigator and subject(s). If a questionnaire is used, attach a copy. Describe when
visual or auditory stimuli, chemical substances, or other measures might create a risk. In all cases,
the IRB will require documentation.
Summarize the Research Methods & Data Collection Technique:
At J.B. C H School, in one of four high school Special Education Reading Classrooms two subtitled music
activities will be added to existing reading program.
Students will view subtitled music presentations during the first ten minutes and last five minutes of each
class, time that is typically occupied with transition activities. These presentations are intended to be
strong models of written and oral language. Activity will possibly include class discussions, written
response or activity worksheets.
Presentations will also use several digital multimedia programs, such as : Microsoft Word, Microsoft
PowerPoint, Microsoft Producer, Pinnacle Systems Studio 8, Dart Karaoke Studio CDG, PowerKaraoke,
Karaoke Builder Studio. These computer programs used in combination can produce almost proffesional
level Karaoke style subtitled presentations with music and or audio speech. The source material will
typically be musical theatre with lyrics slightly above students reading levels.
Presentations will use a 2000 lumens projector, a laptop computer, a sound system with microphones, and
a DVD player.
Students will also recieve training in technology and programs to produce thier own presentations.
Assessment will be done using existing data. The Special Education Classes already use Accellerated
Reader’s computerized assessment tool and the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test. Data will be recorded
in a way that student identities and personal information are kept confidential.
Students and teachers will also respond to a reading survey (see attached).
Same Language Subtitling 65
3. Will the subjects fall under the Federal guidelines for vulnerable subjects listed below:
The guidelines are defined at http://ohrp.osophs.dhhs.gov/smap.htm.
No
a. Less than 18 years of age?
Yes ( x )
No (
)
b. In prison?
Yes ( )
No ( x )
c. Pregnant women?
Yes ( )
No ( x )
d. Cognitively impaired?
Yes ( )
No ( x )
Additionally,
e. Will the subjects be deceived or misled in any way?
Yes (
) No ( x )
f. Will subjects be students of the University of Phoenix?
Yes (
) No ( x )
Yes (
) No ( x )
Yes (
) No ( x )
g. Will subjects be faculty or staff of the University of Phoenix?
h. Will information be requested that subjects might consider to be
personal or sensitive?
4. SELECTION: How will subjects be selected, enlisted or recruited?
Study will collect data on all Special Education Students in J.B. CHS who are enrolled in a Special
Education Department Reading Class. Students enrolled in researcher’s class will be participating in
studied activity. Assignment to one of four classes is basically random.
Course sylabus for this class planned for multi-media presentation.
Who will be excluded from this study and why?
Any student who requests can be transfered to one of three other Special Education classes or to a
Regular Education reading class.
Same Language Subtitling 66
5. INFORMED CONSENT: How will subjects be informed of procedures, intent of the study, and
potential risks to them?
Letter of explanation of project to parents and Class sylabus will include activities and procedures.
6. What are the potential benefits to a subject?
Students may experience increased engagement, increased enjoment in reading and language activities
possibly resulting in growth in reading comprehension.
7. PRIVACY: How will subjects’ privacy be maintained and confidentiality guaranteed?
Computer assesment program uses student passwords. Data is only accessable to teachers. Data
recorded outside of the IEP will use coded alias names to maintain privacy.
8. PROPOSED RESEARCH START DATE: _JANUARY 2004____________ END DATE: _MAY 2004___________
***** OR **** AUGUST 2004
DECEMBER 2004
9.ATTACHMENTS: Please check all that apply.
Proposal
(
)
Informed consent forms
(
)
Data Collection Tool
(
)
Assent form (as child subject will view it)
(
)
Curriculum Vitae or Biographical Sketch
(
)
(
)
(
)
Communication with Subjects
(Introductory Letters)
(
)
Proof of Investigation Human Subjects
Training
Verbal Script
(
)
Other Documentation
Same Language Subtitling 67
In making this application, I certify that I have read and understand the Federal Policy for the
Protection of Human Subjects (45 CFR 690), and that I will comply with the University Policies
governing the same.
I also agree to submit a progress report as requested.
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:
NAME:
W.GREG MCCALL
11-25-2003
W. GREG MCCALL
E-M AIL ADDRESS:
[email protected]
DATE:
SIGNATURE:
TELEPHONE #:
808-239-0303
M AIL ADDRESS: 47-765 AHUIMANU LOOP, KANEOHE HAWAII 96744
Significant changes in protocol must be submitted to the IRB for written approval prior to such
changes being put into practice. The researcher will keep informed consent/assent records of the
subjects for three (3) years after completion of the research.
Faculty/Advisor: (Complete this section, if researcher is your student). I agree to provide the
proper oversight of this project to ensure that the rights and welfare of all human subjects
involved are properly protected.
NAME:
SIGNATURE:
DATE:
LOCATION:
DEPARTMENT:
TELEPHONE #:
In your opinion, is the research:
Why:
Exempt (
)
E-Mail:
Non-Exempt (
)
Same Language Subtitling 68
This application has been reviewed by the University of Phoenix IRB:
FULL REVIEW BOARD (
)
EXEMPT
(
)
EXPEDITED
(
)
APPROVED
)
DEFERRED
(
)
DISAPPROVED
(
)
APPROVED with Changes. See required changes below*
(
)
Third Party Verification Sought
(
)
Project Report Date
(
)
(
#________________
*Changes or modifications/conditions for approval, or reasons for disapproval:
This application is only good for one year from the date of the start of the study.
SIGNATURE:
DATE:
Chair, University of Phoenix Institutional Review Board
DATE
SIGNATURE:
President, University of Phoenix
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