Reducing Adverb Clauses: Adverb clauses can be reduced to adverb phrases, just as adj clauses can be reduced to adj phrases. 1) Omit the subject of the dependent clause and the be form of the verb: While I was walking to class, I fell down. While walking to class, I fell down. 2) If there is no be form of the verb, omit the subject and change the verb to –ing: Before I left for work, I took a shower. Before leaving for work, I took a shower. An adv clause can ONLY be reduced if the subject in both clauses is the same: While she was driving to work, Ann got a call from her boss. While driving to work, Ann got a call from her boss. But NOT: While driving to work, her boss called her. Time clauses: Adverb clauses beginning with after, before, while and since can all be reduced. The adverbial phrase can also come after the main clause: Peter went to bed after finishing his homework. During the same time: Sometimes while can be omitted at the beginning of the sentence: While I was walking to work, I saw Mary. While walking to work, I saw Mary. Walking to work, I saw Mary. Adverb clauses beginning with when can begin with upon +ing when they are reduced: When I passed the TOEFL, I left the IELP. Upon passing the TOEFL, I left the IELP. On passing the TOEFL, I left the IELP. Cause and Effect: When you reduce and adv clause with because, don’t include because in the adverbial phrase: Because she needed help, Jan called her brother. Needing help, Jan called her brother. Having + past participle gives the meaning of because and before: Having seen the movie, I don’t want to go again. Your turn: Reduce these adverb clauses if possible: 1. Before I came to class, I had a cup of coffee. 2. Before I left home, my mother gave me some money. 3. While Jack was trying to sleep last night, a mosquito was buzzing in his ear. 4. The Wilson’s have experienced many big changes in their lives since they adopted twins. 5. Because the boy believed that no one loved him, he ran away from home. 6. I bowed my head when I met the king. 7. Sue fainted when she learned she had won the lottery. 8. Because Mike is a vegetarian, he doesn’t eat meat. 9. Before she had her face lifted, that woman looked like a real person. 10. As she didn’t want to upset her parents, she waited until after the holidays to tell them that she was quitting school. 11. While she studied at PSU, she lived in a dorm. 12. Because she was the best, she didn’t think about how hard it was for the others she competed against.